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   Areas on the outer part of a cell that allow the cell to join or bind with insulin that is in the blood.


Fundamental structural unit of all life. The cell consists primarily of an outer plasma membrane, which separates it from the environment; the genetic material (DNA), which encodes heritable information for the maintainance of life; and the cytoplasm, a heterogeneous assemblage of ions, molecules, and fluid.

The hormone that drives incoming nutrients into cells for storage. Excess insulin is the primary pillar of aging.

The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.


Receptive field
Area of the retina and visual space that when stimulated produces a change in the response rate of a neuron.

A molecule that recognizes a unique hormone. Once that hormone is bound to the receptor, the information carried by the hormone can now exert its biological action.

Recessive gene
A gene that is inferior to another gene that controls the same trait (the dominant gene). The inferior gene does not get expressed in the presence of a dominant gene.


In clinical trials, the probability of harm or discomfort for subjects, arising from the test product. Acceptable risk differs depending on the condition for which a product is being tested. A product for sore throat, for example, will be expected to have a low incidence of side effects. However, unpleasant side effects may be an acceptable risk when testing a promising treatment for a life-threatening illness.

Registered Dietitian.

Reactive hypoglycemia
A fall in blood sugar which causes symptoms during the period following meals. Simply put, the body has trouble braking the secretion of insulin after a meal, resulting in the blood sugar dropping further than it should. Reactive hypoglycemia is different from spontaneous hypoglycemia, which is not assoicated with meal ingestion. Reactive hypoglycemia generally has a benign prognosis.

Reagents, Reagent Strips
Terms no longer used for diabetes blood and urine glucose or acetone test strips.

A swing to a high level of glucose (sugar) in the blood after having a low level.


Regular Insulin
A type of insulin that is fast acting.

Repaglinide (Prandin)
A drug used as a treatment for Type 2 (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes; belongs to a class of drugs called meglitinides.

Renal Glycosuria
Glycosuria occurring when there is a normal amount of sugar in the blood, due to an inherited inability of the kidneys to reabsorb glucose completely.

Renal Threshold
When the blood is holding so much of a substance such as glucose (sugar) that the kidneys allow the excess to spill into the urine. This is also called "kidney threshold," "spilling point," and "leak point."

Risk Factor
Anything that raises the chance that a person will get a disease. With noninsulin-dependent diabetes, people have a greater risk of getting the disease if they weigh a lot more (20 percent or more) than they should.

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