Immunity
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  Immunity



Immunity

    When a body's immune system helps fend off disease.

RELATED TERMS
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Immune
Resistant to a particular disease.

Disease
Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Immune
Resistant to a particular disease.

Immune adherence
The adherence of particulate antigen coated with C3b to tissue having cells with C3b receptors.

Immune Adherence Reaction
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.

Immune Adherence Reactions
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.

Immune Associated Antigens
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.

Immune Associated Antigens, Human
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.

Immune complex
Antigen bound to antibody.

Immune Complex
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.

Immune Complex Disease
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other systemic immunologic diseases including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.

Immune Complex Diseases
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other systemic immunologic diseases including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.

Immune Complexes
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.

Immune Diseases, Nervous System
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).

Immune Disorders, Nervous System
Disorders caused by cellular or humoral immune responses primarily directed towards nervous system autoantigens. The immune response may be directed towards specific tissue components (e.g., myelin) and may be limited to the central nervous system (e.g., MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS) or the peripheral nervous system (e.g., GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME).

Immune Globulin, Intravenous
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS, primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA, SCID, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, chronic lymphocytic LEUKEMIA, Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.

Immune Globulin, Rh
Immunizing agent containing IMMUNOGLOBULIN G anti-Rho(D) used for preventing Rh immunization in Rh-negative individuals exposed to Rh-positive red blood cells.

Immune Globulins
Glycoproteins present in the blood (ANTIBODIES) and in other tissue. They are classified by structure and activity into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M).

Immune Interferon
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated lymphocytes. It is structurally different from type I interferon (INTERFERON TYPE I) and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of class II histocompatibility antigens in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to autoimmune disease.

Immune Marker
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

Immune Markers
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

Immune modulators
Substances that control the expression of the immune response.

Immune Monitoring
Testing of immune status in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, immunoproliferative and immunodeficiency disorders, and autoimmune abnormalities. Changes in immune parameters are of special significance before, during and following organ transplantation. Strategies include measurement of tumor antigen and other markers (often by RADIOIMMUNOASSAY), studies of cellular or humoral immunity in cancer etiology, IMMUNOTHERAPY trials, etc.

Immune Precipitates
Antibodies which elicit precipitation when combined with antigen.

Immune response (Ir) gene
A gene controlling an immune response to a particular antigen; most genes of this type are in the MHC (major histocompatibility complex), and the term is rarely used to describe other types of Ir genes outside the MHC.

Immune Response Antigens
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.

Immune Response Antigens, Human
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.

Immune Response Associated Antigens
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.

Immune Response Associated Antigens, Human
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.

Immune Response Gene
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.

Immune Response Genes
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.

Immune Response, Mucosal
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.

Immune Response-Associated Antigens, Human
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.

Immune Responses, Mucosal
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.

Immune RNA Manipulation
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.

Immune RNA Manipulations
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.

Immune Sera
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by antigen injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.

Immune Serums
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by antigen injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.

Immune System
The body's natural defense system which produces antibodies to fight against foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, toxins, and cancers.

Immune Tolerance
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.

Immune-Associated Antigens
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.

Immune-Associated Antigens, Human
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.

Immune-Response Antigens, Human
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.

Immune-Response-Associated Antigens
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.

Immunities, Active
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.

Immunities, Cell-Mediated
Those manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.

Immunities, Cellular
Those manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.

Immunities, Maternally Acquired
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.

Immunities, Maternally-Acquired
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.

Immunities, Maternally-Acquired Fetal
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.

Immunities, Maternally-Acquired Neonatal
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.

Immunities, Natural
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from non-specific mechanisms such as genetic endowment, naturally occurring antiviral and bactericidal substances, phagocytosis, and constitutional factors such as body temperature, oxygen tension, and age.

Immunities, Non-Specific
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from non-specific mechanisms such as genetic endowment, naturally occurring antiviral and bactericidal substances, phagocytosis, and constitutional factors such as body temperature, oxygen tension, and age.

Immunity, Active
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.

Immunity, Cell-Mediated
Those manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.

Immunity, Cellular
Those manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.

Immunity, Maternally Acquired
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.

Immunity, Maternally-Acquired
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.

Immunity, Maternally-Acquired Fetal
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.

Immunity, Maternally-Acquired Neonatal
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.

Immunity, Mucosal
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.

Immunity, Natural
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from non-specific mechanisms such as genetic endowment, naturally occurring antiviral and bactericidal substances, phagocytosis, and constitutional factors such as body temperature, oxygen tension, and age.

Immunity, Non Specific
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from non-specific mechanisms such as genetic endowment, naturally occurring antiviral and bactericidal substances, phagocytosis, and constitutional factors such as body temperature, oxygen tension, and age.

Immunity, Non-Specific
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from non-specific mechanisms such as genetic endowment, naturally occurring antiviral and bactericidal substances, phagocytosis, and constitutional factors such as body temperature, oxygen tension, and age.

Immunization
Natural immunity provided by antibodies or induced immunity via inoculations.

Immunization Program
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.

Immunization Programs
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.

Immunization Schedule
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.

Immunization Schedules
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.

Immunization, Booster
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.

Immunization, Passive
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).

Immunization, Secondary
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.

Immunizations, Booster
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.

Immunizations, Passive
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).

Immunizations, Secondary
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.

Immuno globulin E
Immuno globulin E is the antibody produced in excess in allergic patients. IgE can be measured in a blood sample to determine if a person is allergic. Allergic people usually have high levels of IgE.

