Protein
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  Protein



Protein

    Any of a group of complex organic compounds which contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur, the characteristic element being nitrogen. Proteins, the principal constituents of the protoplasm of all cells, are of high molecular weight and consist essentially of combinations of a-amino acids in peptide linkages. Twenty different amino acids are commonly found in proteins, and each protein has a unique genetically defined amino acid sequence which determines its specific shape and function. Their roles include enzymatic catalysis, transport and storage, coordinated motion, nerve impulse generation and many others.

RELATED TERMS
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Organic
Of or related to a substance that contains carbon atoms linked together by carbon-carbon bonds. All living matter is organic. The original definition of the term organic related to the source of chemical compounds, with organic compounds being those carbon-containing compounds obtained from plant or animal sources, whereas inorganic compounds were obtained from mineral sources. Compounds containing bonds between carbon atoms can now be made in the laboratory and industrially by man.

Hydrogen
Hydrogen. The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight 1. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.

Oxygen
A chemical element essential for sustaining life.

Molecular
Refers to the basic building blocks of the genetic material, such as DNA, genes and the other chemicals involved with the functioning of genes.

Peptide
Two or more amino acids linked together.

Protein
Any of a group of complex organic compounds which contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur, the characteristic element being nitrogen. Proteins, the principal constituents of the protoplasm of all cells, are of high molecular weight and consist essentially of combinations of a-amino acids in peptide linkages. Twenty different amino acids are commonly found in proteins, and each protein has a unique genetically defined amino acid sequence which determines its specific shape and function. Their roles include enzymatic catalysis, transport and storage, coordinated motion, nerve impulse generation and many others.

Catalysis
The process by which a substance speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed or altered in the process. Substances that can accomplish this remarkable feat are termed catalysts and are of immense importance in chemistry and biology.

Nerve
Tissue that conveys sensation, temperature, position information to the brain.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Protamine sulfate
Protamine sulfate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): protamine sulfate.

Protamine zinc and iletin II
Protamine zinc and iletin II is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): insulin susp protamine zinc purified beef.

Protamine zinc and iletin II pork
Protamine zinc and iletin II pork is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): insulin susp protamine zinc purified pork.

Protamine zinc insulin
Protamine zinc insulin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): insulin susp protamine zinc purified beef.

Protamine, zinc and iletin I beef-pork
Protamine, zinc and iletin I beef-pork is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): insulin susp protamine zinc beef-pork.

Proteinuria
Protein in the urine.

Proteoglycan
A major constituent of cartilage. Protein molecule with polysaccharide side-chains.

Proto-oncogenes
Fragments of genetic material (DNA), related to oncogenes, but are the normal "switches" used to control growth and tissue repair.

Protocol
An outline of care; a treatment plan.

Protocol amendment
A written description of a change(s) to or formal clarification of a protocol.

Proton pump inhibitors
Medicines that stop the stomach's acid pump.

Protonix
Protonix is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): pantoprazole sodium.

Protonix iv
Protonix iv is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): pantoprazole sodium.

Protopam chloride
Protopam chloride is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): pralidoxime chloride.

Protopic
Protopic is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): tacrolimus.

Protostat
Protostat is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): metronidazole.

Protozoa
Are microscopic animals that occur as single cells. Some protozoa can cause disease in humans. Protozoa form cysts, which are specialized cells like eggs that are very resistant to chlorine. Cysts can survive the disinfection process, then "hatch" into normal cells that can cause disease. Protozoa must be removed from drinking water by filtration, because they cannot be effectively killed by chlorine.

Protropin
Protropin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): somatrem.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Platelet
Small, irregularly-shaped bodies in the blood that contain granules. These cells are important components of the blood coagulation (clotting) system.

Palpitation
Pulsation of the heart, usually with an increase in force or frequency of the heartbeat.

Protozoa
Are microscopic animals that occur as single cells. Some protozoa can cause disease in humans. Protozoa form cysts, which are specialized cells like eggs that are very resistant to chlorine. Cysts can survive the disinfection process, then "hatch" into normal cells that can cause disease. Protozoa must be removed from drinking water by filtration, because they cannot be effectively killed by chlorine.

Pancreas
A large, elongated gland located behind the lower portion of the stomach that secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood. These hormones are essential in regulating blood sugar levels. The pancreas also secretes enzymes into the small intestine that help with digestion and neutralize acid from the stomach.

Prokaryote
Prokaryotes are unicellular (in rare cases, multicellular) organisms without a nucleus. The name prokaryote comes from the Greek pros meaning before and karyon meaning nut, referring to the nucleus. This is in contrast to eukaryotes, organisms that have cell nuclei and may be variously unicellular or multicellular. The difference between the structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is so great that it is considered to be the most important distinction among groups of organisms.

Protein

Puberty
A sequence of events by which a child becomes a young adult; characterized by secretions of hormones, development of secondary sexual characteristics, reproductive functions, and growth spurts.

Phenotype
The expression of the genes present in an individual. This may be directly observable (eye color) or apparent only with specific tests (blood type). Some phenotypes such as the blood groups are completely determined by heredity, while others are readily altered by environmental agents.

Polynucleotides
Long chains of nucleotides formed by chemical links between the sugar and phosphate groups.

Pyrimidine
A nitrogen-containing, double-ring, basic compound that occurs in nucleic acids. The pyrimidines in DNA are cytosine and thymine; in RNA, cytosine and uracil.

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