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    Light-headedness or fainting caused by insufficient blood supply to the brain.


A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)

The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.

"That part of the central nervous system that is located within the cranium (skull). The brain functions as the primary receiver, organizer and distributor of information for the body. It has two (right and left) halves called ""hemispheres."" "


Synchronicity (synchronistic principle)
"Acausal connecting principle," the supposed equivalent of a cause. Carl Jung (see "Jungian psychology") posited synchronicity--which he equated with the Tao--to describe meaningful but apparently accidental concurrences or sequences of events.

Syncurine is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): decamethonium bromide.

A true syncytium making up the outer layer of the trophoblast. Produces human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) Large multinucleated cells with indistinct borders and a large amount of eosinophilic nuclei. See trophoblast.

A large cell-like structure formed by the joining together of two or more cells. The plural is syncytia.


The abnormal narrowing of a body opening. Also called stenosis. See also esophageal stricture and pyloric stenosis.

Sudden death
Death that occurs unexpectedly or immediately after onset of symptoms.

Superior vena cava
The large vein that returns blood to the heart from the head and arms.

Disease or symptoms that affect many different parts of the body.

Systolic blood pressure
The highest blood pressure measured in the arteries.


Skin prick test
Skin prick tests are used to diagnose allergies. Pricking gently through a drop of allergen extract placed on the surface of the arm may result after 10-15 minutes in the appearance of a small, itchy swelling and a reddening of the skin. This indicates an allergy.

Specific allergy vaccination
Specific allergy vaccination is also called specific immunotherapy, hyposensitisation or allergy shot. It is a vaccination programme that affects the natural course of an allergic disease, not only its symptoms. When the patient is given increasing doses of the allergen to which he or she is allergic, the immune system becomes less sensitive and the patient no longer reacts. Two different types of vaccine exist: a depot (slow-release) preparation and an aqueous solution.

See specific allergy vaccination.

See corticosteroid drugs.

Symptomatic treatment
A treatment with drugs that only affects the symptoms of the disease, not its cause - e.g. antihistamines and corticosteroids.

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