Immuno Stimulating Complexes
A formulation for presenting an antigen to induce specific immunologic responses. It consists of an assembly of antigens in multimeric form. The assembly is attached to a matrix with a built-in adjuvant, saponin. ISCOMs induce strong serum antibody responses, and are used as highly immunogenic forms of subunit vaccines.

Immuno-Augmentative Clinic
The Immuno-Augmentative Clinic is a hospital in Freeport, Freeport, Bahamas.

Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome, Acquired
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.

Immuno-Deficiency Syndromes, Acquired
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.

Immuno-Electron Microscopies
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.

Immuno-Electron Microscopy
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.

Immuno-Stimulating Complexes
A formulation for presenting an antigen to induce specific immunologic responses. It consists of an assembly of antigens in multimeric form. The assembly is attached to a matrix with a built-in adjuvant, saponin. ISCOMs induce strong serum antibody responses, and are used as highly immunogenic forms of subunit vaccines.

Immunoadhesins, CD4
Chimeric molecules resulting from the fusion of recombinant soluble CD4 to the Fc portion of immunoglobulins. These have potential use in the therapy of AIDS since they possess both the gp120-binding and HIV-blocking properties of rCD4 as well as the long plasma half-life and Fc receptor-binding functions of immunoglobulin.

Immunoadsorbent Technic
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.

Immunoadsorbent Technics
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.

Immunoadsorbent Technique
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.

Immunoadsorbent Techniques
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.

Immunoadsorbents
An insoluble support for an antigen or antibody used to adsorb the homologous antibody or antigen from a mixture; the adsorbed entity may then be eluted in pure form for assay or analysis; many different substances are used, among them sepharose, glutaraldehyde, copolymers of anhydrides, polyacrylamides, etc.

Immunoassay
Detection and assay of substances by serological (immunological) methods; in most applications the substance in question serves as antigen, both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.

Immunoassay, Enzyme
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.

Immunoassay, Fluorescence Polarization
Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.

Immunoassays
Immunochemical assay or detection of a substance by serologic or immunologic methods. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.

Immunoassays, Enzyme
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.

Immunoassays, Fluorescence Polarization
Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.

Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma
Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.

Immunoblastic Large-Cell Lymphoma
Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.

Immunoblastic Large-Cell Lymphomas
Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.

Immunoblastic Lymphadenopathies
A disorder characterized by proliferation of arborizing small vessels, prominent immunoblastic proliferations and amorphous acidophilic interstitial material. Clinical manifestations include fever, sweats, weight loss, generalized lymphadenopathy and frequently hepatosplenomegaly.

Immunoblastic Lymphadenopathy
A disorder characterized by proliferation of arborizing small vessels, prominent immunoblastic proliferations and amorphous acidophilic interstitial material. Clinical manifestations include fever, sweats, weight loss, generalized lymphadenopathy and frequently hepatosplenomegaly.

Immunoblastic Lymphoma, Large-Cell
Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.

Immunoblastic Lymphomas, Large-Cell
Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.

Immunoblastic Lymphosarcoma, Diffuse
Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.

Immunoblastic Lymphosarcomas, Diffuse
Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.

Immunoblastic Sarcoma
Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.

Immunoblastic Sarcomas
Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.

Immunoblastoma
Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.

Immunoblastomas
Malignant lymphoma characterized by the presence of immunoblasts with uniformly round-to-oval nuclei, one or more prominent nucleoli, and abundant cytoplasm. This class may be subdivided into plasmacytoid and clear-cell types based on cytoplasmic characteristics. A third category, pleomorphous, may be analogous to some of the peripheral T-cell lymphomas (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, PERIPHERAL) recorded in both the United States and Japan.

Immunoblot, Western
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.

Immunoblots, Western
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.

Immunoblotting
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

Immunoblotting, Dot
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

Immunoblotting, Reverse
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

Immunoblotting, Western
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.

Immunoblottings
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

Immunoblottings, Dot
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

Immunoblottings, Reverse
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

Immunoblottings, Western
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.

Immunochemistry
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.

Immunocompetence
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.

Immunocompromised Host
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.

Immunocompromised Hosts
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.

Immunocompromised Patient
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.

Immunocompromised Patients
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.

Immunoconjugate
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as immunoglobulins, monoclonal antibodies or antigens. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of drugs and radioisotopes in the chemotherapy and radioimmunotherapy of certain cancers.

Immunoconjugates
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as immunoglobulins, monoclonal antibodies or antigens. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of drugs and radioisotopes in the chemotherapy and radioimmunotherapy of certain cancers.

Immunocontraception
Contraceptive methods utilizing immunologic processes.

Immunocytoadherence
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.

Immunocytoadherences
The in vitro formation of clusters consisting of a cell (usually a lymphocyte) surrounded by antigenic cells or antigen-bearing particles (usually erythrocytes, which may or may not be coated with antibody or antibody and complement). The rosette-forming cell may be an antibody-forming cell, a memory cell, a T-cell, a cell bearing surface cytophilic antibodies, or a monocyte possessing Fc receptors. Rosette formation can be used to identify specific populations of these cells.

Immunocytochemistry
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunodeficiencies, Common Variable
Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.

Immunodeficiencies, Severe Combined
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. About half of the patients with autosomal recessive SCID are deficient in the enzyme adenosine deaminase.

Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Acquired
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.

Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Severe Combined
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. About half of the patients with autosomal recessive SCID are deficient in the enzyme adenosine deaminase.

Immunodeficiency Syndromes, Acquired
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.

Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1, Human
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS (ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME). It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.

Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2, Human
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIV and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.

Immunodeficiency Virus, Bovine
The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.

