Microalbumin
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  Microalbumin



Microalbumin

   Small amounts of protein in the urine that cannot be detected by the usual "dipstick" test done for routine urinanalysis testing for other reasons. Specialized dipsticks, or urine collections over a period of 12-24 hours, are used to measure the amount of microalbumin. If there is persistent microalbumin over several repeated tests at different times, the risk of diabetic nephropathy and macrovascular disease are both higher.

RELATED TERMS
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Protein
Any of a group of complex organic compounds which contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur, the characteristic element being nitrogen. Proteins, the principal constituents of the protoplasm of all cells, are of high molecular weight and consist essentially of combinations of a-amino acids in peptide linkages. Twenty different amino acids are commonly found in proteins, and each protein has a unique genetically defined amino acid sequence which determines its specific shape and function. Their roles include enzymatic catalysis, transport and storage, coordinated motion, nerve impulse generation and many others.

Urine
The waste fluid secreted by the kidneys, transported by the ureters, stored in the bladder, and voided through the urethra.

Microalbumin
Small amounts of protein in the urine that cannot be detected by the usual "dipstick" test done for routine urinanalysis testing for other reasons. Specialized dipsticks, or urine collections over a period of 12-24 hours, are used to measure the amount of microalbumin. If there is persistent microalbumin over several repeated tests at different times, the risk of diabetic nephropathy and macrovascular disease are both higher.

Risk
In clinical trials, the probability of harm or discomfort for subjects, arising from the test product. Acceptable risk differs depending on the condition for which a product is being tested. A product for sore throat, for example, will be expected to have a low incidence of side effects. However, unpleasant side effects may be an acceptable risk when testing a promising treatment for a life-threatening illness.

Diabetic
Pertaining to Diabetes. Patient suffering from this condition.

Nephropathy
Any disease of the kidney.

Disease
Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Micrainin
Micrainin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): aspirin; meprobamate.

Micro-k
Micro-k is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): potassium chloride.

Micro-k 10
Micro-k 10 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): potassium chloride.

Micro-k ls
Micro-k ls is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): potassium chloride.

Microaneurysm
A small swelling that forms on the side of tiny blood vessels. These small swellings may break and bleed into nearby tissue. People with diabetes sometimes get microaneurysms in the retina of the eye.

Microangiopathy
See: Angiopathy.

Microbe
Microscopic organism, especially one that transmits a disease.

Microbiology
The study of living microbes, including bacteria, protozoa and molds.

Microcannula
A hair-thin glass tube so small that it can penetrate a single cell and deliver a minute drop of a liquid substance to the cell.

Microcephaly
A small skull with small cranial capacity. Usually indicates mental retardation.

Microcomedo
The first stage of comedo formation; a comedo so small that it can be seen only with a microscope.

Microcyst
A tiny cyst, frequently of such dimensions that a magnifying lens or microscope is required for observation.

Microderm
Microderm is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): chlorhexidine gluconate.

Microelectrode
An electrode made of a filament so hair-thin that it can penetrate a single cell, such as a nerve cell, and deliver to or receive from the cell a minute amount of electrical current.

Microelectrodes
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly.

Microencephaly
Having an abnormally small brain.

Microgestin fe 1-20
Microgestin fe 1-20 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): ethinyl estradiol; norethindrone acetate.

Microgestin fe 1.5-30
Microgestin fe 1.5-30 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): ethinyl estradiol; norethindrone acetate.

Micrographia
A change in handwriting with the script becoming smaller and more cramped.

Microhepatia
A small liver.

Microlite
Microlite is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): technetium tc-99m albumin colloid kit.

Micromelia
A birth defect in which arms or legs are abnormally short.

Micronase
Micronase is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): glyburide.

Micronor
Micronor is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): norethindrone.

Micronutrient
Vitamins and minerals that have no caloric value and little direct impact on hormonal response.

Microorganism
An organism that can be seen only under a microscope. Categories of microorganisms include Algae, Bacteria, Fungi, Protozoa, Viruses, or Subviral Agents. Also referred to as microbe.

