Pharmacology
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  Pharmacology



Pharmacology

   The science that deals with the characteristics, effects, and uses of drugs and their interactions with living organisms.

RELATED TERMS
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Science
1. A continuous process whose basic purposes are to make phenomena recognizable and to predict outcomes, and whose fundamental activities comprise|(a) observing and describing phenomena and developing general conclusions about them; (b) integrating new data with organized observations that have been confirmed; (c) formulating testable hypotheses based on the results of such integration; (d) testing such hypotheses under controlled, repeatable conditions; (e) observing the results of such testing, recording them unambiguously, and interpreting them clearly; and (f) actively seeking criticism from participants in science. 2. Knowledge from science. 3. A scientific domain (e.g., genetics). 4. Knowledge from a particular scientific domain. 5. Any system or method characterized by the application of scientific principles to practical ends (e.g., culinary science). 6. Any disciplined, systematized area of study. 7. Methodological activity, training, or study. 8. Any activity that ostensibly requires study and method. 9. Knowledge from experience. 10. A developed ability. 11. The state of knowing.

Drugs
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Pharmacist
A person licensed to mix and dispense drugs.

Pharmacodynamics
The branch of pharmacology that studies reactions between drugs and living structures, including the processes of bodily responses to pharmacological, biochemical, physiological, and therapeutic effects.

Pharmacoeconomics
Branch of economics that applies cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, cost-minimisation, and cost-utility analyses to compare the economics of different pharmaceutical products or to compare drug therapy to other treatments. Sometimes referred to as outcomes research.

Pharmacogenetics
The study of the way drugs interact with genetic makeup or the genetic response to a drug.

Pharmacokinetics
The study of the processes of bodily absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of compounds and medicines.

Pharmacologist
A medication specialist who checks your blood levels to monitor your response to immunosuppresive medications.

Pharmacotherapy
Treatment of disease through the use of drugs.

Pharmaseal scrub care
Pharmaseal scrub care is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): chlorhexidine gluconate.

Pharyngeal
Relating to the pharynx.

Pharyngitis
Inflammation of the mucous membrane and underlying parts of the (throat) pharynx.

Pharynx
Space behind the mouth that serves as a passage for food from the mouth to the esophagus and for air from the nose and mouth to the larynx.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Period effect
Designated period during the course of a trial in which subjects are observed and no treatment is administered.

Pharmacodynamics
The branch of pharmacology that studies reactions between drugs and living structures, including the processes of bodily responses to pharmacological, biochemical, physiological, and therapeutic effects.

Pharmacoeconomics
Branch of economics that applies cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, cost-minimisation, and cost-utility analyses to compare the economics of different pharmaceutical products or to compare drug therapy to other treatments. Sometimes referred to as outcomes research.

Pharmacogenetics
The study of the way drugs interact with genetic makeup or the genetic response to a drug.

Pharmacokinetics
The study of the processes of bodily absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of compounds and medicines.

Pharmacology

Phases of clinical trials
Clinical trials are generally categorised into four (sometimes five) phases. An investigational medicine or product may be evaluated in two or more phases simultaneously in different trials, and some trials may overlap two different phases.

Phase 2a studies
Pilot clinical trials to evaluate efficacy and safety in selected populations of about 100 to 300 patients who have the disease or condition to be treated, diagnosed, or prevented. Often involve hospitalised patients who can be closely monitored. Objectives may focus on dose-response, type of patient, frequency of dosing, or any of a number of other issues involved in safety and efficacy.

Phase 3 studies
Multicentre studies in populations of perhaps 1000 to 3000 patients (or more) for whom the medicine is eventually intended. Phase 3 trials generate additional safety and efficacy data from relatively large numbers of patients in both controlled and uncontrolled designs and are used to support a PLA. Trials are also conducted in special groups of patients or under special conditions dictated by the nature of a particular medicine and/or disease. Phase 3 trials often provide much of the information needed for the package insert and labelling of the medicine.

Phase 5 studies
Postmarketing surveillance is sometimes referred to as Phase 5.

Postmarketing surveillance
ongoing safety monitoring of marketed drugs. See Phase 4 studies, Phase 5 studies.

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