Idiopathic
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  Idiopathic



Idiopathic

    Of unexplained origin, as in the development of a symptom or syndrome that is apparently spontaneously generated.

RELATED TERMS
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Development
The process of growth and differentiation.

Symptom
A subjective manifestation of a pathological condition. Symptoms are reported by the affected individual rather than observed by the examiner.

Syndrome
A grouping of signs and symptoms, based on their frequent co-occurrence, that may suggest a common underlying pathogenesis, course, familial pattern, or treatment selection.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Idiocies, Amaurotic Familial
A disturbance of lipid metabolism with abnormal deposit of lipids in the cells. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Idiocy
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual is mentally retarded. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline mentally retarded range. Scores below 67 are in the retarded range. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)

Idiocy, Amaurotic Familial
A disturbance of lipid metabolism with abnormal deposit of lipids in the cells. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Idiographic
Specific to the self and unique to one's own biography.

Idiopathic Acute Facial Neuropathy
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)

Idiopathic Blepharospasm Oromandibular Dystonia Syndrome
A syndrome characterized by orofacial DYSTONIA; including BLEPHAROSPASM; forceful jaw opening; lip retraction; platysma muscle spasm; and tongue protrusion. It primarily affects older adults, with an incidence peak in the seventh decade of life. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p108)

Idiopathic Blepharospasm-Oromandibular Dystonia Syndrome
A syndrome characterized by orofacial DYSTONIA; including BLEPHAROSPASM; forceful jaw opening; lip retraction; platysma muscle spasm; and tongue protrusion. It primarily affects older adults, with an incidence peak in the seventh decade of life. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p108)

Idiopathic CD4 Positive T Lymphocytopenia
Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.

Idiopathic CD4+ T Lymphocytopenia
Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.

Idiopathic CD4+ T-Lymphocytopenia
Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.

Idiopathic CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytopenia
Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.

Idiopathic Central Nervous System Hypersomnolence
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)

Idiopathic CNS Hypersomnolence
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)

Idiopathic CNS Hypersomnolences
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)

Idiopathic Facial Paralyses
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)

Idiopathic Facial Paralysis
A syndrome characterized by the acute onset of unilateral FACIAL PARALYSIS which progresses over a 2-5 day period. Weakness of the orbicularis oculi muscle and resulting incomplete eye closure may be associated with corneal injury. Pain behind the ear often precedes the onset of paralysis. This condition may be associated with HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN infection of the facial nerve. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1376)

Idiopathic Hypercatabolic Hypoproteinemia
A series of gastrointestinal disorders which share in common the excessive loss of protein, mainly albumin, across the gut wall. They occur in the stomach (Menetrier disease), as well as the small bowel (intestinal lymphangiectases, assorted inflammatory states). They are also occasionally associated with congestive heart failure (again a small bowel protein loss).

Idiopathic Hypercatabolic Hypoproteinemias
A series of gastrointestinal disorders which share in common the excessive loss of protein, mainly albumin, across the gut wall. They occur in the stomach (Menetrier disease), as well as the small bowel (intestinal lymphangiectases, assorted inflammatory states). They are also occasionally associated with congestive heart failure (again a small bowel protein loss).

Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
A heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of prolonged eosinophilia of unknown cause and associated organ system dysfunction, including the heart, central nervous system, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. There is a massive increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood, mimicking leukemia, and extensive eosinophilic infiltration of the various organs. It is often referred to as idiopathic.

Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndromes
A heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of prolonged eosinophilia of unknown cause and associated organ system dysfunction, including the heart, central nervous system, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. There is a massive increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood, mimicking leukemia, and extensive eosinophilic infiltration of the various organs. It is often referred to as idiopathic.

Idiopathic Hypersomnia
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)

Idiopathic Hypersomnias
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)

Idiopathic Hypersomnolence
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)

Idiopathic Hypersomnolences
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)

Idiopathic Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis
A myocardial disease characterized by hypertrophy, involving mainly the interventricular septum, interfering with left ventricular emptying.

Idiopathic Hypertrophic Subvalvular Stenosis
A myocardial disease characterized by hypertrophy, involving mainly the interventricular septum, interfering with left ventricular emptying.

Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies
Inflammation of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL). Infectious, autoimmune, and paraneoplastic processes represent some of the more common conditions that may be associated with myositis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed., pp 1402-13)

Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy
Inflammation of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL). Infectious, autoimmune, and paraneoplastic processes represent some of the more common conditions that may be associated with myositis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed., pp 1402-13)

Idiopathic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction
Obstruction of the intestines that is functional, not mechanical.

Idiopathic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstructions
Obstruction of the intestines that is functional, not mechanical.

Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension
A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).

