Hypertension
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  Hypertension



Hypertension

   



SIMILAR TERMS
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Hyper IgE Syndrome
A disorder of neutrophils characterized by the presence of abnormal or absent chemotactic responses and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. It is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and most cases reported have been in girls.

Hyper-IgE Syndrome
A disorder of neutrophils characterized by the presence of abnormal or absent chemotactic responses and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. It is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and most cases reported have been in girls.

Hyper-IgE Syndromes
A disorder of neutrophils characterized by the presence of abnormal or absent chemotactic responses and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. It is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and most cases reported have been in girls.

Hyperacidity
Excessive acidity.

Hyperactivity, Motor
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.

Hyperactivity, Psychomotor
A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.

Hyperacuity
Psychophysical tasks involving judgements of relative position that are about ten times finer than the separation of bars at the grating acuity limit.

Hyperacuses
An abnormally disproportionate increase in the sensation of loudness in response to auditory stimuli of normal volume. COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; STAPES SURGERY; and other disorders may be associated with this condition.

Hyperacusia
An abnormally disproportionate increase in the sensation of loudness in response to auditory stimuli of normal volume. COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; STAPES SURGERY; and other disorders may be associated with this condition.

Hyperacusias
An abnormally disproportionate increase in the sensation of loudness in response to auditory stimuli of normal volume. COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; STAPES SURGERY; and other disorders may be associated with this condition.

Hyperacusis
Inordinate sensitivity to sounds; it may be on an emotional or an organic basis.

Hyperaldosteronism
An abnormality of electrolyte function caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperalgesia
An increased sensation to painful stimuli that may follow damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve. Hyperalgesia can occur both at the site of tissue damage (primary hyperalgesia) and in the surrounding undamaged areas (secondary hyperalgesia). (Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p386)

Hyperalgesia, Primary
An increased sensation to painful stimuli that may follow damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve. Hyperalgesia can occur both at the site of tissue damage (primary hyperalgesia) and in the surrounding undamaged areas (secondary hyperalgesia). (Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p386)

Hyperalgesia, Secondary
An increased sensation to painful stimuli that may follow damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve. Hyperalgesia can occur both at the site of tissue damage (primary hyperalgesia) and in the surrounding undamaged areas (secondary hyperalgesia). (Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p386)

Hyperalgesia, Tactile
An increased sensation to painful stimuli that may follow damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve. Hyperalgesia can occur both at the site of tissue damage (primary hyperalgesia) and in the surrounding undamaged areas (secondary hyperalgesia). (Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p386)

Hyperalgesia, Thermal
An increased sensation to painful stimuli that may follow damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve. Hyperalgesia can occur both at the site of tissue damage (primary hyperalgesia) and in the surrounding undamaged areas (secondary hyperalgesia). (Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p386)

Hyperalgesias
An increased sensation to painful stimuli that may follow damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve. Hyperalgesia can occur both at the site of tissue damage (primary hyperalgesia) and in the surrounding undamaged areas (secondary hyperalgesia). (Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p386)

Hyperalgesias, Primary
An increased sensation to painful stimuli that may follow damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve. Hyperalgesia can occur both at the site of tissue damage (primary hyperalgesia) and in the surrounding undamaged areas (secondary hyperalgesia). (Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p386)

Hyperalgesias, Secondary
An increased sensation to painful stimuli that may follow damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve. Hyperalgesia can occur both at the site of tissue damage (primary hyperalgesia) and in the surrounding undamaged areas (secondary hyperalgesia). (Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p386)

Hyperalgesias, Tactile
An increased sensation to painful stimuli that may follow damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve. Hyperalgesia can occur both at the site of tissue damage (primary hyperalgesia) and in the surrounding undamaged areas (secondary hyperalgesia). (Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p386)

Hyperalgesias, Thermal
An increased sensation to painful stimuli that may follow damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve. Hyperalgesia can occur both at the site of tissue damage (primary hyperalgesia) and in the surrounding undamaged areas (secondary hyperalgesia). (Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p386)

Hyperalgesic Sensation
An increased sensation to painful stimuli that may follow damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve. Hyperalgesia can occur both at the site of tissue damage (primary hyperalgesia) and in the surrounding undamaged areas (secondary hyperalgesia). (Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p386)

Hyperalgesic Sensations
An increased sensation to painful stimuli that may follow damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve. Hyperalgesia can occur both at the site of tissue damage (primary hyperalgesia) and in the surrounding undamaged areas (secondary hyperalgesia). (Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p386)

Hyperalimentation, Intravenous
The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.