Immunodeficiency Virus, Feline
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus feline lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, FELINE) isolated from cats with a chronic wasting syndrome, presumed to be immune deficiency. There are 3 strains: Petaluma (FIP-P), Oma (FIP-O) and Puma lentivirus (PLV). There is no antigenic relationship between FIV and HIV, nor does FIV grow in human T-cells.

Immunodeficiency Virus, Human
Human immunodeficiency virus. Species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, PRIMATE), formerly designated T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). It is acknowledged to be the agent responsible for the acute infectious manifestations, neurologic disorders, and immunologic abnormalities linked to the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME.

Immunodeficiency Virus, Primate
A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce immunodeficiencies in primates, including humans.

Immunodeficiency Virus, Simian
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV. SIV is 50% homologous in nucleotide sequence to HIV-1. SIV and HIV-2 exhibit close structural and immunologic properties and are 75% homologous. SIV does not cause immune deficiency in its natural host, the African green monkey, but does produce SAIDS in the rhesus macaque.

Immunodeficiency Viruses, Bovine
The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.

Immunodeficiency Viruses, Human
Human immunodeficiency virus. Species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, PRIMATE), formerly designated T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). It is acknowledged to be the agent responsible for the acute infectious manifestations, neurologic disorders, and immunologic abnormalities linked to the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME.

Immunodeficiency Viruses, Primate
A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce immunodeficiencies in primates, including humans.

Immunodeficiency Viruses, Simian
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV. SIV is 50% homologous in nucleotide sequence to HIV-1. SIV and HIV-2 exhibit close structural and immunologic properties and are 75% homologous. SIV does not cause immune deficiency in its natural host, the African green monkey, but does produce SAIDS in the rhesus macaque.

Immunodeficiency, Common Variable
Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.

Immunodeficiency, Severe Combined
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. About half of the patients with autosomal recessive SCID are deficient in the enzyme adenosine deaminase.

Immunodeficiency-Like Virus, Bovine
The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.

Immunodeficiency-Like Viruses, Bovine
The type species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus bovine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, BOVINE), found in cattle and causing lymphadenopathy, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, central nervous system lesions, progressive weakness, and emaciation. It has immunological cross-reactivity with other lentiviruses including HIV.

Immunodeficient Mice, Severe Combined
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene ""scid"" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.

Immunodiagnoses
Diagnostic techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, antigen-antibody reactions, serologic cross-reactivity, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, or heterogenetic responses.

Immunodiagnosis
Diagnostic techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, antigen-antibody reactions, serologic cross-reactivity, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, or heterogenetic responses.

Immunodiffusion
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.

Immunodiffusions
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.

Immunodominant Antigenic Determinants
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.

Immunodominant Antigens
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.

Immunodominant Determinants
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.

Immunodominant Domains
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.

Immunodominant Epitopes
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.

Immunodominant Regions
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.

Immunodominant Sites
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.

Immunoelectroblotting
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

Immunoelectroblottings
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

Immunoelectron Microscopies
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.

Immunoelectron Microscopy
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.

Immunoelectroosmophoresis
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.

Immunoelectrophoresis
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.

Immunoelectrophoresis, 2 D
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.

Immunoelectrophoresis, 2-D
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.

Immunoelectrophoresis, 2D
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.

Immunoelectrophoresis, Countercurrent
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.

Immunoelectrophoresis, Crossed
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.

Immunoelectrophoresis, Crossover
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.

Immunoelectrophoresis, Two Dimensional
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.

Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.

Immunoenzyme Technic
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.

Immunoenzyme Technics
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.

Immunoenzyme Technique
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.

Immunoenzyme Techniques
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.

Immunofluorescence
Technique allowing the visualisation of a specific protein in cells or tissue sections (prepared from a biopsy) by binding a specific antibody conjugated to a fluorescent substrate.

Immunofluorescence Antibody Test, Direct
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence Antibody Test, Indirect
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence Assay, Direct
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence Assay, Indirect
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence Assays, Direct
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence Assays, Indirect
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence Microscopies
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.

Immunofluorescence Microscopy
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.

Immunofluorescence Technic
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.

Immunofluorescence Technic, Direct
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence Technic, Indirect
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence Technics
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.

Immunofluorescence Technics, Direct
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence Technics, Indirect
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.

Immunofluorescence Technique, Direct
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence Technique, Indirect
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence Techniques
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.

Immunofluorescence Techniques, Direct
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence Techniques, Indirect
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence, Direct
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescence, Indirect
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescences, Direct
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorescences, Indirect
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)

Immunofluorometric Assay
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.

Immunofluorometric Assay, Time-Resolved
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.

Immunofluorometric Assays
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.

Immunofluorometric Assays, Time-Resolved
The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.

Immunogen
A substance capable of inducing an immune response (as well as reacting with the products of an immune response). Compare with antigen.

Immunogenetic
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response.

Immunogenetics
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response.

Immunogens, Synthetic
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.

Immunoglobulin
A serum protein involved in immunity. An antibody.

Immunoglobulin (Ig)
A general term for all antibody molecules. Each Ig unit is made up of two heavy chains and two light chains and has two antigen- binding sites.

Immunoglobulin A
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.

Immunoglobulin A, Secretory
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULINS, J-CHAIN).

Immunoglobulin Allotype
Hereditary serologic types based on antigenic differences in the light and heavy chains of immunoglobulins due to allelic genes in the gene loci coding the chains. The Inv system applies to the kappa light chains, the Gm system applies to the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Immunoglobulin Allotypes
Hereditary serologic types based on antigenic differences in the light and heavy chains of immunoglobulins due to allelic genes in the gene loci coding the chains. The Inv system applies to the kappa light chains, the Gm system applies to the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Immunoglobulin Alterations
Glycoproteins present in the blood (ANTIBODIES) and in other tissue. They are classified by structure and activity into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M).

