IAA antiinsulin
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  IAA antiinsulin

IAA antiinsulin

   GAD65 anti glutamic acid decarboxylase |ICA512 a specific islet cell antibody |EMA antiendomyseal antibodies (a test for celiac synmdrome, another autoimmune disorder occurring in 5% of new-onset Type 1 diabetes)


Fundamental structural unit of all life. The cell consists primarily of an outer plasma membrane, which separates it from the environment; the genetic material (DNA), which encodes heritable information for the maintainance of life; and the cytoplasm, a heterogeneous assemblage of ions, molecules, and fluid.

An infection-fighting protein molecule in blood or secretory fluids that tags, neutralizes, and helps destroy pathogenic microorganisms (eg, bacteria, viruses) or toxins. Antibodies, known generally as immunoglobulins, are made and secreted by B-lymphocytes in response to stimulation by antigens. Each specific antibody binds only to the specific antigen that stimulated its production.

Proteins produced by white blood cells. They confer immunity.

Having to do with the abdomen.

Pertaining to autoimmunity, a misdirected immune response that occurs when the immune system goes awry and attacks the body itself. Autoimmunity is present to some extent in everyone and is usually harmless. However, autoimmunity can cause a broad range of human illnesses, known collectively as autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases occur when there is progression from benign autoimmunity to pathogenic autoimmunity. This progression is determined by genetic influences as well as environmental triggers. Autoimmunity is evidenced by the presence of autoantibodies (antibodies directed against the person who produced them) and T cells that are reactive with host antigens.



A tumor of the beta cells in areas of the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Although not usually cancerous, such tumors may cause the body to make extra insulin and may lead to a blood glucose (sugar) level that is too low.

Intermittent Claudication
Pain in the muscles of the leg that occurs off and on, usually while walking or exercising, and results in lameness (claudication). The pain results from a narrowing of the blood vessels feeding the muscle. Drugs are available to treat this condition.

Intensive Management
A form of treatment for insulin-dependent diabetes in which the main objective is to keep blood glucose (sugar) levels as close to the normal range as possible. The treatment consists of three or more insulin injections a day or use of an insulin pump; four or more blood glucose tests a day; adjustment of insulin, food intake, and activity levels based on blood glucose test results; dietary counseling; and management by a diabetes team.

Intramuscular Injection
Putting a fluid into a muscle with a needle and syringe.

Intravenous Injection
Putting a fluid into a vein with a needle and syringe.

IAA antiinsulin

Islet Cell Transplantation
Moving the beta (islet) cells from a donor pancreas and putting them into a person whose pancreas has stopped producing insulin. The beta cells make the insulin that the body needs to use glucose (sugar) for energy. Although transplanting islet cells may one day help people with diabetes, the procedure is still in the research stage. Transplantation of the pancreas itself is surgically feasible, and is sometimes advised for some patients. |See also: Pancreas Transplant.

Dental Implants are titanium inserts that are surgically placed into the jawbone by an oral surgeon or a periodontist, and then allowed to integrate into the bone. This process may take up to six months. The implants then can be restored with a post and an artificial tooth that is either screwed into the implant or cemented onto the implant. Implants are more costly than crowns, dentures or bridges and are appropriate only for patients who demonstrate good oral hygiene. Implants enable the dentist to provide the patient with artificial teeth that look and function much more like natural teeth and are as secure as natural teeth. Implants also may be attached to a denture to allow denture wearers a more secure and functional option. Patients must follow the proper home care instructions and visit the dentist at the recommended intervals or the implants can fail or fracture. There are no strict age limitations as to who can receive implants; in fact, implants have been placed on children, adults and the elderly.

Inlays and onlays are more permanent types of restorations similar in longevity to crowns. A more conservative tooth preparation is done which allows a tooth to maintain more of its original characteristics. A mold is made with a special plaster and from that model the inlay or onlay is custom made. Inlays and onlays can be fabricated from gold, porcelain or a composite resin. The inlay or onlay is then cemented or bonded into place to give the tooth superior support. An inlay differs from an onlay in that the onlay material covers one or more cusps of a tooth and generally is a better choice if the tooth has a fracture.

Idiopathic Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis is another term used synonymously with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.

Iliac Veins
The two principal veins returning blood from the lower part of the body. The iliac veins eventually join to form the inferior vena cava.

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