Hyperalimentation, Parenteral
The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.

Hyperammonemia
Metabolic disorder characterized by elevated level of ammonia in blood.

Hyperammonemia, Cerebroatrophic
An inherited disorder that is associated with X-linked transmission and may be lethal in utero to hemizygous males. Clinically, birth and development in affected females is normal until the age of 6-25 months, when progressive loss of voluntary control of hand movements and communication skills, ataxia, stereotypic hand movements, seizures, autistic behavior, intermittent hyperventilation, and hyperammonemia appear. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p199)

Hyperammonemias
Metabolic disorder characterized by elevated level of ammonia in blood.

Hyperammonemias, Cerebroatrophic
An inherited disorder that is associated with X-linked transmission and may be lethal in utero to hemizygous males. Clinically, birth and development in affected females is normal until the age of 6-25 months, when progressive loss of voluntary control of hand movements and communication skills, ataxia, stereotypic hand movements, seizures, autistic behavior, intermittent hyperventilation, and hyperammonemia appear. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p199)

Hyperandrogenism
A state characterized or caused by an excessive secretion of androgens by the adrenal cortex, ovaries, or testes. The clinical significance in males is negligible, so the term is used most commonly with reference to the female. The common manifestations in women are hirsutism and virilism. It is often caused by ovarian disease (particularly the POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME) and by adrenal diseases (particularly ADRENAL GLAND HYPERFUNCTION).

Hyperargininemia
A rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle. It is caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme type I ARGINASE. Arginine is elevated in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and periodic hyperammonemia may occur. Disease onset is usually in infancy or early childhood. Clinical manifestations include seizures, microcephaly, progressive mental impairment, hypotonia, ataxia, spastic diplegia, and quadriparesis. (From Hum Genet 1993 Mar;91(1):1-5; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p51)

Hyperargininemias
A rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle. It is caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme type I ARGINASE. Arginine is elevated in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and periodic hyperammonemia may occur. Disease onset is usually in infancy or early childhood. Clinical manifestations include seizures, microcephaly, progressive mental impairment, hypotonia, ataxia, spastic diplegia, and quadriparesis. (From Hum Genet 1993 Mar;91(1):1-5; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p51)

Hyperbaric
Characterized by greater-than-normal pressure. Hyperbaric oxygen is a therapeutic treatment designed to increase blood oxygen by delivering oxygen in a chamber room with greater-than-normal pressure.

Hyperbaric Oxygenation
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisims, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Hyperbaric Oxygenations
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisims, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Hyperbetalipoproteinemia
A familial disorder characterized by increased plasma concentration of cholesterol carried in low density lipoproteins (LDL) and by a deficiency in a cell surface receptor which regulates LDL degradation and cholesterol synthesis.

Hyperbetalipoproteinemias
A familial disorder characterized by increased plasma concentration of cholesterol carried in low density lipoproteins (LDL) and by a deficiency in a cell surface receptor which regulates LDL degradation and cholesterol synthesis.

Hyperbilirubinemia
Pathologic process consisting of an abnormal increase in the amount of BILIRUBIN in the circulating blood, which may result in JAUNDICE.

Hyperbilirubinemia, Hereditary
Inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism resulting in excessive amounts of bilirubin in the circulating blood, either because of increased bilirubin production or because of delayed clearance of bilirubin from the blood.

Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal
A transient unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia that occurs between the second and fifth days of life because the hepatic enzyme GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE required for BILIRUBIN detoxification is inadquedate.

Hyperbilirubinemias
Pathologic process consisting of an abnormal increase in the amount of BILIRUBIN in the circulating blood, which may result in JAUNDICE.

Hyperbilirubinemias, Hereditary
Inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism resulting in excessive amounts of bilirubin in the circulating blood, either because of increased bilirubin production or because of delayed clearance of bilirubin from the blood.

Hyperbilirubinemias, Neonatal
A transient unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia that occurs between the second and fifth days of life because the hepatic enzyme GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE required for BILIRUBIN detoxification is inadquedate.

Hyperbilirubinemic Encephalopathies
A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)

Hyperbilirubinemic Encephalopathy
A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)

Hypercalcemia
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.

Hypercalcemias
Abnormally high level of calcium in the blood.

Hypercapnia
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.

Hypercatabolic Hypoproteinemia, Idiopathic
A series of gastrointestinal disorders which share in common the excessive loss of protein, mainly albumin, across the gut wall. They occur in the stomach (Menetrier disease), as well as the small bowel (intestinal lymphangiectases, assorted inflammatory states). They are also occasionally associated with congestive heart failure (again a small bowel protein loss).

