Retinoblastoma
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  Retinoblastoma



Retinoblastoma

    The most common cancer in the eye occurring in early childhood. A parent or doctor may first suspect a problem by detecting whiteness in the normally dark pupil. Occasionally it leads to a wandering eye (strabismus). It does not spread from one eye to the other but about 25% have a tumor in each eye. Immediate medical treatment is necessary. Sometimes the eye(s) must be removed to prevent spreading of the tumor into the brain.

RELATED TERMS
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Cancer
Any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream.

Childhood
1. The time for a boy or girl from birth until he or she is an adult. 2. The more circumscribed period of time from infancy to the onset of puberty.

Doctor
1. One whose occupation is to treat diseases, particularly a physician, dentist, or veterinarian with an appropriate license. 2. A teacher (particularly at a college or university), a scholar, or one who holds a postgraduate degree (especially a Ph.D. degree). 3. A shaman.

Pupil
A circular opening in the center of the iris. The size of the pupil changes according to the amount of light present. It is small in sunlight and large in a dark room.

Tumor
Overgrowth of tissue.

Eye
The organ of sight. The eye has a number of components. These components include but are not limited to the cornea, iris, pupil, lens, retina, macula, optic nerve, choroid and vitreous.

Medical
Pertaining to Medicine.

Brain
"That part of the central nervous system that is located within the cranium (skull). The brain functions as the primary receiver, organizer and distributor of information for the body. It has two (right and left) halves called ""hemispheres."" "



SIMILAR TERMS
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Reticuloendothelial system
A network of phagocytic cells.

Retin-a
Retin-a is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): tretinoin.

Retin-a micro
Retin-a micro is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): tretinoin.

Retina
A membrane lining the inside of the back of the eye that contains light-sensitive nerve cells that convert focused light into nerve impulses, making vision possible.

Retinal
Light-absorbing portion of rhodopsin. The absorption of light causes retinal to change from 11-cis to 11-trans configuration

Retinal detachment
A retinal detachment occurs when the retina, that part of the eye that contains the photoreceptors, detaches from the underlying layers of cells, called the choroid. A retinal detachment my be the result of injury to the eye such as blunt trauma (remember Sugar Ray, the boxer) or it may result from other things like high myopia or age-related macular degeneration. In certain diseases, retinal breaks and tears occur and these may lead to a retinal detachment. Early warning signs include bright dots or lights or some of your side vision may appear dark. A retinal detachment may be treatable if detected early, so see your Ophthalmologist.

Retinal layers
Retinal layers are: Outer nuclear layer - Contains photoreceptors; Inner nuclear layer - Contains bipolar, horizontal and amacrine cells; Ganglion cell layer - Contains ganglion cells; Outer plexiform layer - Contains processes of receptor, bipolar and horizontal cells; Inner plexiform layer - Contains processes of bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells.

Retinex Theory
Theory of lightness and color perception. Argues that the color of an object is not determined by the composition of the light coming from the object. The color of a unit area is determined by a trio of numbers each computed on a single waveband to give the relationship for the waveband between the unit area and the rest of the unit areas in a visual scene.

Retinitis
Inflammation of the retina.

Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP)


Retinoid
A natural or synthetic substance derived from vitamin A.

Retinopathy
Degeneration of the retina.

Retinotectal pathway
Pathway from the retina to superior colliculi.

Retinotopic map
A preservation of the spatial relationships of the photoreceptors in the retina in a higher brain representation.

Retisert
Retisert is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): fluocinolone acetonide.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Relapsing polychondritis
A rare autoimmune disorder in which there is inflammation of hyaline cartilage in joints, nose, pinna and airways. Scleritis may occur.

Rice bodies
Aggregates of cells, fibrin and debris found in synovial fluid from chronically inflamed joints.

Ritchie index
A scoring system for recording joint tenderness.

Refraction
In order for an eye to see clearly, the light rays must come to a perfect focus when they reach the fovea. The bending of the light rays is called refraction. Each eye has its own characteristic refractive error. An instrument (retinoscope) is used to determine this error. The examination is called refracting the eye. From the refraction, the examiner learns the strength of lens necessary to provide the clearest vision for each eye.

Retinal detachment
A retinal detachment occurs when the retina, that part of the eye that contains the photoreceptors, detaches from the underlying layers of cells, called the choroid. A retinal detachment my be the result of injury to the eye such as blunt trauma (remember Sugar Ray, the boxer) or it may result from other things like high myopia or age-related macular degeneration. In certain diseases, retinal breaks and tears occur and these may lead to a retinal detachment. Early warning signs include bright dots or lights or some of your side vision may appear dark. A retinal detachment may be treatable if detected early, so see your Ophthalmologist.

Retinoblastoma

Retrobulbar neuritis
An inflammation of the optic nerve. It causes a loss in vision. It is sometimes indicative of a neurological disease.

Rod cone dystrophy
A number of retina diseases in which the rod photoreceptors first start to degenerate followed by the cone photoreceptors. Other parts of the retina and RPE are also adversely affected. Symptoms include loss of side vision and night blindness followed by the loss of central vision. RP is the most common form of rod-cone degeneration. Some forms occur at birth while other forms may start much later in life. Generally very poor prognosis.

Rods
The rods are the visual cells of the retina that are important for night vision and peripheral vision. The rods are the first affected in rod-cone degenerations such as RP.

Ranidae
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.

Ranide
Veterinary anthelmintic for grazing animals; used to treat fluke, hookworm and other infestations.

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