Immunoglobulin C(mu)
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and having a molecular weight of approximately 72 kD. They contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Immunoglobulin Class Switching
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.

Immunoglobulin Class Switchings
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.

Immunoglobulin Constant Region
That region of the immunoglobulin (antibody) molecule that is invariable in its amino acid sequence within any class of immunoglobulins. It confers the biological specificity to the Ig and is grossly species specific. It comprises the C-terminus half of the light chains and three quarters or more of the heavy chains, all of the Fc fragment, and the C-terminus half of the Fab fragment.

Immunoglobulin D
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B lymphocytes.

Immunoglobulin E
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).

Immunoglobulin E (IgE)
A type of antibody, formed to protect the body from infection, which attaches to mast cells in the respiratory and intestinal tracts and may cause allergic rhinitis, asthma, or eczema.

Immunoglobulin E Receptor
Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).

Immunoglobulin Enhancer Binding Protein
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.

Immunoglobulin Enhancer-Binding Protein
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.

Immunoglobulin G
The major immunoglobulin in normal human serum.

Immunoglobulin G Receptor
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).

Immunoglobulin Gene
Genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins. Light chain gene segments are symbolized L-V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant); Ig heavy chain segments have, in addition, a diversity (D) gene. Each segment codes for certain amino acids, and each has a different nucleotide sequence; the genes are assembled by a remarkable shuffling of the segments during B lymphocyte maturation.

Immunoglobulin Genes
Genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins. Light chain gene segments are symbolized L-V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant); Ig heavy chain segments have, in addition, a diversity (D) gene. Each segment codes for certain amino acids, and each has a different nucleotide sequence; the genes are assembled by a remarkable shuffling of the segments during B lymphocyte maturation.

Immunoglobulin Gm Allotype
Hereditary allotypic markers associated with the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Immunoglobulin Gm Allotypes
Hereditary allotypic markers associated with the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain
Major components of immunoglobulin molecules. They are the larger of the two types of polypeptide chains responsible for the biological and immunological properties of the different immunoglobulins. They differ according to the class of Ig from which they were isolated, contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kD. One Ig molecule comprises two heavy and two light chains.

Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Genes
Genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins. Light chain gene segments are symbolized L-V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant); Ig heavy chain segments have, in addition, a diversity (D) gene. Each segment codes for certain amino acids, and each has a different nucleotide sequence; the genes are assembled by a remarkable shuffling of the segments during B lymphocyte maturation.

Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Subgroup VH I
Major components of immunoglobulin molecules. They are the larger of the two types of polypeptide chains responsible for the biological and immunological properties of the different immunoglobulins. They differ according to the class of Ig from which they were isolated, contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kD. One Ig molecule comprises two heavy and two light chains.

Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Subgroup VH III
Major components of immunoglobulin molecules. They are the larger of the two types of polypeptide chains responsible for the biological and immunological properties of the different immunoglobulins. They differ according to the class of Ig from which they were isolated, contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kD. One Ig molecule comprises two heavy and two light chains.

Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Subgroup VH-I
Major components of immunoglobulin molecules. They are the larger of the two types of polypeptide chains responsible for the biological and immunological properties of the different immunoglobulins. They differ according to the class of Ig from which they were isolated, contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kD. One Ig molecule comprises two heavy and two light chains.

Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Subgroup VH-III
Major components of immunoglobulin molecules. They are the larger of the two types of polypeptide chains responsible for the biological and immunological properties of the different immunoglobulins. They differ according to the class of Ig from which they were isolated, contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kD. One Ig molecule comprises two heavy and two light chains.

Immunoglobulin Idiotype
Unique, genetically controlled determinants present on antibodies whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the variable regions of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.

Immunoglobulin Idiotypes
Unique, genetically controlled determinants present on antibodies whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the variable regions of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.

Immunoglobulin Inv Allotype
Hereditary allotypic markers associated with the light chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Immunoglobulin Inv Allotypes
Hereditary allotypic markers associated with the light chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Immunoglobulin Isotypes
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.

Immunoglobulin Joining Region
Segment of light and heavy chains of mouse and human immunoglobulins where the genes for the variable region upstream join those of the constant region downstream (an important part of the ANTIBODY DIVERSITY mechanism). In the joining region of the light chain are the genes coding for amino acids 96 to 107.

Immunoglobulin Light Chain
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues, isolated from immunoglobulins and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. In man they are found in a ratio of 60% to 40%, respectively. Both chains consist of linear repeating, similar, but not identical, segments of about 110 amino acid residues. In each segment a disulfide bond establishes a tightly folded approximately 60-membered loop or domain. Adjacent domains are linked by less tightly folded regions. Both light chains contain two such domains. Two light and two heavy chains make one immunoglobulin molecule, but both light chains in one Ig are of the same type.

Immunoglobulin Light Chain Genes
Genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins. Light chain gene segments are symbolized L-V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant); Ig heavy chain segments have, in addition, a diversity (D) gene. Each segment codes for certain amino acids, and each has a different nucleotide sequence; the genes are assembled by a remarkable shuffling of the segments during B lymphocyte maturation.

Immunoglobulin Light-Chain
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues, isolated from immunoglobulins and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. In man they are found in a ratio of 60% to 40%, respectively. Both chains consist of linear repeating, similar, but not identical, segments of about 110 amino acid residues. In each segment a disulfide bond establishes a tightly folded approximately 60-membered loop or domain. Adjacent domains are linked by less tightly folded regions. Both light chains contain two such domains. Two light and two heavy chains make one immunoglobulin molecule, but both light chains in one Ig are of the same type.

