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Transcription

    Making an RNA copy from a gene or other DNA sequence. Transcription is the first step in gene expression.

RELATED TERMS
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Gene
1. A unit of DNA that carries information for the biosynthesis of a specific product in the cell. 2. Ultimate unit by which inheritable characteristics are transmitted to succeeding generations in all living organisms. Genes are contained by, and arranged along the length of, the chromosome. The gene is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Each chromosome of each species has a definite number and arrangement of genes, which govern both the structure and metabolic functions of the cells and thus of the entire organism.

Transcription
Making an RNA copy from a gene or other DNA sequence. Transcription is the first step in gene expression.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Trancopal
Trancopal is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): chlormezanone.

Trandate
Trandate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): labetalol hydrochloride.

Trandate hct
Trandate hct is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): hydrochlorothiazide; labetalol hydrochloride.

Trang Ruampat Hospital
The Trang Ruampat Hospital is a hospital in Trang, Thailand.

Tranmep
Tranmep is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): meprobamate.

Trans fat
Vegetable oil that has been treated with hydrogen in order to make it more solid and give it a longer shelf life.

Trans-myocardial Revascularization (TMR)
In patients with severe ischemic heart disease who are not candidates for bypass surgery, it is possible to do a procedure called trans-myocardial laser revascularization. In this procedure, an incision is made in the chest. The heart is exposed and small holes are drilled through the wall of the heart, with a laser allowing blood to flow from the inner chamber of the heart into the muscle of the heart. This procedure is still considered experimental and can be used only in a small number of patients.

Transcutaneous Electronic Nerve Stimulation (TENS)
A treatment for painful neuropathy.

Transderm scop
Transderm scop is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): scopolamine.

Transderm-nitro
Transderm-nitro is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): nitroglycerin.

Transducer
In ultrasound, the device that emits sound waves and transmits them to a computer, resulting in the ultrasound image.

Transducin
A regulatory g-protein in photoreceptors which stimulates phosphodiesterase molecules and acts as an amplifier of the incoming light signal.

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE)
A diagnostic test that is used to measure the sound waves that bounce off of the heart.

Transexual
A person manifesting the phenomenon of transexualism.

Transexualism
The condition of crossing over to live full-time in the role of the other sex, with hormonal and surgical sex reassignment. The term signifies a method of treatment and rehabilitation rather than a diagnostic entity. There are different biographical antecedents to sex reassignment, one of which may be paraphilic transvestism (transvestophilia). Transexualism itself is not a paraphilia. Behaviorally, the act of living and passing in the role of the opposite sex, before or after having attained hormonal, surgical, and legal sex reassignment; psychically, the condition of people who have the conviction that they belong to the opposite sex and are driven by a compulsion to have the body, appearance, and social status of the opposite sex.

Transference
The unconscious assignment to others of feelings and attitudes that were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life. The transference relationship follows the pattern of its prototype. The psychiatrist utilizes this phenomenon as a therapeutic tool to help the patient understand emotional problems and their origins. In the patient-physician relationship, the transference may be negative (hostile) or positive (affectionate). See also countertransference.

Transformation
A genetic process resulting in a heritable alteration of the properties of a cell. In the case of cultured cells, transformation often refers to the acquisition of new properties, such as unlimited culture lifespan.

Transient ischaemic attack (TIA)
Atroke syndrome where symptoms last less than 24 hours.

Transient ischemic attack
stroke-like event that lasts for a short period of time caused by a blocked blood vessel.

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA, also called a mini-stroke)
A sudden onset of temporary symptoms (loss of sensation, movement, speech, mental function or vision) lasting minutes, or hours, that occurs when the brain is deprived of oxygen-rich blood but, the effects wear off completely after resumption of blood-flow. It can be a warning sign for stroke. May be caused by carotid artery narrowing or blockage.

Transitional object
An object, often a blanket or stuffed animal, that a child becomes attached to and turns to for comfort.

Translation
The process of forming a protein molecule from information contained in messenger RNA.

Transplant (dentistry)
Placing a natural tooth in the empty socket of another tooth.

Transplant Coordinator
A registered nurse who coordinates all of the events leading up to and following your transplant. The transplant coordinator helps arrange your pre-transplant tests and helps find a suitable donor.