Idiopathic Jaundice, Chronic
A benign, autosomally recessive inherited hyperbilirubinemia characterized by the presence of a dark pigment in the centrilobular region of the liver cells. There is a functional defect in biliary excretion of bilirubin, cholephilic dyes, and porphyrins. Affected persons may be asymptomatic or have vague constitutional or gastrointestional symptoms. The liver may be slightly enlarged, and oral and intravenous cholangiography fails to visualize the biliary tract.

Idiopathic Jaundices, Chronic
A benign, autosomally recessive inherited hyperbilirubinemia characterized by the presence of a dark pigment in the centrilobular region of the liver cells. There is a functional defect in biliary excretion of bilirubin, cholephilic dyes, and porphyrins. Affected persons may be asymptomatic or have vague constitutional or gastrointestional symptoms. The liver may be slightly enlarged, and oral and intravenous cholangiography fails to visualize the biliary tract.

Idiopathic Membranous Glomerulonephritides
A disease of the glomerulus manifested clinically by proteinuria, and sometimes by other features of the nephrotic syndrome. It is histologically characterized by deposits in the glomerular capillary wall between the epithelial cell and the basement membrane and a thickening of the membrane. Also characteristic are outward projections of the membrane between the epithelial deposits in the form of ""spikes"". There is some agreement that the deposits are antigen-antibody complexes.

Idiopathic Membranous Glomerulonephritis
A disease of the glomerulus manifested clinically by proteinuria, and sometimes by other features of the nephrotic syndrome. It is histologically characterized by deposits in the glomerular capillary wall between the epithelial cell and the basement membrane and a thickening of the membrane. Also characteristic are outward projections of the membrane between the epithelial deposits in the form of ""spikes"". There is some agreement that the deposits are antigen-antibody complexes.

Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathies
A disease of the glomerulus manifested clinically by proteinuria, and sometimes by other features of the nephrotic syndrome. It is histologically characterized by deposits in the glomerular capillary wall between the epithelial cell and the basement membrane and a thickening of the membrane. Also characteristic are outward projections of the membrane between the epithelial deposits in the form of ""spikes"". There is some agreement that the deposits are antigen-antibody complexes.

Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy
A disease of the glomerulus manifested clinically by proteinuria, and sometimes by other features of the nephrotic syndrome. It is histologically characterized by deposits in the glomerular capillary wall between the epithelial cell and the basement membrane and a thickening of the membrane. Also characteristic are outward projections of the membrane between the epithelial deposits in the form of ""spikes"". There is some agreement that the deposits are antigen-antibody complexes.

Idiopathic Multicentric Osteolyses
Syndromes of bone destruction where the cause is not obvious such as neoplasia, infection, or trauma. The destruction follows various patterns: massive (Gorham disease), multicentric (Hajdu-Cheney syndrome, Winchester syndrome), or carpal/tarsal.

Idiopathic Multicentric Osteolysis
Syndromes of bone destruction where the cause is not obvious such as neoplasia, infection, or trauma. The destruction follows various patterns: massive (Gorham disease), multicentric (Hajdu-Cheney syndrome, Winchester syndrome), or carpal/tarsal.

Idiopathic Myoclonic Epilepsies
A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).

Idiopathic Myoclonic Epilepsy
A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).

Idiopathic Olivopontocerebellar Atrophies
A group of inherited and sporadic disorders which share progressive ataxia in combination with atrophy of the CEREBELLUM; PONS; and inferior olivary nuclei. Additional clinical features may include MUSCLE RIGIDITY; NYSTAGMUS; RETINAL DEGENERATION; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; DEMENTIA; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and OPHTHALMOPLEGIA. The familial form has an earlier onset (second decade) and may feature spinal cord atrophy. The sporadic form tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade, and is considered a clinical subtype of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1085)

Idiopathic Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy
A group of inherited and sporadic disorders which share progressive ataxia in combination with atrophy of the CEREBELLUM; PONS; and inferior olivary nuclei. Additional clinical features may include MUSCLE RIGIDITY; NYSTAGMUS; RETINAL DEGENERATION; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; DEMENTIA; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and OPHTHALMOPLEGIA. The familial form has an earlier onset (second decade) and may feature spinal cord atrophy. The sporadic form tends to present in the fifth or sixth decade, and is considered a clinical subtype of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1085)

Idiopathic Orofacial Dyskinesia
A syndrome characterized by orofacial DYSTONIA; including BLEPHAROSPASM; forceful jaw opening; lip retraction; platysma muscle spasm; and tongue protrusion. It primarily affects older adults, with an incidence peak in the seventh decade of life. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p108)

Idiopathic Orofacial Dyskinesias
A syndrome characterized by orofacial DYSTONIA; including BLEPHAROSPASM; forceful jaw opening; lip retraction; platysma muscle spasm; and tongue protrusion. It primarily affects older adults, with an incidence peak in the seventh decade of life. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p108)

Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension, Shy Drager Type
A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord, which differentiates this condition from other forms of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC). This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with orthostasis and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p536)

Idiopathic Orthostatic Hypotension, Shy-Drager Type
A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord, which differentiates this condition from other forms of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC). This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with orthostasis and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p536)

Idiopathic Parkinson Disease
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)

Idiopathic Polymyositides
Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY, NERVOUS SYSTEM); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)

Idiopathic Polymyositis
Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY, NERVOUS SYSTEM); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)

Idiopathic Thrombocythemia
A clinical syndrome characterized by repeated spontaneous hemorrhages and a remarkable increase in the number of circulating platelets.

