Insulin
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  Insulin



Insulin

    The hormone that drives incoming nutrients into cells for storage. Excess insulin is the primary pillar of aging.

RELATED TERMS
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Hormone
A chemical substance formed in the body that is carried in the bloodstream to affect another part of the body; an example is thyroid hormone, produced by the thyroid gland in the neck, which affects growth, temperature regulation, metabolic rate, and other body functions.

Drives
A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.

Nutrients
Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals provided by food and necessary for growth and the maintenance of life.

Insulin
The hormone that drives incoming nutrients into cells for storage. Excess insulin is the primary pillar of aging.

Aging
The process of becoming older, a process that is genetically determined and environmentally modulated.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Insulatard nph human
Insulatard nph human is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): insulin susp isophane semisynthetic purified human.

Insulin Analog
A synthetic modification of insulin where specific amino acids have been substituted for the natural ones at one or more places on the insulin molecule. As of August 2005, there are three insulin analogs on the US market: insulin lispro (Humalog), insulin aspart (Novolog/NovoRapid), insulin glargine (Lantus (insulin glargine). More are in development and should be available soon.

Insulin Antagonist
Something that opposes or fights the action of insulin. Insulin lowers the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood, whereas glucagon raises it; therefore, glucagon is an antagonist of insulin.

Insulin Binding
When insulin attaches itself to something else. This can occur in two ways. First, when a cell needs energy, insulin can bind with the outer part of the cell. The cell then can bring glucose (sugar) inside and use it for energy. With the help of insulin, the cell can do its work very well and very quickly. But sometimes the body acts against itself. In this second case, the insulin binds with the proteins that are supposed to protect the body from outside substances (antibodies). If the insulin is an injected form of insulin and not made by the body, the body sees the insulin as an outside or "foreign" substance. When the injected insulin binds with the antibodies, it does not work as well as when it binds directly to the cell.

Insulin insulatard nph nordisk
Insulin insulatard nph nordisk is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): insulin susp isophane purified pork.

Insulin Lispro
See Lispro Insulin

Insulin nordisk mixtard pork
Insulin nordisk mixtard pork is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): insulin purified pork; insulin susp isophane purified pork.

Insulin Pen
An insulin injection device the size of a pen that includes a needle and holds a vial of insulin. It can be used instead of syringes for giving insulin injections.

Insulin Pump
A device that delivers a continuous supply of short-acting insulin into the body. The insulin flows from the pump through a plastic tube (called a catheter) that is connected to a needle inserted into the skin and taped in place.

Insulin Reaction
Too low a level of glucose (sugar) in the blood; also called hypoglycemia. This occurs when a person with diabetes has injected too much insulin, eaten too little food, or exercised without extra food. The person may feel hungry, nauseated, weak, nervous, shaky, confused, and sweaty. Taking small amounts of sugar, sweet juice, or food with sugar will usually help the person feel better within 10-15 minutes.

Insulin Receptors
Areas on the outer part of a cell that allow the cell to join or bind with insulin that is in the blood. When the cell and insulin bind together, the cell can take glucose (sugar) from the blood and use it for energy.

Insulin Resistance
A condition in which the cells no longer respond adequately to insulin. As a result, the body secretes more insulin into the bloodstream in an effort to reduce blood glucose levels.

Insulin Sensitizer
Any of several diabetes medications that reduce insulin resistance. Examples include metformin (Glucophage) and the thiazolidinediones (or "glitazones") rosiglitazone (Avandia) and pioglitazone (Actos).

Insulin Shock
A term no longer used. See Hypoglycemia; insulin reaction.

Insulin-dependent diabetes
A condition in which the body's immune system destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Insulin allows glucose to enter the cells of the body to provide energy. Persons with type 1 diabetes must take daily insulin injections.

Insulin-Induced Atrophy
Small dents that form on the skin when a person keeps injecting a needle in the same spot. They are harmless. |See also: Lipoatrophy; injection site rotation.

Insulin-Induced Hypertrophy
Small lumps that form under the skin when a person keeps injecting a needle in the same spot. |See also: Lipodystrophy; injection site rotation.

Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)
The hormone released from the liver in response to growth hormone. IGF-1 is the hormone responsible for building muscle.

Insulinoma
A tumor of the beta cells in areas of the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Although not usually cancerous, such tumors may cause the body to make extra insulin and may lead to a blood glucose (sugar) level that is too low.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Inflammation
The nonspecific immune response that occurs in reaction to any type of bodily injury. It is a stereotyped response that is identical whether the injurious agent is a pathogenic organism, foreign body, ischemia, physical trauma, ionizing radiation, electrical energy or extremes of temperature. The reactions produced during inflammation and repair may be harmful (ie hypersensitivity reactions, the processes that lead to rheumatoid arthritis, and possibly microglial over activation in ALS).

Injury
Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical.

Inhibitor
A substance that is added to another to prevent or slow down an unwanted reaction or change.

Immunofluorescence
Technique allowing the visualisation of a specific protein in cells or tissue sections (prepared from a biopsy) by binding a specific antibody conjugated to a fluorescent substrate.

Incision
A cut made with a sharp instrument through the skin or other tissue.

Insulin

Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)
The hormone released from the liver in response to growth hormone. IGF-1 is the hormone responsible for building muscle.

Insulin Resistance
A condition in which the cells no longer respond adequately to insulin. As a result, the body secretes more insulin into the bloodstream in an effort to reduce blood glucose levels.

Interstitial space
The space between the endothelial cells and target cells, such as the liver or the smooth muscle cells that line the vascular bed.

IVF
(in vitro fertilization) A method of assisted reproduction that involves combining an egg with sperm in a laboratory dish. If the egg fertilizes and begins cell division, the resulting embryo is transferred into the woman's uterus where it will hopefully implant in the uterine lining and further develop. IVF may be performed in conjunction with medications that stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple eggs in order to increase the chances of successful fertilization and implantation. IVF bypasses the fallopian tubes and is often the treatment choice for women who have badly damaged or absent tubes.

In vitro fertilization
IVF. A method of assisted reproduction that involves combining an egg with sperm in a laboratory dish. If the egg fertilizes and begins cell division, the resulting embryo is transferred into the woman's uterus where it will hopefully implant in the uterine lining and further develop. IVF may be performed in conjunction with medications that stimulate the ovaries to produce multiple eggs in order to increase the chances of successful fertilization and implantation. IVF bypasses the fallopian tubes and is often the treatment choice for women who have badly damaged or absent tubes.

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