Osteoporosis
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  Osteoporosis



Osteoporosis

    Break-down or disintegration of bone, resulting in diminished and porous bone mass. Osteoporosis can result from cancer (including breast cancer) that has spread to the bones), some cancer therapies, and estrogen deficiency (estrogen is an important participant in maintaining bone). Osteoporosis can cause pain, deformity (especially of the spine), pathologic fractures (fractures caused by weakened bone), or traumatic fractures (for example, wrist or hip fracture from a fall).

RELATED TERMS
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Bone
Bone refers either to a hardened connective tissue or to one of the individual structures, or organs, into which it is formed, found in many animals. Bones support body structures, protect internal organs, and (in conjunction with muscles) facilitate movement; are also involved with cell formation, calcium metabolism, and mineral storage. The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeleton.

Osteoporosis
Break-down or disintegration of bone, resulting in diminished and porous bone mass. Osteoporosis can result from cancer (including breast cancer) that has spread to the bones), some cancer therapies, and estrogen deficiency (estrogen is an important participant in maintaining bone). Osteoporosis can cause pain, deformity (especially of the spine), pathologic fractures (fractures caused by weakened bone), or traumatic fractures (for example, wrist or hip fracture from a fall).

Cancer
Any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream.

Breast
The breast refers to the front of the chest or, more specifically, to the mammary gland. The mammary gland is a milk producing gland. It is composed largely of fat. Within the mammary gland is a complex network of branching ducts. These ducts exit from sac-like structures called lobules, which can produce milk in females. The ducts exit the breast at the nipple.

Estrogen
A hormone produced in the ovaries that works with progesterone to, among other things, regulate the reproductive cycle.

Pain
An unpleasant sensory or emotional experience primarily associated with tissue damage, or described in terms of tissue damage, or both.

Deformity
Congenital malformations of organs or parts.

Fractures
Breaks in bones or cartilage. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Wrist
The joint or part of the arm between the hand and the forearm.

Fracture
Broken, especially a broken bone.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Osteitis condensans ilii
Sclerosis at the sacral side of the sacroiliac joint. Unknown aetiology. May be confused with sacroiliitis.

Osteitis deformans
Paget's disease of bone.

Osteitis fibrosa cystica
Bone disease which occurs in hyperparathyroidism. Excess fibrous tissue and osteoclasts are found in lesions which may become cystic ('Brown tumours').

Osteoarthritis
Degenerative disorder of joints, most often from disease in the spine and in the weight bearing joints (knees and hips). Normally seen with aging, but can occur prematurely due to various reasons, for instance after an injury to a joint. Also known as degenerative joint disease, it can cause joint pain, loss of function, reduced joint motion, and deformity.

Osteoarthrosis
Synonymous with 'osteoarthritis'.

Osteoblast
A type of bone cell characterized by its mobility and by its ability to produce bone matrix.

Osteoblastoma
Usually benign but occasionally malignant and metastasising tumour which occurs most commonly in the spine.

Osteocalcin
A protein found in young osteoblasts. (GLA protein, BGP) Serum level reflects rate of bone turnover.

Osteochondritis dissecans
A form of osteonecrosis in which a segment of bone and articular cartilage become demarcated and separate from the surrounding bone. Most commonly occurs in the knee.

Osteochondroma
A benign cartilage-tipped exostosis.

Osteoclast
Bone-resorbing cell.

Osteocyte
A type of bone cell characterized by its immobile location within a lacunus and by a reduced ability to produce bone matrix.

Osteogenesis imperfecta
An inherited disorder of collagen which takes several forms. Premature osteoarthritis, blue sclerae, hypermobility and bone fragility may be features of the condition.

Osteogenic sarcoma
A malignant bone tumour which may occasionally arise in bone affected by Paget's disease.

Osteoid
Non-mineralised bone matrix.

Osteoid osteoma
A benign, osteoid-forming tumour. May be very painful, especially at night.

Osteolite
Osteolite is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): technetium tc-99m medronate kit.