Hypercatabolic Hypoproteinemias, Idiopathic
A series of gastrointestinal disorders which share in common the excessive loss of protein, mainly albumin, across the gut wall. They occur in the stomach (Menetrier disease), as well as the small bowel (intestinal lymphangiectases, assorted inflammatory states). They are also occasionally associated with congestive heart failure (again a small bowel protein loss).

Hypercementoses
A regressive change of teeth characterized by excessive development of secondary cementum on the tooth surface. It may occur on any part of the root, but the apical two-thirds are most commonly affected. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypercementosis
A regressive change of teeth characterized by excessive development of secondary cementum on the tooth surface. It may occur on any part of the root, but the apical two-thirds are most commonly affected. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypercholesteremia
Abnormally high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

Hypercholesteremias
Abnormally high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

Hypercholesterolemia
Abnormally high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

Hypercholesterolemia, Essential
A familial disorder characterized by increased plasma concentration of cholesterol carried in low density lipoproteins (LDL) and by a deficiency in a cell surface receptor which regulates LDL degradation and cholesterol synthesis.

Hypercholesterolemia, Familial
A familial disorder characterized by increased plasma concentration of cholesterol carried in low density lipoproteins (LDL) and by a deficiency in a cell surface receptor which regulates LDL degradation and cholesterol synthesis.

Hypercholesterolemias
Abnormally high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

Hypercholesterolemias, Essential
A familial disorder characterized by increased plasma concentration of cholesterol carried in low density lipoproteins (LDL) and by a deficiency in a cell surface receptor which regulates LDL degradation and cholesterol synthesis.

Hypercholesterolemias, Familial
A familial disorder characterized by increased plasma concentration of cholesterol carried in low density lipoproteins (LDL) and by a deficiency in a cell surface receptor which regulates LDL degradation and cholesterol synthesis.

Hyperchromasia
Excessive pigmentation.

Hyperchylomicronemia, Familial
A rare familial condition characterized by massive chylomicronemia and decreased levels of other lipoproteins. It is due to deficiency of lipoprotein lipase, an alkaline triglyceride hydrolase which catalyzes an important step in the extrahepatic removal of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the blood.

Hyperchylomicronemias, Familial
A rare familial condition characterized by massive chylomicronemia and decreased levels of other lipoproteins. It is due to deficiency of lipoprotein lipase, an alkaline triglyceride hydrolase which catalyzes an important step in the extrahepatic removal of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the blood.

Hypercoagulabilities
A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.

Hypercoagulability
A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.

Hypercolumn
A set of columns in the primary visual cortex (V1) that contains columns responsive to lines of all orientations from a particular region of space and for both eyes.

Hypercomplex cells
A third category of striate cells identified by Hubel and Wiesel that have since been classified as subsets of simple and complex cells. They posses inhibitory zones at one or both ends of oriented excitatory regions, thereby responding to bars of preferred orientation only if they are not too long.

Hyperdactylies
A developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of more than five fingers on the hand or more than five toes on the foot in primates. In non-primate vertebrates, it refers to the presence of more than the normal number of toes on the forelimb or hindlimb. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

Hyperdactyly
A developmental anomaly characterized by the presence of more than five fingers on the hand or more than five toes on the foot in primates. In non-primate vertebrates, it refers to the presence of more than the normal number of toes on the forelimb or hindlimb. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

Hyperemesis gravidarum
Excessive morning sickness.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum
Pernicious vomiting of pregnancy. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperemia
increased blood flow; may cause dental sensitivity to temperature and sweets; may precede an abscess.

Hyperemias
The presence of an increased amount of blood in a part or organ. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
A heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of prolonged eosinophilia of unknown cause and associated organ system dysfunction, including the heart, central nervous system, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. There is a massive increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood, mimicking leukemia, and extensive eosinophilic infiltration of the various organs. It is often referred to as idiopathic.

Hypereosinophilic Syndrome, Idiopathic
A heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of prolonged eosinophilia of unknown cause and associated organ system dysfunction, including the heart, central nervous system, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. There is a massive increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood, mimicking leukemia, and extensive eosinophilic infiltration of the various organs. It is often referred to as idiopathic.

Hypereosinophilic Syndromes
A heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of prolonged eosinophilia of unknown cause and associated organ system dysfunction, including the heart, central nervous system, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. There is a massive increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood, mimicking leukemia, and extensive eosinophilic infiltration of the various organs. It is often referred to as idiopathic.