Immunoglobulin M
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULINS, MU-CHAIN). IgM can fix complement. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.

Immunoglobulin Producing Cells
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.

Immunoglobulin Receptor, Polymeric
Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)

Immunoglobulin Receptors, Polymeric
Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)

Immunoglobulin Secreting Cells
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.

Immunoglobulin Somatic Hypermutation
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.

Immunoglobulin Somatic Hypermutations
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.

Immunoglobulin Switch Region
A site on a segment of a B-cell immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) can occur. It is involved in isotype or allotype switching and maturation of the immune response. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five immunoglobulin heavy chains.

Immunoglobulin Switch Regions
A site on a segment of a B-cell immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) can occur. It is involved in isotype or allotype switching and maturation of the immune response. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five immunoglobulin heavy chains.

Immunoglobulin Therapies
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).

Immunoglobulin Therapy
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).

Immunoglobulin V
That region of the immunoglobulin (antibody) molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, confers the antigenic specificity, and is thought to comprise the binding site for the antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.

Immunoglobulin Variable Region
That region of the immunoglobulin (antibody) molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, confers the antigenic specificity, and is thought to comprise the binding site for the antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.

Immunoglobulin VH Germ Line Genes
Genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins. Light chain gene segments are symbolized L-V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant); Ig heavy chain segments have, in addition, a diversity (D) gene. Each segment codes for certain amino acids, and each has a different nucleotide sequence; the genes are assembled by a remarkable shuffling of the segments during B lymphocyte maturation.

Immunoglobulin, Antilymphocyte
Serum containing gamma-globulins which are antibodies for lymphocyte antigens. It is used both as a test for histocompatibility and therapeutically in transplantation.

Immunoglobulin, lambda-x
One of the light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD. They constitute about 40% of all light chains and can be recognized serologically as well as by their specific amino acid sequence.

Immunoglobulin, Membrane Bound
Immunoglobulins bound to the surface of lymphocytes.

Immunoglobulin-Producing Cell
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.

Immunoglobulin-Producing Cells
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.

Immunoglobulin-Secreting Cell
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.

Immunoglobulin-Secreting Cells
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.

Immunoglobulins
Antibodies or proteins found in blood and tissue fluids produced by cells of the immune system to bind to substances in the body that are recognized as foreign antigens. Immunoglobulins sometimes bind to antigens that are not necessarily a threat to health and provoke an allergic reaction.

Immunoglobulins, alpha
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and having a molecular weight of approximately 58 kD. They contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to the Fc fragment.

Immunoglobulins, alpha Chain
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and having a molecular weight of approximately 58 kD. They contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to the Fc fragment.

Immunoglobulins, alpha-Chain
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and having a molecular weight of approximately 58 kD. They contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to the Fc fragment.

Immunoglobulins, delta
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN D and having a molecular weight of approximately 64 kD. They contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment.

Immunoglobulins, delta Chain
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN D and having a molecular weight of approximately 64 kD. They contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment.

Immunoglobulins, delta-Chain
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN D and having a molecular weight of approximately 64 kD. They contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment.

Immunoglobulins, epsilon
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E and having a molecular weight of approximately 72 kD. They contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, IMMUNOGLOBULIN D, and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Immunoglobulins, epsilon Chain
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E and having a molecular weight of approximately 72 kD. They contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, IMMUNOGLOBULIN D, and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Immunoglobulins, epsilon-Chain
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN E and having a molecular weight of approximately 72 kD. They contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, IMMUNOGLOBULIN D, and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Immunoglobulins, Fab
Antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire light chain and about half of one of the heavy chains, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the antigen binding site which is part of the variable region of the immunoglobulin molecule.

Immunoglobulins, Fc
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both heavy chains linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments are responsible for the effector functions of antibodies (complement fixation, binding to cell membranes, and placental transport).

Immunoglobulins, gamma
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G and having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kD. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment. The gamma chains of the four IMMUNOGLOBULIN G subgroups are not identical, but resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of a different immunoglobulin.

Immunoglobulins, gamma Chain
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G and having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kD. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment. The gamma chains of the four IMMUNOGLOBULIN G subgroups are not identical, but resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of a different immunoglobulin.

Immunoglobulins, gamma-Chain
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G and having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kD. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment. The gamma chains of the four IMMUNOGLOBULIN G subgroups are not identical, but resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of a different immunoglobulin.

Immunoglobulins, Heavy Chain
Major components of immunoglobulin molecules. They are the larger of the two types of polypeptide chains responsible for the biological and immunological properties of the different immunoglobulins. They differ according to the class of Ig from which they were isolated, contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kD. One Ig molecule comprises two heavy and two light chains.

Immunoglobulins, Heavy-Chain
Major components of immunoglobulin molecules. They are the larger of the two types of polypeptide chains responsible for the biological and immunological properties of the different immunoglobulins. They differ according to the class of Ig from which they were isolated, contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kD. One Ig molecule comprises two heavy and two light chains.

Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS, primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA, SCID, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, chronic lymphocytic LEUKEMIA, Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.

Immunoglobulins, IV
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS, primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA, SCID, CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, chronic lymphocytic LEUKEMIA, Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.

Immunoglobulins, J Chain
The immunoglobulin fragments found in the light chain fractions of secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in a ratio of one J chain per one IMMUNOGLOBULIN A dimer or one IMMUNOGLOBULIN M pentamer. It is a polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 17 kD and probably serves either to bind the components of the globulins together or to transfer the globulins across membranes.

