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    One of many small cavities uniformly spaced along the lamellae of bones. In living bone, each lacuna contains one bone cell known as an osteocyte. Small canals (canaliculi) radiate from the lacunae and in these are small protoplasmic processes that connect with the osteoblast in other lacunae.


Holes in the two outer layers of a tooth called the enamel and the dentin. The enamel is the outermost white hard surface and the dentin is the yellow layer just beneath enamel. Both layers serve to protect the inner living tooth tissue called the pulp, where blood vessels and nerves reside. Small cavities may not cause pain, and may be unnoticed by the patient. Larger cavities can collect food, and the inner pulp of the affected tooth can become irritated by bacterial toxins, foods that are cold, hot, sour, or sweet - causing toothache. Also referred to as caries.

Bone refers either to a hardened connective tissue or to one of the individual structures, or organs, into which it is formed, found in many animals. Bones support body structures, protect internal organs, and (in conjunction with muscles) facilitate movement; are also involved with cell formation, calcium metabolism, and mineral storage. The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeleton.

Fundamental structural unit of all life. The cell consists primarily of an outer plasma membrane, which separates it from the environment; the genetic material (DNA), which encodes heritable information for the maintainance of life; and the cytoplasm, a heterogeneous assemblage of ions, molecules, and fluid.

A type of bone cell characterized by its immobile location within a lacunus and by a reduced ability to produce bone matrix.

One of many small cavities uniformly spaced along the lamellae of bones. In living bone, each lacuna contains one bone cell known as an osteocyte. Small canals (canaliculi) radiate from the lacunae and in these are small protoplasmic processes that connect with the osteoblast in other lacunae.

A type of bone cell characterized by its mobility and by its ability to produce bone matrix.



Cancer of the lymphoid tissues. Lymphomas are often described as being large cell or small cell types, cleaved or non-cleaved, or diffuse or nodular. The different types often have different prognoses. Lymphomas can also be referred to by the organs where they are active, such as CNS lymphomas, which are in the central nervous system, and GI lymphomas, which are in the gastrointestinal tract. The types of lymphomas most commonly associated with HIV infection are called non-Hodgkin's lymphomas or B cell lymphomas. In these types of cancers, certain cells of the lymphatic.

Life expectancy
The average age at which 50 percent of newborn children survive.

Lupus is a chronic disease in which the body's immune system, instead of serving its normal protective function, forms antibodies and cells that attack healthy tissues and organs. Discoid Lupus affects the skin, causing a rash and scars, most commonly on the face and upper parts of the body.

A commercial name for sertraline hydrochloride, an orally administered antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) type. Sertraline is used medically mainly to treat the symptoms of depression.


White blood cell. Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune system, including antibody production, attacking and destroying cancer cells, and producing substances that kill cancer cells.

Lyme Disease
A bacterial disease caused by the micro-organism (spirochete) Borrelia burgdorferi. This bacterium was discovered in 1982, although the clinical disease was first described in 1977. Infection occurs after the bite of an infected tick. The incubation period is approximately 14 days. Symptoms include a large circular red rash at the bite site (50-60% of cases), malaise, fever, headache, muscle aches and swollen lymph nodes. If untreated may progress to arthritis and compromise heart function. Some symptoms and signs of Lyme disease may not appear until weeks, months, or years after a tick bite. Early Lyme disease can usually be correctly diagnosed, but a delayed response or recurrence of this disorder may be mistaken for fibromyalgia. Some experts believe that between 15% and 50% of patients referred to clinics for Lyme disease actually have fibromyalgia. Late Lyme disease can usually (but not always) be ruled out using laboratory tests that identify the spirochete that causes this tick-borne disease. If fibromyalgia patients are incorrectly diagnosed and treated for Lyme disease with prolonged courses of antibiotics, the drugs may have serious side effects.

Lou Gehrig's Disease
Motor Neurone Disease (MND) is a term used to cover a number of illnesses of the motor neurone. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Progressive Muscular Atrophy (PMA), Progressive Bulbar Palsy (PBP) and Progressive Lateral Sclerosis (PLS) are all types of MND. MND is the term used internationally while ALS is often used in the United States (where it is also known as Lou Gehrig's disease) to cover all forms of MND. It was first described by Jean-Martin Charcot, a French neurologist, in 1869.

Legionellosis is an infection caused by species of the bacterium Legionella, most notably L. pneumophila. At least 46 species and 70 serogroups have been identified. L. pneumophila, an ubiquitous aquatic organism that thrives in warm environments (32 - 45 C) causes over 90% of Legionnaires Disease in the United States.

Hydrocodone (chemical synonym: dihydrocodeinone; trade names: Vicodin, Anexsia, Dicodid, Hycodan, Hycomine, Lorcet, Lortab, Norco, Tussionex) is an opioid derived from either of the natural occuring opiates -- codeine or thebaine. Hydrocodone is an orally active analgesic and antitussive Schedule II narcotic which is marketed in multi-ingredient Schedule III products. The therapeutic dose of 5 mg to 10 mg is pharmacologically equivalent to 30 to 60 mg of oral codeine.

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