Idiopathic Thrombocythemias
A clinical syndrome characterized by repeated spontaneous hemorrhages and a remarkable increase in the number of circulating platelets.

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpuras
Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.

Idiopathic Torsion Dystonia
A condition characterized by focal DYSTONIA that progresses to involuntary spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the legs, trunk, arms, and face. The hands are often spared, however, sustained axial and limb contractions may lead to a state where the body is grossly contorted. Onset is usually in the first or second decade. Familial patterns of inheritance, primarily autosomal dominant with incomplete pentrance, have been identified. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1078)

Idiopathic Torsion Dystonias
A condition characterized by focal DYSTONIA that progresses to involuntary spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the legs, trunk, arms, and face. The hands are often spared, however, sustained axial and limb contractions may lead to a state where the body is grossly contorted. Onset is usually in the first or second decade. Familial patterns of inheritance, primarily autosomal dominant with incomplete pentrance, have been identified. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1078)

Idiopathic Trigeminal Neuralgia
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURSYMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)

Idiopathic Trigeminal Neuralgias
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURSYMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)

Idiopathic Trigeminal Neuropathies
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.

Idiopathic Trigeminal Neuropathy
Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.

Idiosyncratic
Pertaining to one's individual and sujectively personal ideation, cognitions, affect, tastes, attitudes, habits and behaviors. As in fingerprints, irises, and DNA coding (except in identical twins) the term pertains to one's individuality in any specific measurable factor. Compare to phyletic.

Idiot savant
A person with gross mental retardation who nonetheless is capable of performing certain remarkable feats in sharply circumscribed intellectual areas, such as calendar calculation or puzzle solving.

Idiotype
The combined antigenic determinants (idiotopes) found on antibodies of an individual that are directed at a particular antigen; such antigenic determinants are found only in the variable region.

Idiotype, Immunoglobulin
Unique, genetically controlled determinants present on antibodies whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the variable regions of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.

Idiotypes, Immunoglobulin
Unique, genetically controlled determinants present on antibodies whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the variable regions of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.

Idioventricular Rhythm, Accelerated
A transient and intermittent type of arrhythmia with episodes lasting from a few seconds to a minute which usually occurs in patients with acute myocardial infarction or with digitalis toxicity. Suppressive therapy is rarely necessary because the ventricular rate is generally less than 100 beats per minute.

Idioventricular Rhythms, Accelerated
A transient and intermittent type of arrhythmia with episodes lasting from a few seconds to a minute which usually occurs in patients with acute myocardial infarction or with digitalis toxicity. Suppressive therapy is rarely necessary because the ventricular rate is generally less than 100 beats per minute.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
--------------------------------------

Identification
The process of becoming like someone as a sequel to assimilating or copying that person's activities, behavior, and reactions. The term is applied especially to the differentiation of G-I/R (gender identity/role).

Ideogogic
In sex therapy, treatment that involves discussion of ideas and the meaning of one's behavior to other people who are affected by it.

Idiographic
Specific to the self and unique to one's own biography.

Ideological norm
The standard of what is normal as defined by those who, even though in a minority, exercise their authority to impose their own ideology and values on others whom they overpower.

Ideology
A set of ideas, beliefs, or principles to which a person or group adheres, lives by, and possibly dies for.

Idiopathic

Idiosyncratic
Pertaining to one's individual and sujectively personal ideation, cognitions, affect, tastes, attitudes, habits and behaviors. As in fingerprints, irises, and DNA coding (except in identical twins) the term pertains to one's individuality in any specific measurable factor. Compare to phyletic.

Imagery
In mental life, the collective representation of mental images or depictions of anything either perceived (perceptual imagery) or, if not actually present as a sensory stimulus, recognized in memory (memory imagery), or in dream, confabulation, or fantasy (fictive imagery). Imagery refers to a predominantly visual sensory modality of input.

Immutable
Long-lasting and unchangeable.

Imperative
The converse of adventive, in the sense of being obligatory in the development of all members of a species.

Impersonator
An actor or person who assumes the personality and plays the role of being somebody else.

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