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   Thin pieces of tissue or flaps that make up a valve.


Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function.The study of tissues is known as histology, or, in connection with disease, histopathology.The classical tools for studying the tissues are the wax block, the tissue stain, and the optical microscope, though developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and frozen sections have all added to the sum of knowledge in the last couple of decades.

Tongues of tissue (skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle) cut away from the underlying parts but attached at one end. They retain their own blood supply during transfer to the new site. They are used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region. The concept includes pedicled flaps, rotation flaps, tube flaps, etc.

A fold in the lining of an organ that prevents fluid from flowing backward.



Lumps (lipohypertrophy) or depressions (lipoatrophy) below the surface of the skin that form when a person keeps injecting insulin into the same spot. Both forms of lipodystrophies are harmless. People can decrease this problem by changing (rotating) the places where they inject their insulin. Using purified insulins may also help.

Bulging of an area of the skin (due to fat accumulation) that forms when a person keeps injecting insulin into the same spot. Continued injection into these lumpy areas delays the absorption of insulin, and is not recommended even though injecting into the lumpy area is painless (as there are no nerve endings in the lump).

Lispro Insulin
Lispro insulin is an insulin analog in which the position of two amino acids are switched. The resulting lispro insulin does not form hexamers (clumps of six molecules linked together) and is thus faster acting than regular insulin. It can be injected immediately before a meal, compared with regular which should be injected 30 minutes or more before a meal.

Recently high intensity light (lasers) has been developed for use in the dental field. Dental lasers allow for an easier and cleaner way to cut soft tissue and recently have been improved to enable the dentist to cut hard tissue (enamel) as well. The lasers used in dentistry come in three different variations. The greatest difference is in the laser beam and the depth of cut and temperature at the surface of the cut being made by the laser. The two most common types of soft tissue lasers are the CO2 laser and the YAG laser. The CO2 cuts more on the surface and does not raise the temperature very high on the surface to be treated which allows the tissue a better response to healing. The YAG laser will cut deeper and at a higher temperature so it can overheat some of the underlying structures below the tissue surface. The third type of laser is the newly developed laser for cutting hard tissue (enamel) called the erbium laser. An attribute of the erbium laser is that it does not overheat the tooth so that the tooth pulp (nerve) will not die. The erbium laser is currently being utilized in a small number of dental practices in the United States but may be more generally available in the near future.

Lead Extraction
A lead is a special wire that delivers energy from a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) to the heart muscle.A lead extraction is the removal of one or more leads from inside the heart. Leads that are placed outside the heart during open heart surgery cannot be removed during this type of procedure.


Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD)
In patients with end-stage heart disease whose hearts do not pump a sufficient amount of blood to keep the body healthy, it is possible to place a mechanical device that aids in the pumping function of the blood. This device is known as a left ventricular assist device. There are many devices available for implantation.

Legal Guardian
A person charged (usually by court appointment) with the power and duty of taking care of and managing the property and rights of another person who is unable to take care of their own affairs.

Leukocyte (white blood cell)
Cells in the blood that seeks and destroys disease-causing microorganisms.

Life-Sustaining Treatment
A medical treatment given to a patient that prolongs life and delays death.

Linolenic Acid (Omega 3)
An essential fatty acid. Omega3, which is found in fish and certain plants, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction by lowering triglyceride levels and blood pressure and preventing the formation of life-threatening thrombi.

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