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   Taking food, water, or medicine into the body by mouth.


Any substance eaten to provide nutritional support for the body.



Invasive cancer
Cancer that has spread beyond the area where it first developed to involve other tissues.

I Ching (I Ging, Yi King, Book of Change, Book of Changes, Book of Metamorphoses)
Chinese book of ancient origin that is considered a means of fortunetelling. It is part of the canon of Confucianism, the quasireligious philosophy that dominated China until the early twentieth century. "I Ching" combines two Mandarin words|yi, which means "divination," and jing, which means "classic" or "book." The I Ching features sixty-four hexagrams--drawings consisting of six lines each--which symbolize supposedly quintessential conditions, such as happiness, humility, innocence, and tranquillity.

In healthcare, any attempt (particularly one that is professional), or mode of attempting, to modify a medical situation.

Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)
Blood glucose (sugar) levels higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. People with IGT may or may not develop diabetes. Other names (no longer used) for IGT are "borderline," "subclinical," "chemical," or "latent" diabetes.

Implantable Insulin Pump
A small pump placed inside of the body that delivers insulin in response to commands from a hand-held device called a programmer.


Injection Sites
Places on the body where people can inject insulin most easily. These are:

Injection Site Rotation
Changing the places on the body where a person injects insulin. Changing the injection site keeps lumps or small dents from forming in the skin. These lumps or dents are called lipodystrophies. However, people should try to use the same body area for injections that are given at the same time each day-for example, always using the stomach for the morning injection or an arm for the evening injection. Using the same body area for these routine injections lessens the possibility of changes in the timing and action of insulin.

Insulin Analog
A synthetic modification of insulin where specific amino acids have been substituted for the natural ones at one or more places on the insulin molecule. As of August 2005, there are three insulin analogs on the US market: insulin lispro (Humalog), insulin aspart (Novolog/NovoRapid), insulin glargine (Lantus (insulin glargine). More are in development and should be available soon.

Insulin Antagonist
Something that opposes or fights the action of insulin. Insulin lowers the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood, whereas glucagon raises it; therefore, glucagon is an antagonist of insulin.

Insulin Binding
When insulin attaches itself to something else. This can occur in two ways. First, when a cell needs energy, insulin can bind with the outer part of the cell. The cell then can bring glucose (sugar) inside and use it for energy. With the help of insulin, the cell can do its work very well and very quickly. But sometimes the body acts against itself. In this second case, the insulin binds with the proteins that are supposed to protect the body from outside substances (antibodies). If the insulin is an injected form of insulin and not made by the body, the body sees the insulin as an outside or "foreign" substance. When the injected insulin binds with the antibodies, it does not work as well as when it binds directly to the cell.

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