Hypereosinophilic Syndromes, Idiopathic
A heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of prolonged eosinophilia of unknown cause and associated organ system dysfunction, including the heart, central nervous system, kidneys, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and skin. There is a massive increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood, mimicking leukemia, and extensive eosinophilic infiltration of the various organs. It is often referred to as idiopathic.

Hyperesthesia
Abnormal acuteness of sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli.

Hyperesthesia, Auditory
An abnormally disproportionate increase in the sensation of loudness in response to auditory stimuli of normal volume. COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; STAPES SURGERY; and other disorders may be associated with this condition.

Hyperesthesia, Tactile
Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.

Hyperesthesia, Thermal
Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.

Hyperesthesias
Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.

Hyperesthesias, Auditory
An abnormally disproportionate increase in the sensation of loudness in response to auditory stimuli of normal volume. COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; STAPES SURGERY; and other disorders may be associated with this condition.

Hyperesthesias, Tactile
Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.

Hyperesthesias, Thermal
Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.

Hyperesthetic Sensation
Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.

Hyperesthetic Sensations
Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.

Hyperfractionation
An increased number of smaller dosage treatments of radiation therapy.

Hypergammaglobulinemia
An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the blood. It is seen frequently in chronic infectious diseases. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypergammaglobulinemias
An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the blood. It is seen frequently in chronic infectious diseases. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperglicemia
A condition in which the blood sugar is higher than normal.

Hyperglobulinemic Purpura
Purpura seen in many hematological disorders, characterized by an increase in GAMMA-GLOBULINS.

Hyperglobulinemic Purpuras
Purpura seen in many hematological disorders, characterized by an increase in GAMMA-GLOBULINS.

Hyperglycemia
Too high a level of glucose (sugar) in the blood; a sign that diabetes is out of control. Many things can cause hyperglycemia. It occurs when the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it does have to turn glucose into energy. Signs of hyperglycemia are a great thirst, a dry mouth, and a need to urinate often. For people with Type 1 diabetes, hyperglycemia may lead to diabetic ketoacidosis.

Hyperglycemias
Abnormally increased content of sugar in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperglycemic
High blood sugar.

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Coma
A syndrome consisting of extreme hyperglycemia, serum hyperosmolarity and dehydration in the absence of ketosis and acidosis.

Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome
See Nonketotic Coma.

Hyperglycemic Mice
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.

Hyperglycemic Mouse
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.

Hyperglycinemia, Nonketotic
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiencies in the mitochondrial GLYCINE cleavage system; an enzyme system with four components: P-, T-, H-, and L-proteins. Deficiency of the P-protein is the most prevalent form. Neonatal and juvenile presentations have been reported. Neonatal onset is more common and may be fatal. Clinical features include SEIZURES; hypotonia; APNEA; and COMA. When the illness presents in childhood there tends to be an associated progressive DEMENTIA accompanied by extrapyramidal signs. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p46; Jpn J Hum Genet 1997 Mar;42(1):13-22)

Hyperglycinemia, Nonketotic, Type I
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiencies in the mitochondrial GLYCINE cleavage system; an enzyme system with four components: P-, T-, H-, and L-proteins. Deficiency of the P-protein is the most prevalent form. Neonatal and juvenile presentations have been reported. Neonatal onset is more common and may be fatal. Clinical features include SEIZURES; hypotonia; APNEA; and COMA. When the illness presents in childhood there tends to be an associated progressive DEMENTIA accompanied by extrapyramidal signs. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p46; Jpn J Hum Genet 1997 Mar;42(1):13-22)

Hyperglycinemia, Nonketotic, Type II
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiencies in the mitochondrial GLYCINE cleavage system; an enzyme system with four components: P-, T-, H-, and L-proteins. Deficiency of the P-protein is the most prevalent form. Neonatal and juvenile presentations have been reported. Neonatal onset is more common and may be fatal. Clinical features include SEIZURES; hypotonia; APNEA; and COMA. When the illness presents in childhood there tends to be an associated progressive DEMENTIA accompanied by extrapyramidal signs. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p46; Jpn J Hum Genet 1997 Mar;42(1):13-22)

Hyperglycinemia, Nonketotic, Type III
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiencies in the mitochondrial GLYCINE cleavage system; an enzyme system with four components: P-, T-, H-, and L-proteins. Deficiency of the P-protein is the most prevalent form. Neonatal and juvenile presentations have been reported. Neonatal onset is more common and may be fatal. Clinical features include SEIZURES; hypotonia; APNEA; and COMA. When the illness presents in childhood there tends to be an associated progressive DEMENTIA accompanied by extrapyramidal signs. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p46; Jpn J Hum Genet 1997 Mar;42(1):13-22)