Osteoma
Tumor of bone.

Osteomalacia
A disease of adults that is characterized by softening of the bones due to loss of bone mineral. Osteomalacia is characteristic of vitamin D deficiency in adults, while children with vitamin D deficiency suffer from rickets.

Osteomyelitis
Inflammation of bone.

Osteonecrosis
See 'Aseptic necrosis'.

Osteopathic Medical Center
The Osteopathic Medical Center is a hospital in Fort Worth, Texas, United States.

Osteopathic Medical Center of Texas
Osteopathic Medical Center of Texas is a hospital in Fort Worth, Texas (USA).

Osteopathic Medical Center-Philadelphia
The Osteopathic Medical Center-Philadelphia is a hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

Osteopathy
A system of therapy emphasizing primary medical care and the importance of body mechanics and manipulation to correct abnormalities.

Osteopenia
'Thin' bone due to osteomalacia or osteoporosis.

Osteophyte
Bony outgrowth seen at joint margin in osteoarthritis.

Osteopuncture
Form of acupuncture named by Ronald M. Lawrence, M.D. In osteopuncture, the needle penetrates the periosteum (the membrane that covers bones) and is usually electrified. The acupuncture points of osteopuncture do not correlate with "meridian points."

Osteosarcoma
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour, excluding myeloma and lymphoma. There is a predilection for the metaphyseal region of tubular long bones. 50% of cases occur around the knee. It is a cancer that usually affects the large bones of the arm or leg. It occurs most commonly in young people and affects more males than females. Also called osteogenic sarcoma.

Osteoscan
Osteoscan is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): technetium tc-99m etidronate kit.

Osteotomy
Operation to produce realignment of articular surfaces of a joint so as to exploit remaining undamaged cartilage.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Orgasm
An intense sensation that occurs at the climax of sexual excitement that is accompanied by rhythmic muscle contractions and intense pleasure, followed by release of sexual tensions. In men, orgasm is usually accompanied by ejaculation.

Organic
Of or related to a substance that contains carbon atoms linked together by carbon-carbon bonds. All living matter is organic. The original definition of the term organic related to the source of chemical compounds, with organic compounds being those carbon-containing compounds obtained from plant or animal sources, whereas inorganic compounds were obtained from mineral sources. Compounds containing bonds between carbon atoms can now be made in the laboratory and industrially by man.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids
A special type of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids found primarily in cold-water fish and purified fish oils. This type of fat is exceptionally beneficial to your cardiovascular system because of its effect on promoting the formation of "good" eicosanoids.

Omega-6 Fatty Acids
The type of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in protein and most seed oils. This type of fat can generate both "good" and "bad" eicosanoids.

Optic nerve
Sensory nerve that transmits impulses from the retina to the brain that become what we know as vision.

Osteoporosis

Osteosarcoma
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour, excluding myeloma and lymphoma. There is a predilection for the metaphyseal region of tubular long bones. 50% of cases occur around the knee. It is a cancer that usually affects the large bones of the arm or leg. It occurs most commonly in young people and affects more males than females. Also called osteogenic sarcoma.

Ovaries
The paired female sex glands in the pelvis, located one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and androgens.

Osteoarthritis
Degenerative disorder of joints, most often from disease in the spine and in the weight bearing joints (knees and hips). Normally seen with aging, but can occur prematurely due to various reasons, for instance after an injury to a joint. Also known as degenerative joint disease, it can cause joint pain, loss of function, reduced joint motion, and deformity.

Obesity
Abnormal body weight, usually defined as more than 20 percent above average for age, height and bone structure.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
A type of anxiety disorder marked by the persistent intrusion of unwanted and uncontrollable thoughts. Commonly, patients who suffer from obsessions also suffer from compulsions - repeated, senseless rituals victims go through in an attempt to reduce their anxiety. While compulsive behavior is almost always preceded by obsessive thoughts, some people have obsessive thoughts but do not ritualize.

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