Immunoglobulins, J-Chain
The immunoglobulin fragments found in the light chain fractions of secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in a ratio of one J chain per one IMMUNOGLOBULIN A dimer or one IMMUNOGLOBULIN M pentamer. It is a polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 17 kD and probably serves either to bind the components of the globulins together or to transfer the globulins across membranes.

Immunoglobulins, kappa
One of the light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD. They constitute about 60% of all light chains and can be recognized serologically as well as by their specific amino acid sequence.

Immunoglobulins, kappa Chain
One of the light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD. They constitute about 60% of all light chains and can be recognized serologically as well as by their specific amino acid sequence.

Immunoglobulins, kappa-Chain
One of the light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD. They constitute about 60% of all light chains and can be recognized serologically as well as by their specific amino acid sequence.

Immunoglobulins, lambda
One of the light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD. They constitute about 40% of all light chains and can be recognized serologically as well as by their specific amino acid sequence.

Immunoglobulins, lambda Chain
One of the light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD. They constitute about 40% of all light chains and can be recognized serologically as well as by their specific amino acid sequence.

Immunoglobulins, lambda-Chain
One of the light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD. They constitute about 40% of all light chains and can be recognized serologically as well as by their specific amino acid sequence.

Immunoglobulins, Light Chain
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues, isolated from immunoglobulins and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. In man they are found in a ratio of 60% to 40%, respectively. Both chains consist of linear repeating, similar, but not identical, segments of about 110 amino acid residues. In each segment a disulfide bond establishes a tightly folded approximately 60-membered loop or domain. Adjacent domains are linked by less tightly folded regions. Both light chains contain two such domains. Two light and two heavy chains make one immunoglobulin molecule, but both light chains in one Ig are of the same type.

Immunoglobulins, Light-Chain
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues, isolated from immunoglobulins and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. In man they are found in a ratio of 60% to 40%, respectively. Both chains consist of linear repeating, similar, but not identical, segments of about 110 amino acid residues. In each segment a disulfide bond establishes a tightly folded approximately 60-membered loop or domain. Adjacent domains are linked by less tightly folded regions. Both light chains contain two such domains. Two light and two heavy chains make one immunoglobulin molecule, but both light chains in one Ig are of the same type.

Immunoglobulins, Membrane Bound
Immunoglobulins bound to the surface of lymphocytes.

Immunoglobulins, Membrane-Bound
Immunoglobulins bound to the surface of lymphocytes.

Immunoglobulins, mu
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and having a molecular weight of approximately 72 kD. They contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Immunoglobulins, mu Chain
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and having a molecular weight of approximately 72 kD. They contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Immunoglobulins, mu-Chain
Heavy chains found in the Fab and Fc fragments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and having a molecular weight of approximately 72 kD. They contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.

Immunoglobulins, Surface
Immunoglobulins bound to the surface of lymphocytes.

Immunogold Silver Technics
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunogold Silver Techniques
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunogold Technic
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunogold Technics
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunogold Technique
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunogold Techniques
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunogold-Silver Technic
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunogold-Silver Technics
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunogold-Silver Technique
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunogold-Silver Techniques
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunohistochemical staining
A laboratory process of detecting an organism in tissues with antibodies. These antibodies are labeled with a compound that is seen as a colored deposit when viewed microscopically. In general, mesotheliomas require immunohistochemical confirmation before legal measures are initiated.

Immunohistochemistry
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunohistocytochemistry
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunolabeling Technic
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunolabeling Technics
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunolabeling Technique
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunolabeling Techniques
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Immunologic Accessory Cell
Heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediates the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cell receptor. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. Follicular dendritic cells (DENDRITIC CELLS, FOLLICULAR) are also considered to be antigen-presenting cells by some authors.

Immunologic Accessory Cells
Heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediates the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cell receptor. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. Follicular dendritic cells (DENDRITIC CELLS, FOLLICULAR) are also considered to be antigen-presenting cells by some authors.

Immunologic and Biological Factors
A collective grouping for biologically active substances that play a role in the functioning of the immune system and those that show biological or physiological activity.

Immunologic Capping
The process by which lymphoid cell surface immunoglobulin receptors, when exposed to bivalent anti-Ig antibodies, collect in patches and form a cap at one pole of the cell. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment in the form of antigen-antibody complexes. Capping has also been induced by lectins and antigens.

Immunologic Competence
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.

Immunologic Contraception
Contraceptive methods utilizing immunologic processes.

Immunologic Cytotoxicity
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid ""killer"" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.

Immunologic Cytotoxicity Test
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.

Immunologic Cytotoxicity Tests
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.

Immunologic Deficiency Syndrome
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.

Immunologic Deficiency Syndrome, Acquired
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.

Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.

Immunologic Deficiency, Severe Combined
Group of rare congenital disorders characterized by impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity, leukopenia, and low or absent antibody levels. It is inherited as an X-linked or autosomal recessive defect. About half of the patients with autosomal recessive SCID are deficient in the enzyme adenosine deaminase.

Immunologic Desensitization
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.

Immunologic Desensitizations
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.

Immunologic Diagnoses
Diagnostic techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, antigen-antibody reactions, serologic cross-reactivity, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, or heterogenetic responses.

Immunologic Diagnosis
Diagnostic techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, antigen-antibody reactions, serologic cross-reactivity, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, or heterogenetic responses.

Immunologic Disease
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated or both.

Immunologic Diseases
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated or both.

Immunologic Dose Response Relationship
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.

Immunologic Dose-Response Relationship
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.

