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    Any food that contains calories and, therefore, can generate hormonal responses. Protein, carbohydrate, and fat are macronutrients.


Any substance eaten to provide nutritional support for the body.

Any of a group of complex organic compounds which contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually sulfur, the characteristic element being nitrogen. Proteins, the principal constituents of the protoplasm of all cells, are of high molecular weight and consist essentially of combinations of a-amino acids in peptide linkages. Twenty different amino acids are commonly found in proteins, and each protein has a unique genetically defined amino acid sequence which determines its specific shape and function. Their roles include enzymatic catalysis, transport and storage, coordinated motion, nerve impulse generation and many others.

One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy. Carbohydrates are mainly sugars and starches that the body breaks down into glucose (a simple sugar that the body can use to feed its cells). The body also uses carbohydrates to make a substance called glycogen that is stored in the liver and muscles for future use. If the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it has, which are the basic problems in most forms of diabetes, then the body will not be able to use carbohydrates for energy the way it should.


Macrobid is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): nitrofurantoin; nitrofurantoin, macrocrystalline.

Macrodantin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): nitrofurantoin, macrocrystalline.

A group of drugs (typically antibiotics) whose activity stems from the presence of a macrolide ring, a large lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, are attached. The lactone ring can be either 14, 15 or 16-membered. Macrolides belong to the polyketide class of natural products.

A large phagocytic cell of the mononuclear series found within tissues. Properties include phagocytosis, and antigen presentation to T cells.

Macrophage-activating factor (MAF)
Actually several lymphokines, including interferon, released by activated T cells, which together induce activation of macrophages, making them more efficient in phagocytosis and cytotoxicity.

The visual perception that objects are larger than they actually are.

Abnormally large; in diabetes, refers to abnormally large babies that may be born to women with diabetes.

Macrotec is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): technetium tc-99m albumin aggregated kit.

Macrovascular Disease
A disease of the large blood vessels that sometimes occurs when a person has had diabetes for a long time. Fat and blood clots build up in the large blood vessels and stick to the vessel walls. Three kinds of macrovascular disease are coronary disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease.


Menstrual cycle
The menstrual cycle is the periodic change in a woman's body that occurs every month between puberty and menopause and that relates to reproduction. The average human menstrual cycle, regulated by hormones, takes 28 days, but it can range from 21 to 35 days.

Maximum Life Span
The longest period of life that an animal can expect to reach.

The hormone made in the pineal gland that controls circadian rhythms. It is also a powerful antioxidant for hydroxyl-free radicals.

Vitamins and minerals that have no caloric value and little direct impact on hormonal response.

Mortality Doubling Time
The amount of time required for the death rate to double after reaching adulthood.


Mumps is a viral disease characterised by fever, headache, and inflammation of the salivary glands. It may lead to complications such as meningitis.

An infectious disease that strikes membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges). It can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. It can follow another infection somewhere else in the body, often ears or sinuses. If bacterial meningitis is not treated within hours, it can lead to death or permanent brain injury.

Membranes which surround and protect the brain and spinal cord; anatomically there are 3 meninges: the pia mater, which adheres to the brain and the spinal cord, the dura mater, which adheres to the bone and the arachnoid between these two membranes.

Is a stage of the human female reproductive cycle that occurs as the ovaries stop producing estrogen, causing the reproductive system to gradually shut down. As the body adapts to the changing levels of natural hormones, vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes and palpitations, psychological symptoms such as increased depression, anxiety, irritability, mood swings and lack of concentration, and atrophic symptoms such as vaginal drynes.

A vascular headache associated with changes in the size of the arteries within and outside of the brain. A migraine begins when hyperactive nerve cells send out impulses to the blood vessels, causing constriction, followed by the dilation of these vessels and the release of prostaglandins, serotonin, and other inflammatory substances that cause the pulsation to be painful. Migraine is a genetic disorder that is inherited. A migraine causes mild to severe pain and lasts from 4 hours up to a week. Migraines usually occur 2 to 4 times per month.

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