Micropenis
A birth defect in which the penis is extremely small. The maximum stretched length is not greater than .5 standard deviation units (SDU) below the mean for age, and possibly as small as 5.0 SDU below. The diameter is correspondingly small, with extreme hypoplasia of the corpora cavernosa. As compared with a micropenis, the average adult penis's stretched length is 6.6 inches (16.7 cm), with a standard deviation of 0.77 inches ([1.95 cm) (Money, Lehne, and Pierre-Jerome, 1984) an exceptionally small penis that resembles the clitoris in size. A micropenis may carry the urethral tube or may be hypospadiac. Typically, it is formed mostly of skin, the body (corpora cavernosa) of the penis being hypoplastic. The condition is also known as microphallus or penile agenesis.

Microphallus
See micropenis.

Microphthalmus
A congenital problem in which the eye(s) is (are) smaller than normal. Vision is often reduced because other problems present within such an eye. No treatment is available.

Micropsia
The visual perception that objects are smaller than they actually are.

Microscope
A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopy, and the term microscopic means minute or very small, not easily visible with the unaided eye. In other words, requiring a microscope to examine.

Microscopy
Investigation of minute objects by means of a microscope.

Microspectrophotometry (MSP)
A procedure that involves the passage of a narrow measuring beam through the outer segments of individual photoreceptors to measure absorbance spectra in excised retinas.

Microsul
Microsul is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): sulfamethizole.

Microsurgery
Precise, delicate surgery performed to unblock Fallopian tubes or to reverse a vasectomy or tubal ligation.

Microvascular Disease
Disease of the smallest blood vessels that sometimes occurs when a person has had diabetes for a long time. The walls of the vessels become abnormally thick but weak, and therefore they bleed, leak protein, and slow the flow of blood through the body. Then some cells, for example, the ones in the center of the eye, may not get enough blood and may be damaged.

Microzide
Microzide is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): hydrochlorothiazide.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Meal Plan
A guide for controlling the amount of calories, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats a person eats. People with diabetes can use such plans as the Exchange Lists or the Point System to help them plan their meals so that they can keep their diabetes under control.|See also: Exchange lists; point system.

Metabolic Syndrome
A combination of health conditions that place a person at high risk for heart disease. These conditions are type 2 diabetes, hypertension (high blood pressure), hyperlipidemia (high levels of fat in the blood), and obesity. According to theory, all of these conditions are associated with high blood insulin levels, and it is claimed that the underlying problem in patients with the Metabolic Syndrome is faulty insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas.|Previously called Syndrome X.

Meter/Monitor, Blood Glucose
See Blood Glucose Meter.

Metformin
A drug used as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes; belongs to a class of drugs called biguanides.|See also: Oral hypoglycemic agents.

Mg/dl
The unit of measurement of how much of a substance (such as sugar) is in a specific amount of fluid (such as blood or urine). Primarily used in the United States; most of the world uses mmol/L as the unit of measurement.|(Note: To convert blood sugar to mg/dl from mmol/L, multiply by 18.)

Microalbumin

Microaneurysm
A small swelling that forms on the side of tiny blood vessels. These small swellings may break and bleed into nearby tissue. People with diabetes sometimes get microaneurysms in the retina of the eye.

Microangiopathy
See: Angiopathy.

Microvascular Disease
Disease of the smallest blood vessels that sometimes occurs when a person has had diabetes for a long time. The walls of the vessels become abnormally thick but weak, and therefore they bleed, leak protein, and slow the flow of blood through the body. Then some cells, for example, the ones in the center of the eye, may not get enough blood and may be damaged.

Mixed Dose
Combining two kinds of insulin in one injection. A mixed dose commonly combines regular insulin, which is fast acting, with a longer acting insulin such as NPH. A mixed dose insulin schedule may be prescribed to provide both short-term and long-term coverage.

Mmol/L (millimols per liter)
The unit of measurement of how much of a substance (such as sugar) is in a specific amount of fluid (such as blood or urine). Most of the world uses mmol/L; however, in the United States, mg/dl is used as the unit of measurement.|(Note: To convert blood sugar to mmol/L from mg/dl, divide by 18.)

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