Immunologic Dose-Response Relationships
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.

Immunologic Factors
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.

Immunologic Marker
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

Immunologic Markers
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

Immunologic Memories
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.

Immunologic Memory
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.

Immunologic Model
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.

Immunologic Models
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.

Immunologic Monitoring
Testing of immune status in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, immunoproliferative and immunodeficiency disorders, and autoimmune abnormalities. Changes in immune parameters are of special significance before, during and following organ transplantation. Strategies include measurement of tumor antigen and other markers (often by RADIOIMMUNOASSAY), studies of cellular or humoral immunity in cancer etiology, IMMUNOTHERAPY trials, etc.

Immunologic Receptor
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.

Immunologic Receptors
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.

Immunologic Subtyping
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.

Immunologic Subtypings
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.

Immunologic Suppressor Factors
Proteins, protein complexes, or glycoproteins secreted by suppressor T-cells that inhibit either subsequent T-cells, B-cells, or other immunologic phenomena. Some of these factors have both histocompatibility (I-J) and antigen-specific domains which may be linked by disulfide bridges. They can be elicited by haptens or other antigens and may be mass-produced by hybridomas or monoclones in the laboratory.

Immunologic Surface Markers
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.

Immunologic Surveillance
The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.

Immunologic Surveillances
The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.

Immunologic Test
Diagnostic techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, antigen-antibody reactions, serologic cross-reactivity, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, or heterogenetic responses.

Immunologic Tests
Diagnostic techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, antigen-antibody reactions, serologic cross-reactivity, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, or heterogenetic responses.

Immunologic Tumoricidal Activities
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid ""killer"" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.

Immunologic Tumoricidal Activity
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid ""killer"" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.

Immunological and Biological Factors
A collective grouping for biologically active substances that play a role in the functioning of the immune system and those that show biological or physiological activity.

Immunological Capping
The process by which lymphoid cell surface immunoglobulin receptors, when exposed to bivalent anti-Ig antibodies, collect in patches and form a cap at one pole of the cell. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment in the form of antigen-antibody complexes. Capping has also been induced by lectins and antigens.

Immunological Competence
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.

Immunological Contraception
Contraceptive methods utilizing immunologic processes.

Immunological Contraceptive Technic
Contraceptive methods utilizing immunologic processes.

Immunological Contraceptive Technics
Contraceptive methods utilizing immunologic processes.

Immunological Contraceptive Technique
Contraceptive methods utilizing immunologic processes.

Immunological Contraceptive Techniques
Contraceptive methods utilizing immunologic processes.

Immunological Cytotoxicity Test
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.

Immunological Cytotoxicity Tests
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.

Immunological Deficiency Syndrome
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.

Immunological Deficiency Syndromes
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.

Immunological Diagnoses
Diagnostic techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, antigen-antibody reactions, serologic cross-reactivity, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, or heterogenetic responses.

Immunological Diagnosis
Diagnostic techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, antigen-antibody reactions, serologic cross-reactivity, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, or heterogenetic responses.

Immunological Disease
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated or both.

Immunological Diseases
Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated or both.

Immunological Effect
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.

Immunological Effects
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.

Immunological Factors
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.

Immunological Fertility Control
Contraceptive methods utilizing immunologic processes.

Immunological Memories
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.

Immunological Memory
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.

Immunological Model
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.

Immunological Models
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.

Immunological Monitoring
Testing of immune status in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, immunoproliferative and immunodeficiency disorders, and autoimmune abnormalities. Changes in immune parameters are of special significance before, during and following organ transplantation. Strategies include measurement of tumor antigen and other markers (often by RADIOIMMUNOASSAY), studies of cellular or humoral immunity in cancer etiology, IMMUNOTHERAPY trials, etc.

Immunological Receptors
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.

Immunological Surface Markers
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.

Immunological Surveillance
The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.

Immunological Surveillances
The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.

Immunological Test
Diagnostic techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, antigen-antibody reactions, serologic cross-reactivity, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, or heterogenetic responses.

Immunological Tests
Diagnostic techniques involving the demonstration or measurement of an immune response, including antibody production or assay, antigen-antibody reactions, serologic cross-reactivity, delayed hypersensitivity reactions, or heterogenetic responses.

Immunology
The study of the body's natural defense system.

Immunology and Allergy
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.

Immunology, Allergy
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.

Immunology, Transplantation
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.

Immunomagnetic Bead Technique
A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.

Immunomagnetic Bead Techniques
A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.

Immunomagnetic Cell Separation
A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.

Immunomagnetic Cell Separations
A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.

Immunomagnetic Purging
A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.

Immunomagnetic Purgings
A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.

Immunomagnetic Separation
A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.

Immunomagnetic Separations
A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.

Immunoperoxidase Technic
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.

Immunoperoxidase Technics
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.

Immunoperoxidase Technique
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.

Immunoperoxidase Techniques
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.

Immunophenotyping
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.

Immunophenotyping, Lymphocyte
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.

Immunophenotypings
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.

Immunophenotypings, Lymphocyte
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.

Immunophilins
Members of a family of highly conserved proteins which are all cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE). They bind the immunosuppressant drugs CYCLOSPORINE; TACROLIMUS and SIROLIMUS. They possess rotomase activity, which is inhibited by the immunosuppressant drugs that bind to them. EC 5.2.1.-

Immunoprecipitation
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible precipitation occurs when a soluble antigen reacts with its antibody.

Immunoprecipitations
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible precipitation occurs when a soluble antigen reacts with its antibody.

Immunoproliferative Disorder
Disorders characterized by abnormal proliferation of primary cells of the immune system or by excessive production of immunoglobulins.

