Hypnotics
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  Hypnotics



Hypnotics

   Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.

RELATED TERMS
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Drugs
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.

Drowsiness
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.

Psychological
Pertaining to mental life as manifested through language and behavior.

Anxiety
A psychological and/or biological response to stress. Feelings of anxiety involve discomforting apprehension or concern, which may include symptoms such as cognitive difficulties, hypersensitivity, dizziness, muscular weakness, breathing difficulties, irregular heart beat, sweating, and sensations of fear. Typically, anxiety is a natural and healthy response to life experiences. However, exaggerated or chronic anxiety often indicates an anxiety disorder. Anxiety can be produced by external stress (exogenous anxiety) or internal stress (endogenous anxiety).



SIMILAR TERMS
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Hypnagogic
Referring to the semiconscious state immediately preceding sleep; may include hallucinations that are of no pathological significance.

Hypnagogic Hallucination
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.

Hypnagogic Hallucinations
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.

Hypnapompic Hallucination
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.

Hypnapompic Hallucinations
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.

Hypnic Headache Syndrome
Common conditions characterized by persistent or recurrent headaches (see HEADACHE). Headache syndrome classification systems may be based on etiology (e.g., VASCULAR HEADACHE, post-traumatic headaches, etc.), temporal pattern (e.g., CLUSTER HEADACHE, paroxysmal hemicrania, etc.), and precipitating factors (e.g., cough headache).

Hypnic Headache Syndromes
Common conditions characterized by persistent or recurrent headaches (see HEADACHE). Headache syndrome classification systems may be based on etiology (e.g., VASCULAR HEADACHE, post-traumatic headaches, etc.), temporal pattern (e.g., CLUSTER HEADACHE, paroxysmal hemicrania, etc.), and precipitating factors (e.g., cough headache).

Hypnogenic Paroxysmal Dystonia
A parasomnia characterized by paroxysmal episodes of choreoathetotic, ballistic, dystonic movements, and semipurposeful activity. The episodes occur during non-rapid eye movement sleep and typically recur several times per night. (Neurology 1992 Jul;42(7 Suppl 6):61-67; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p391)

Hypnogenic Paroxysmal Dystonias
A parasomnia characterized by paroxysmal episodes of choreoathetotic, ballistic, dystonic movements, and semipurposeful activity. The episodes occur during non-rapid eye movement sleep and typically recur several times per night. (Neurology 1992 Jul;42(7 Suppl 6):61-67; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p391)

Hypnomidate
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.

Hypnopompic
Referring to the state immediately preceding awakening; may include hallucinations that are of no pathological significance.

Hypnoses
A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.

Hypnosis
A sleep-like state induced by the suggestions of a hypnotist.

Hypnotherapy
Generally, the use of hypnotism (induction of a sleeplike state) to treat chronic pain or to facilitate changes in behavior or disposition.

Hypnotic
1. Having to do with hypnosis. 2. Causing sleep.

Hypnotics and Sedatives
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.

Hypnotics, Barbiturate
Those derivatives of barbituric or thiobarbituric acid that are used as hypnotics or sedatives. The structural class of all such derivatives, regardless of use, is BARBITURATES.

Hypnotics, Nonbarbiturate
Compounds with diverse chemical and pharmacological properties that have in common the ability to allay excitement and anxiety and at higher concentrations induce sleep.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
Disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiologic changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)

Hypnotics, Nonbarbiturate
Compounds with diverse chemical and pharmacological properties that have in common the ability to allay excitement and anxiety and at higher concentrations induce sleep.

Hypoacuses
A condition in which the sense of hearing, although defective, is functional with or without a hearing aid. The hearing loss may affect one or both ears. The normal hearing level for speech is approximately 40-70 decibels I.S.O. (International Organization for Standardization) or 30-60 db A.S.A. (American Standards Association).

Hypnotics and Sedatives
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.

Hypnotics, Barbiturate
Those derivatives of barbituric or thiobarbituric acid that are used as hypnotics or sedatives. The structural class of all such derivatives, regardless of use, is BARBITURATES.

Hypnotics

Hypocomplementemic Glomerulonephritides
Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of mesangial cells, increase in the mesangial matrix, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. The wall thickening is sometimes said to be a result of the interposition of mesangial cytoplasm or matrix between the basement membrane and the endothelium of the capillary wall. It is often divided into types I and II, and sometimes III. Pathogenesis is not well understood, but some types are thought to involve the immune system, with the complement system, in particular, being implicated.

Hypochromic Anemias
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)

Hypochromic Anemia
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)

Hypochlorous Acids
An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.

Hypocholesteremic Agents
Substances used to lower plasma cholesterol levels.

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