Ovaries
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  Ovaries



Ovaries

    The paired female sex glands in the pelvis, located one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and androgens.

RELATED TERMS
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Female
The traditional definition of female was "an individual of the sex that bears young" or "that produces ova or eggs". However, things are not so simple today. Female can be defined by physical appearance, by chromosome constitution (see Female chromosome complement), or by gender identification. Female chromosome complement: The large majority of females have a 46, XX chromosome complement (46 chromosomes including two X chromosomes). A minority of females have other chromosome constitutions such as 45,X (45 chromosomes including only one X chromosome) and 47,XXX (47 chromosomes including three X chromosomes).

Pelvis
A basin-shaped structure that supports the spinal column and contains the sacrum, coccyx, and hip bones (ilium, pubis, and ischium).

Uterus
The uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a woman's lower abdomen, between the bladder and the rectum, that sheds its lining each month during menstruation and in which a fertilized egg (ovum) becomes implanted and the fetus develops.

Ovaries
The paired female sex glands in the pelvis, located one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and androgens.

Eggs
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.

Hormones
Biological compounds that communicate information at a distance. Hormones require specific receptors to begin their biological action and use second messengers to initiate the cellular process that uses that information.

Estrogen
A hormone produced in the ovaries that works with progesterone to, among other things, regulate the reproductive cycle.

Progesterone
A hormone produced in response to luteinizing hormone (LH) released from the pituitary gland. It is required to flush out the uterus if an egg is not fertilized. It is also useful for stimulating the growth of new bone mass.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Ovarian cancer
Tumors or cancer of the ovary.

Ovariectomy
Surgical removal of the ovaries; female castration.

Ovary
The female sex gland that contains ova, or eggs.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Omega-3 Fatty Acids
A special type of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids found primarily in cold-water fish and purified fish oils. This type of fat is exceptionally beneficial to your cardiovascular system because of its effect on promoting the formation of "good" eicosanoids.

Omega-6 Fatty Acids
The type of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in protein and most seed oils. This type of fat can generate both "good" and "bad" eicosanoids.

Optic nerve
Sensory nerve that transmits impulses from the retina to the brain that become what we know as vision.

Osteoporosis
Break-down or disintegration of bone, resulting in diminished and porous bone mass. Osteoporosis can result from cancer (including breast cancer) that has spread to the bones), some cancer therapies, and estrogen deficiency (estrogen is an important participant in maintaining bone). Osteoporosis can cause pain, deformity (especially of the spine), pathologic fractures (fractures caused by weakened bone), or traumatic fractures (for example, wrist or hip fracture from a fall).

Osteosarcoma
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour, excluding myeloma and lymphoma. There is a predilection for the metaphyseal region of tubular long bones. 50% of cases occur around the knee. It is a cancer that usually affects the large bones of the arm or leg. It occurs most commonly in young people and affects more males than females. Also called osteogenic sarcoma.

Ovaries

Osteoarthritis
Degenerative disorder of joints, most often from disease in the spine and in the weight bearing joints (knees and hips). Normally seen with aging, but can occur prematurely due to various reasons, for instance after an injury to a joint. Also known as degenerative joint disease, it can cause joint pain, loss of function, reduced joint motion, and deformity.

Obesity
Abnormal body weight, usually defined as more than 20 percent above average for age, height and bone structure.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
A type of anxiety disorder marked by the persistent intrusion of unwanted and uncontrollable thoughts. Commonly, patients who suffer from obsessions also suffer from compulsions - repeated, senseless rituals victims go through in an attempt to reduce their anxiety. While compulsive behavior is almost always preceded by obsessive thoughts, some people have obsessive thoughts but do not ritualize.

Osteomalacia
A disease of adults that is characterized by softening of the bones due to loss of bone mineral. Osteomalacia is characteristic of vitamin D deficiency in adults, while children with vitamin D deficiency suffer from rickets.

Osteoblast
A type of bone cell characterized by its mobility and by its ability to produce bone matrix.

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