Immunoproliferative Disorders
Disorders characterized by abnormal proliferation of primary cells of the immune system or by excessive production of immunoglobulins.

Immunoproliferative Small Intestinal Disease
A spectrum of conditions ranging from a benign plasma cell hyperplasia to a highly malignant lymphoma of the small intestine.

Immunoproteins
Blood proteins whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.

Immunoradiometric Assay
Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.

Immunoradiometric Assays
Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.

Immunoradiotherapies
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).

Immunoradiotherapy
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).

Immunoregulatory Protein, Liver
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ORNITHINE and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.

Immunoscintigraphies, Radiolabeled
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.

Immunoscintigraphies, Radiolabelled
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.

Immunoscintigraphy, Radiolabeled
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.

Immunoscintigraphy, Radiolabelled
Use of radiolabeled antibodies for diagnostic imaging of neoplasms. Antitumor antibodies are labeled with diverse radionuclides including iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, or technetium-99m and injected into the patient. Images are obtained by a scintillation camera.

Immunosorbent Assay, Enzyme-Linked
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.

Immunosorbent Assays, Enzyme-Linked
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.

Immunosorbent Technic
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.

Immunosorbent Technics
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.

Immunosorbent Technique
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.

Immunosorbent Techniques
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.

Immunosorbents
An insoluble support for an antigen or antibody used to adsorb the homologous antibody or antigen from a mixture; the adsorbed entity may then be eluted in pure form for assay or analysis; many different substances are used, among them sepharose, glutaraldehyde, copolymers of anhydrides, polyacrylamides, etc.

Immunostimulating Complexes
A formulation for presenting an antigen to induce specific immunologic responses. It consists of an assembly of antigens in multimeric form. The assembly is attached to a matrix with a built-in adjuvant, saponin. ISCOMs induce strong serum antibody responses, and are used as highly immunogenic forms of subunit vaccines.

Immunosuppresive medications
Medications that suppress the body's immune system, used to minimize rejection of transplanted organs.

Immunosuppressants
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of suppressor T-cell populations or by inhibiting the activation of helper cells. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of interleukins and other cytokines are emerging.

Immunosuppressed Host
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.

Immunosuppressed Hosts
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.

Immunosuppression
The artificial suppression of the immune response, usually through drugs, so that the body will not reject a transplanted organ or tissue. Drugs commonly used to suppress the immune system after transplant include prednisone, azathioprine (Imuran), mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept), and cyclosporine (Neoral).

Immunosuppression (Physiology)
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.

Immunosuppressions (Physiology)
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.

Immunosuppressive Agents
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of suppressor T-cell populations or by inhibiting the activation of helper cells. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of interleukins and other cytokines are emerging.

Immunosuppressives Antineoplastics
Collective grouping for substances used to arrest the proliferation of malignant cells and those that suppress the immune response.

Immunosurveillance
Testing of immune status in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, immunoproliferative and immunodeficiency disorders, and autoimmune abnormalities. Changes in immune parameters are of special significance before, during and following organ transplantation. Strategies include measurement of tumor antigen and other markers (often by RADIOIMMUNOASSAY), studies of cellular or humoral immunity in cancer etiology, IMMUNOTHERAPY trials, etc.

Immunotherapies, Active
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.

Immunotherapies, Adoptive
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)

Immunotherapies, Adoptive Cellular
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)

Immunotherapies, Allergen
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.

Immunotherapies, Passive
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).

Immunotherapy
Stimulating the body's natural defense system to attack and destroy cancers.

Immunotherapy, Active
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.

Immunotherapy, Adoptive
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)

Immunotherapy, Adoptive Cellular
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)

Immunotherapy, Allergen
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.

Immunotherapy, Passive
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).

Immunotoxin
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including radioactive isotopes and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as immunoglobulins, monoclonal antibodies, and antigens. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.

Immunotoxins
Semisynthetic conjugates of various toxic molecules, including radioactive isotopes and bacterial or plant toxins, with specific immune substances such as immunoglobulins, monoclonal antibodies, and antigens. The antitumor or antiviral immune substance carries the toxin to the tumor or infected cell where the toxin exerts its poisonous effect.

Immuran
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)

Immutable
Long-lasting and unchangeable.



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Informed consent
A process in which a patient gives written consent (agreement) to undergo a medical procedure after having been provided with information about the nature of the procedure, risks, potential benefits, alternatives, and so on by his or her doctor.

Inner cell mass
The cluster of cells inside the blastocyst. Before implantation, these can give rise to embryonic stem cell lines. After implantation, the inner cell mass gives rise to all the tissues of the fetus, as well as some of the membranes around it.

Institutional review board (IRB)
An administrative body in an institution (such as a hospital or university) established to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects recruited to participate in research activities conducted under the auspices of that institution. The IRB has the authority to approve, require modifications in, or disapprove research activities in its jurisdiction, as specified by both federal regulations and local institutional policy.

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
An assisted reproductive method in which a sperm is injected directly into an unfertilized egg with a microscopic needle; this procedure is used in cases of severe male factor infertility.

IVF
See In vitro fertilization

Immunity

Immunization
Natural immunity provided by antibodies or induced immunity via inoculations.

In loco parentis
Latin for "In place of a parent," referring to the rights and duties of a guardian or organization.

In utero surgery
Surgery done in the uterus to correct an abnormality in a fetus.

Incompetent cervix
When the muscles of the cervix are too weak to hold a baby through pregnancy. A stitch may be placed at the opening of the cervix to hold it together. See cerclage.

Incubator
A box-like apparatus in which premature babies are kept at constant and suitable temperature.

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