Peritoneum
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  Peritoneum



Peritoneum

    Strong, smooth, colorless membrane that lines the walls of the abdomen and covers numerous body organs including the bladder.

RELATED TERMS
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Membrane
A flexible layer surrounding a cell, organelle (such as the nucleus), or other bodily structure. The movement of molecules across a membrane is strictly regulated in both directions.

Abdomen
The area between the chest and the hips. Contains the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen.

Bladder
A muscular triangular-shaped, hollow organ located in the pelvic cavity and supported by the pelvic floor muscles. The bladder stretches to store urine and contracts to release urine.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Peri-Stimulus time histogram
Plot of the average number of action potentials at each moment in time following a brief test flash.

Periactin
Periactin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): cyproheptadine hydrochloride.

Perianal
The area around the anus.

Periapical (PA)
Region at the end of the roots of teeth.

Peribronchial
Around the bronchus.

Pericardial Cavity
The space between the epicardium and the outer layer of the pericardium. The cavity is normally filled with a small amount of clear fluid that reduces the friction between the two membranes.

Pericardiocentesis
A diagnostic procedure that uses a needle to draw fluid from the pericardium.

Pericardiocentesis (pericardial tap)
An invasive procedure that involves using a needle and catheter to remove fluid from the sac around the heart. The fluid may then be sent to a laboratory for tests to look for signs of infection or cancer.

Pericarditis
Inflammation of the membrane that surrounds the heart.

Pericardium
The membrane that surrounds the heart.

Peridex
Peridex is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): chlorhexidine gluconate.

Perimenopause
Transition period of waning ovarian function that precedes menopause.

Perinatal
Referring to the period of time before, during, and immediately after birth.

Perinatal asphyxia
When a fetus or baby has too little oxygen in the blood before, during, or after birth.

Perinatal care
Care of an infant from immediately after birth through the first month of life.

Perinatalogist
Specializing in the care of women before, during, and after birth,perinatalogists treat and care for women with high-risk pregnancies.

Perineal
Related to the perineum.

Perineum
The region between the thighs, bounded by the anus and the scrotum or the vulva in, respectively, males and females. The region between the thighs, bounded by the anus and the scrotum or the vulva.

Periochip
Periochip is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): chlorhexidine gluconate.

Period effect
Designated period during the course of a trial in which subjects are observed and no treatment is administered.

Periodontal chart
Record measuring the depth of gum pockets around the teeth.

Periodontal Disease
Damage to the gums. People who have diabetes are more likely to have gum disease than people who do not have diabetes.

Periodontal surgery
Recontouring or esthetic management of diseased gum and supporting tissue.

PERIODONTAL SURGERY
Periodontal surgery is usually reserved for patients who have gum problems that cannot be addressed by more conservative treatment (See "Scaling and Root Planing"). One sign of periodontal problems is having excessively large pockets between the gum and the teeth (normal pocket depth is typically 3mm or less). Patients who have excessively deep pockets usually cannot keep these pockets free of the bacteria that causes gum disease and periodontal deterioration. There are various surgical techniques that a dentist or periodontist can use to reach the affected area and treat the disease. Surgery may consist of lifting the gum away so the plaque and bacteria can be more easily removed, the roots are scaled smooth and then the gum is laid back down in a position that should make it easier to clean. Sometimes surgery involves bone grafting and the use of membranes to help stabilize and make mobile teeth firm in the bone again. If there is extensive gum loss a gingival (gum) graft may be used from tissue elsewhere in the mouth. After surgery, a periodontal pack is placed over the surgical area and the tissues are allowed to heal. Antibiotics and a mild pain reliever may also be used to help combat infection and reduce swelling. After surgery, a program of good oral hygiene and proper home care will be established for the patient to help maintain the new healthy smile. Patient recall appointments with the hygienist will also be made in shorter intervals. In recent years some periodontal surgery has been performed with the use of soft tissue lasers (See "Lasers").

Periodontist
Dental specialist treating the gums and supporting soft and hard tissues retaining natural teeth and the surgical placement of dental implants.

Periodontitis
Inflammation of the tissues around the teeth.