Transplant Surgeon
The staff physician who performs the transplant surgery. The transplant surgeon follows your progress while you are in the hospital and monitors your post-transplant care after you are discharged.

Transplantation
To transfer (tissue or an organ) from one body or body part to another.

Transpositions
In G-I/R, the interchange of masculine and feminine expectancies and stereotypes mentally and in behavior and appearance.

Transrectal ultrasound of the prostate
A test using sound wave echoes to create an image of an organ or gland to visually inspect for abnormal conditions like gland enlargement, nodules, penetration of tumor through capsule of the gland and/or invasion of seminal vesicles. It may also be used for guidance of needle biopsies of the prostate gland and guiding the nitrogen probes in cryosurgery.

Transsexualism
Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex.

Transurethral hyperthermia
An investigative procedure that uses heat, usually provided by microwaves, to shrink the prostate.

Transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP)
A procedure that widens the urethra by making some small cuts in the bladder neck, where the urethra joins the bladder, and in the prostate gland itself.

Transurethral laser incision of the prostate (TULIP)
The use of laser through the urethra that melts the tissue.

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)
A surgical procedure by which portions of the prostate gland are removed through the penis.

Transurethral surgery
Surgery in which no external incision is needed. For prostate transurethral surgery, the surgeon reaches the prostate by inserting an instrument through the urethra. See below for different types of transurethral surgery.

Transverse colon
The part of the colon that goes across the abdomen from right to left.

Transvestism
Sexual pleasure derived from dressing or masquerading in the clothing of the opposite sex, with the strong wish to appear as a member of the opposite sex. The sexual origins of transvestism may be unconscious.

Transvestite
A person episodically affected with a compulsion to dress as a member of the other sex. In men, the compulsion is commonly essential to the maintenance of erection and achievement of orgasm. It usually is life-long. Rarely, a transvestite may change into a transexual.

Transvestophilia
A paraphilia of the fetishistic/talismanic type in which sexuoerotic arousal and facilitation or attainment of orgasm are responsive to and [dependent upon ]{contingent on} wearing clothing, especially underwear, of the other sex.

Transylvania Community Hospital
Transylvania Community Hospital is a hospital in Brevard, North Carolina (USA).

Tranxene
Tranxene is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): clorazepate dipotassium.

Tranxene sd
Tranxene sd is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): clorazepate dipotassium.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Tyrosine
The amino acid from which dopamine is made.

Telomerase
An enzyme composed of a catalytic protein component and an RNA template and that synthesizes the telomeric DNA at the ends of chromosomes. When active, telomerase can continually add to the length of the telomeres on the ends of chromosomes within a cell, thus conferring on that cell the ability to continue dividing past its normal lifespan.

Telomeres
"Caps" (made of repeated DNA sequences) found at the ends of chromosomes that protect the ends of the chromosomes from degradation. The telomeres on a chromosome shorten with each round of cell replication. Telomere shortening has been suggested to be a "clock" that regulates how many times an individual cell can divide (that is, when the telomeres of the chromosomes in a cell shorten past a particular point, the cell can no longer divide).

Tissue culture
See culture.

Totipotent cells
Stem cells that have unlimited developmental capability. The totipotent cells of the very early embryo (an embryo prior to the blastocyst stage) have the capacity to differentiate into extraembryonic tissues, membranes, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs.

Transcription

Transformation
A genetic process resulting in a heritable alteration of the properties of a cell. In the case of cultured cells, transformation often refers to the acquisition of new properties, such as unlimited culture lifespan.

Translation
The process of forming a protein molecule from information contained in messenger RNA.

Trophectoderm
The outer layer of the developing blastocyst that will ultimately form the embryonic side of the placenta.

Tay-Sachs disease
A genetic disorder carried by an estimated one in 30 Eastern European Jews; babies born with Tay-Sachs lack an essential enzyme and die in early childhood. A preconception test can determine whether potential parents are carriers of the disease.

Teacher-to-child ratio
The number of caregivers per child in a group childcare setting. According to the National Association for the Education of Young Children, the lower the ratio, the better: A lower ratio means each child gets more attention and individual care.

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