Respondent conditioning
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  Respondent conditioning

Respondent conditioning

    Elicitation of a response by a stimulus that normally does not elicit that response. The response is one that is mediated primarily by the autonomic nervous system (such as salivation or a change in heart rate). A previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly presented just before an unconditioned stimulus that normally elicits that response. When the response subsequently occurs in the presence of the previously neutral stimulus, it is called a conditioned response, and the previously neutral stimulus, a conditioned stimulus.


The hollow, muscular organ responsible for pumping blood through the circulatory system.


The act or process of breathing. The process by which a living organism or cell takes in oxygen from the air or water and uses it.

A device to protect the wearer from inhalation of harmful contaminants, classified by the amount of face coverage it provides and its method of protection, e.g. a half-face, negative-pressure, air-purifying respirator; or a full-face, pressure demand, supplied air respirator.

Respiratory burst
Oxygen dependent increase in metabolic activity within phagocytic cells stimulated by bacteria or parasites, to be microbicidal.

Respiratory distress syndrome
Common in premature infants, RDS means a baby can't take in enough oxygen because his or her lungs aren't yet fully developed. With proper treatment, about 80 percent of babies recover fully.

Respiratory system
The group of organs responsible for carrying oxygen from the air to the bloodstream and for expelling carbon dioxide.

Resporal is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): dexbrompheniramine maleate; pseudoephedrine sulfate.


Reciprocal inhibition
In behavior therapy, the hypothesis that if anxiety-provoking stimuli occur simultaneously with the inhibition of anxiety (e.g., relaxation), the bond between those stimuli and the anxiety will be weakened.

Partial or symbolic return to earlier patterns of reacting or thinking. Manifested in a wide variety of circumstances such as normal sleep, play, physical illness, and in many mental disorders.

The strengthening of a response by reward or avoidance of punishment. This process is central in operant conditioning.

Repetition compulsion
In psychoanalytic theory, the impulse to reenact earlier emotional experiences. Considered by Freud to be more fundamental than the pleasure principle. Defined by Jones in the following way: "The blind impulse to repeat earlier experiences and situations quite irrespective of any advantage that doing so might bring from a pleasure-pain point of view."

A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, that banishes unacceptable ideas, fantasies, affects, or impulses from consciousness or that keeps out of consciousness what has never been conscious. Although not subject to voluntary recall, the repressed material may emerge in disguised form. Often confused with the conscious mechanism of suppression. resistance One's conscious or unconscious psychological defense against bringing repressed (unconscious) thoughts into conscious awareness.

Respondent conditioning

Residual phase
The phase of an illness that occurs after remission of the florid symptoms or the full syndrome.

Residing behind the peritoneam; this chamber is not in the abdominal cavity. For instance the kidney is a retroperitoneal.

Recurrent abortion
The occurrence of 3 or more miscarriages (which are medically termed "spontaneous abortions") with no intervening pregnancies. Recurrent abortion (or, as it is sometimes called, habitual abortion) is a form of infertility. It may be due to chromosome abnormalities.

Radiation absorbed dose. A unit of measurement of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation.

A disease or other problem affecting a nerve root.

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