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    Originally referred to immunization against smallpox with the less virulent cowpox (vaccinia) virus; more loosely used for any immunization against a pathogen.


Natural immunity provided by antibodies or induced immunity via inoculations.

A viral disease that was once highly contagious. Characterized by high fever, vomiting, and blisters and sores on the skin. Vaccination has eliminated this disease.

"A mild skin disease of milk cows, principally confined to the udder and teats, that may be contracted by people from milking an infected cow. People develop vesicles (blebs) which break and form ulcers on the fingers (sometimes called ""milkers nodules""). These usually heal without scarring. "

Ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts; many are pathogenic; a piece of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein.

A disease causing organism. It can be viral, bacterial, fungal or other items such as prions... The seriousness of the disease is measured as its pathogenicity. How likely/contagious it is, is called virulence.


A preparation, often of living weakened microorganisms, that is introduced into the body to produce immunity to a specific disease by causing the formation of antibodies.

An infection, primarily local and limited to the site of inoculation, induced in man by inoculation with the vaccinia (coxpox) virus in order to confer resistance to smallpox (variola). On about the third day after vaccination, papules form at the site of inoculation which become transformed into umbilicated vesicles and later pustules; they then dry up, and the scab falls off on about the 21st day, leaving a pitted scar; in some cases there are more or less marked constitutional disturbances.


Visual Evoked Response (VER)
The VER is a test of the function of the visual pathways from the retina, along the optic nerve and optic tract to the early parts of the visual centers of the brain. Usually, EEG electrodes are placed on the head and the patient is required to view a flashing light and an alternating pattern (e.g., stripes or checks) on a TV. The VER is a diagnostic test for such things as Multiple Sclerosis, optic neuritis, optic neuropathies, cortical visual impairment and certain types of brain tumors. The pattern VER can also provide an objective estimate of a patient's visual acuity, even if the patient is nonverbal (e.g., too young, comatose or mentally impaired).

Visual suppression
This occurs when the brain ignores the visual image being transmitted from one eye. It is not voluntary. In the younger child it is associated with strabismus and amblyopia. An eye that is misaligned or is out of focus is likely to be suppressed by the child.

Vision therapy
Vision Therapy is a term that refers to a mixture of so-called "therapies" that employ eye movement tasks, eye-hand coordination tasks, 3D tasks, etc., which purportedly improve everything from golf games to dyslexia to reading problems in children and adults. The vast majority of these claims are unsubstantiated. Vision therapy is usually not covered by insurance. Warning: before signing-up for Vision therapy, ask the provided to support his or her claims with scientific evidence that has been published in a peer reviewed scientific journal. Be skeptical of therapies that seem to good to be true - Caveat emptor.

The transparent, solid, gelatinous material which fills the interior of the eye behind the lens. It allows the eye to maintain its shape.


Venal paraphilia
One of a group of paraphilias characterized by triumph wrested developmentally from sexuoerotic tragedy by means of a strategy that incorporates sinful lust into the lovemap on the condition that it be traded, bartered, or purchased and paid for, not freely exchanged, since it irrevocably defiles saintly love.

Vacuum aspiration
Procedure in which a suction tube attached to a vacuum pump is inserted through the vagina into the uterus to loosen and remove its contents.

Vacuum extraction
Procedure used to ease delivery by applying a metal or plastic cup to the baby's scalp and using suction to pull the baby gradually out of the vagina.

Vaginal hysterectomy
Procedure in which the uterus is removed through the vaginal opening.

Irritation, redness, or swelling of the vaginal tissues, usually resulting from a bacterial infection.

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