Periogard
Periogard is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): chlorhexidine gluconate.

Periostat
Periostat is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): doxycycline hyclate.

Periosteum
The connective tissue covering the bones of the body.

Periostitis
Inflammation involving the periosteum. May result in new bone formation.

Peripheral
At or near the surface of the body. Located away from the center structure.

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)
Damage or narrowing to the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to your arms, legs or organs.

Peripheral Intervention
An attempt to increase artery blood flow to a limb or organ by opening a narrowed area. A stent may be used to try to keep the artery open.

Peripheral nervous system
That portion of the nervous system which lies outside of the protective cranium and vertebral column (containing the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system), and which consists of a musculo-skeletal and usually voluntary somatic nervous system and a visceral and usually involuntary autonomic nervous system.

Peripheral Neuropathy
Nerve damage, usually affecting the feet and legs; causing pain, numbness, or a tingling feeling. Also called "somatic neuropathy" or "distal sensory polyneuropathy." |See also: Neuropathy

Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)
Disease in the large blood vessels of the arms, legs, and feet. People who have had diabetes for a long time may get this because major blood vessels in their arms, legs, and feet are blocked and these limbs do not receive enough blood. The signs of PVD are aching pains in the arms, legs, and feet (especially when walking) and foot sores that heal slowly. Although people with diabetes cannot always avoid PVD, doctors say they have a better chance of avoiding it if they take good care of their feet, do not smoke, and keep both their blood pressure and diabetes under good control.

Peripheral vision
Also called "side vision". That part of vision that detects objects outside of where we are directly focusing our eyes. When we look directly at something we are using the fovea - that part of our retina where there is a high density of cone photoreceptors and thus allows for detailed vision. The fovea is part of the macula - that part of our retina with mostly cone photoreceptors and used for day time vision. Outside of the macula is what is typically referred to as peripheral vision, and peripheral vision is dominated by the rod photoreceptors. Peripheral vision is used mainly for detecting objects and in directing where we should fixate our fovea or central vision. Peripheral vision is used mostly during the night. Without peripheral vision, we would have "tunnel vision". If a person has a significant loss of peripheral vision the person would be legally blind. See legal blindness.

Peristalsis
Wavelike contractions that move food through the digestive tract.

Peristeri doctors
All doctors near Peristeri, Greece. Doctors who can assist a patient in Peristeri.

Peritoneal
Having to do with the peritoneum (the tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in the abdomen).

Peritoneal Dialysis
A way to clean the blood of people who have kidney disease.

Peritonitis
Infection of the peritoneum.

Perivascular
Surrounding a blood or lymph vessel.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Phobia
An anxiety disorder that is characterized by an intense and, at least on the surface, irrational fear.

Pemphigus Vulgaris
A serious disease manifesting as large skin and mucosal bullae that burst leaving large painful ulcers; may be fatal.

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
A rare form of biliary cirrhosis of unknown etiology in which small intrahepatic bile ducts are destroyed while the major intra- and extrahepatic ducts remain patent; 90 per cent of patients are female; most are middle-aged; it is characterized by chronic cholestasis with pruritus, jaundice, hypercholesterolemia and xanthomas, osteomalacia, and, in the later stages, by portal hypertension and liver failure. Almost all patients have circulating antimitochondrial antibodies.

Pruritus
Itching. Pruritus can result from drug reaction, food allergy, kidney or liver disease, cancers, parasites, aging or dry skin, contact skin reaction, such as poison ivy, and for unknown reasons.

Pleura
Either of two membranous sacs, each lining one side of the chest cavity, that envelopes the lungs, reducing the friction of respiratory movement.

Peritoneum

Psoriasis
A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.

Pharyngitis
Inflammation of the mucous membrane and underlying parts of the (throat) pharynx.

Pharynx
Space behind the mouth that serves as a passage for food from the mouth to the esophagus and for air from the nose and mouth to the larynx.

Phalanges
The name Phalanges is commonly given to the bones that form fingers and toes. In primates such as humans and monkeys, the thumb and big toe have two phalanges, while the other fingers and toes consist of three.

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