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   The system of interconnecting canals and cavities in the inner ear. Plays an important role in hearing and in balance.


Holes in the two outer layers of a tooth called the enamel and the dentin. The enamel is the outermost white hard surface and the dentin is the yellow layer just beneath enamel. Both layers serve to protect the inner living tooth tissue called the pulp, where blood vessels and nerves reside. Small cavities may not cause pain, and may be unnoticed by the patient. Larger cavities can collect food, and the inner pulp of the affected tooth can become irritated by bacterial toxins, foods that are cold, hot, sour, or sweet - causing toothache. Also referred to as caries.

The hearing organ. There are three sections of the ear, according to the anatomy textbooks. They are the outer ear (the part we see along the sides of our head behind the temples), the middle ear, and the inner ear. But in terms of function, the ear has four parts: those three and the brain. Hearing thus involves all parts of the ear as well as the auditory cortex of the brain. The external ear helps concentrate the vibrations of air on the ear drum and make it vibrate. These vibrations are transmitted by a chain of little bones in the middle ear to the inner ear. There they stimulate the fibers of the auditory nerve to transmit impulses to the brain.

The sensation of sound.

A biological system that enables us to know where our bodies are in the environment and to maintain a desired position. Normal balance depends on information from the inner ear, other senses (such as sight and touch) and muscle movement.



Locus coeruleus
A small area in the brain stem containing norepinephrine neurons that is considered to be a key brain center for anxiety and fear.

Long-term memory
The final phase of memory in which information storage may last from hours to a lifetime.

Loosening of associations
A disturbance of thinking shown by speech in which ideas shift from one subject to another that is unrelated or minimally related to the first. Statements that lack a meaningful relationship may be juxtaposed, or speech may shift suddenly from one frame of reference to another. The speaker gives no indication of being aware of the disconnectedness, contradictions, or illogicality of speech.

Laproscopic surgery
A technique of using a fiber-optic scope and minute instruments to perform surgery with the smallest incision and least damage possible.

A device used by ACLS personnel to look down the throat to insert an endotracheal tube.


A wound caused by a cut from a sharp instrument or the tearing of body tissue.

"Discharge of tears. ""Watering"" eyes."

Inflammation of the larynx, resulting in a temporary loss of voice.

Toward the side, sideways.

Legg-Calv?-Perthes disease
A disease in which the blood supply to the femur is reduced, causing the bone to collapse.

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