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    A cell specialized to conduct and generate electrical impulses and to carry information from one part of the brain to another.


Fundamental structural unit of all life. The cell consists primarily of an outer plasma membrane, which separates it from the environment; the genetic material (DNA), which encodes heritable information for the maintainance of life; and the cytoplasm, a heterogeneous assemblage of ions, molecules, and fluid.

"That part of the central nervous system that is located within the cranium (skull). The brain functions as the primary receiver, organizer and distributor of information for the body. It has two (right and left) halves called ""hemispheres."" "


Neural tube defect
Type of birth defect, such as spina bifida, that results from failure of the spinal cord or brain to develop normally in a fetus.

Pain in distribution of nerve or nerves.

Neuralgic amyotrophy
See 'Brachial neuritis'.

Neuramate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): meprobamate.

Inflammation of a nerve or nerves.

Neuro-electric acupuncture
(evidence-based acupuncture, physiologic acupuncture)|Subject of Beyond Yin and Yang|How Acupuncture Really Works (Warren H. Green, Inc., 1994), by George A. Ulett, M.D., Ph.D. Neuro-electric acupuncture is a nonvitalistic form of electroacupuncture.

Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP(TM), neurolinguistics)
Quasi-spiritual behavior-modification (or "performance psychology") technique whose crux is "modelling," or "NLP modelling"|imitating the behavior of high achievers. Richard Bandler and John Grinder initially formulated NLP in 1975, reputedly duplicating the "magical results" of several top communicators and therapists. (These included Milton H. Erickson, M.D., the originator of Ericksonian Hypnosis.) Advanced Neuro Dynamics, Inc., in Honolulu, Hawaii, has promoted a style of NLP that "recognizes the importance of the human spirit and its connection with the mind and body." Pure NLP(TM) is the brand of NLP promoted by The Society of Neuro-Linguistic Programming.

An physician who specializes in treating patients with brain tumors, and/or the consequences of cancer upon the nervous system. The physician may be a trained neurologist, oncologist or neurosurgeon.

The branch of medicine concerned with the direct and indirect effects of neoplasms on the nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.

That branch of medicine concerned with the neurological aspects of the visual apparatus.

Physician who specializes in ear and hearing problems affecting the acoustic nerve.

The branch of neurology and anatomy that is concerned with nerve cells and the nervous system, including the brain.

Neurocardiogenic Syncope (Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS), Dysautonomia)
Dysfunction of the autonomic nervous syndrome. Causes symptoms of fatigue, dizziness, increased heart rate, and other symptoms. See syncope.

The region of the embryo that eventually develops into the nervous system.

An inherited disorder that causes dark spots on the skin and tumors of the skin, peripheral, optic and acoustic nerves.

Shortage of glucose in the nerve cells of the brain. Since the brain cells depends upon glucose as their main fuel, low blood sugars can quickly result in malfunction of the brain (with change in mental function, and possible loss of consciousness or seizures). In patients with Hypoglycemia Unawareness, where the patient may not recognize low sugar levels because other symptoms such as sweating, tremor, and rapid heart rate, are absent, the first symptoms are neuroglycopenic -- namely, loss of mental functioning.

Neurolite is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): technetium tc-99m bicisate kit.

Neurologic Oncology
The study and treatment of cancers of the brain and nervous system.

The medical science that deals with the nervous system and disorders affecting it.

A physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of thenervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and nerve centers.

The branch of medicine that pertains to the nervous system.

A benign but sometimes painful tumor growing on a nerve.

Neuromuscular development
The development of the nervous and muscular systems.

Neuron doctrine
The idea that nerve cells are independent biological units.

Neurontin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): gabapentin.

A pathologist who establishes the diagnosis in diseases of the nervous system by careful microscopic examination of the tissue.

A disease of the nervous system. The three major forms in people with diabetes are peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and mononeuropathy. The most common form is peripheral neuropathy, which affects mainly the legs and feet.

A branch of health science combining neurology and psychiatry.

A psychologist who specializes in ailments of the mind and mental processes caused by disease of the nervous system.

A radiologist who specializes in the use of radioactive substances, x-rays and scanning devices for the diagnosis of diseases of the nervous system.

The scientific study of the nervous system.

Physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system.

Neurotic disorder
A mental disorder in which the predominant disturbance is a distressing symptom or group of symptoms that one considers unacceptable and alien to one's personality. There is no marked loss of reality testing ; behavior does not actively violate gross social norms, although it may be quite disabling. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment and is not limited to a mild transitory reaction to stress. There is no demonstrable organic etiology.

Specialized chemical messenger (eg, acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin) that sends a message from one nerve cell to another. Most neurotransmitters play different roles throughout the body, many of which are not yet known.

Chemical substances that carry impulses from one nerve cell to another; found in the space (synapse) that separates the transmitting neuron's terminal (axon) from the receiving neuron's terminal (dendrite).


Natural Medicine

Nuclear Medicine
Imaging technique where small amounts of radioactive substances (radio-isotopes) are injected into a patient to trace disease processes. Sometimes the radioactive substance may concentrate directly in an organ/tissue, but in most cases it has to be attached to a carrier molecule with a "preference" for a certain tissue or disease process. The concentrated radioactivity may be detected by a so-called gamma camera as typical "hot spots".

Hydrocodone (chemical synonym: dihydrocodeinone; trade names: Vicodin, Anexsia, Dicodid, Hycodan, Hycomine, Lorcet, Lortab, Norco, Tussionex) is an opioid derived from either of the natural occuring opiates -- codeine or thebaine. Hydrocodone is an orally active analgesic and antitussive Schedule II narcotic which is marketed in multi-ingredient Schedule III products. The therapeutic dose of 5 mg to 10 mg is pharmacologically equivalent to 30 to 60 mg of oral codeine.

Not likely to cause comedones.

Neurologic Oncology
The study and treatment of cancers of the brain and nervous system.


Of or referring to the substantia nigra.

Tissue that conveys sensation, temperature, position information to the brain.

Nerve canal
Root. Dental pulp; the internal chamber of a tooth.

Night guard
Acrylic appliance used to prevent wear and temporomandibular damage caused by grinding or gnashing of the teeth during sleep.

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