Hyperglycinemias, Nonketotic
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by deficiencies in the mitochondrial GLYCINE cleavage system; an enzyme system with four components: P-, T-, H-, and L-proteins. Deficiency of the P-protein is the most prevalent form. Neonatal and juvenile presentations have been reported. Neonatal onset is more common and may be fatal. Clinical features include SEIZURES; hypotonia; APNEA; and COMA. When the illness presents in childhood there tends to be an associated progressive DEMENTIA accompanied by extrapyramidal signs. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p46; Jpn J Hum Genet 1997 Mar;42(1):13-22)

Hypergravity
Condition wherein the force of gravity is greater than or is increased above that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being greater than 1 g.

Hyperhidroses, Gustatory
An autonomic disorder characterized by excessive sweating of the forehead, upper lip, perioral region, or sternum subsequent to gustatory stimuli. The auriculotemporal syndrome features facial flushing or sweating limited to the distribution of the auriculotemporal nerve and may develop after trauma to the parotid gland, in association with PAROTID NEOPLASMS, or following their surgical removal. (From Ann Neurol 1997 Dec;42(6):973-5)

Hyperhidrosis
Excessive sweating. In the localized type, the most frequent sites are the palms, soles, axillae, inguinal folds, and the perineal area. Its chief cause is thought to be emotional. Generalized hyperhidrosis may be induced by a hot, humid environment, by fever, or by vigorous exercise.

Hyperhidrosis, Gustatory
An autonomic disorder characterized by excessive sweating of the forehead, upper lip, perioral region, or sternum subsequent to gustatory stimuli. The auriculotemporal syndrome features facial flushing or sweating limited to the distribution of the auriculotemporal nerve and may develop after trauma to the parotid gland, in association with PAROTID NEOPLASMS, or following their surgical removal. (From Ann Neurol 1997 Dec;42(6):973-5)

Hyperhomocysteinemia
An inborn error of methionone metabolism which produces an excess of homocysteine in the blood. It is often caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and is a risk factor for coronary vascular disease.

Hyperhomocysteinemias
An inborn error of methionone metabolism which produces an excess of homocysteine in the blood. It is often caused by a deficiency of CYSTATHIONINE BETA-SYNTHASE and is a risk factor for coronary vascular disease.

Hypericaceae
The mangosteen plant family (sometimes classified as Guttiferae; also known as Hypericaceae) of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes trees and shrubs with resinous, sticky sap, usually with broad-ended, oblong, leathery leaves with a strong, central vein, flowers with many stamens.

Hypericum
Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.

Hypericum perforatum
Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.

Hyperimmunoglobulin E Recurrent Infection Syndrome
A disorder of neutrophils characterized by the presence of abnormal or absent chemotactic responses and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. It is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and most cases reported have been in girls.

Hyperimmunoglobulin E-Recurrent Infection Syndrome
A disorder of neutrophils characterized by the presence of abnormal or absent chemotactic responses and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. It is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and most cases reported have been in girls.

Hyperinsulinemia
The excess production of insulin. This is usually a consequence of insulin resistance in which the cells do not respond to insulin to reduce blood glucose levels.

Hyperinsulinemias
Excessively high blood insulin levels. It should be differentiated from HYPERINSULINISM, excessive secretion of insulin by the pancreatic islets, in that hyperinsulinemia may be the result of a variety of conditions, such as obesity and pregnancy. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Hyperinsulinism
Too high a level of insulin in the blood. This term most often refers to a condition in which the body produces too much insulin. Researchers believe that this condition may play a role in the development of noninsulin-dependent diabetes and in hypertension.

Hyperinsulinisms
Excessive secretion of INSULIN by the pancreatic islets, resulting in hypoglycemia. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hyperkalemia
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperkalemias
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralyses
An autosomal dominant familial disorder which presents in infancy or childhood and is characterized by episodes of weakness associated with hyperkalemia. During attacks, muscles of the lower extremities are initially affected, followed by the lower trunk and arms. Episodes last from 15-60 minutes and typically occur after a period of rest following exercise. A defect in skeletal muscle sodium channels has been identified as the cause of this condition. Normokalemic periodic paralysis is a closely related disorder marked by a lack of alterations in potassium levels during attacks of weakness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1481)

Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis
An autosomal dominant familial disorder which presents in infancy or childhood and is characterized by episodes of weakness associated with hyperkalemia. During attacks, muscles of the lower extremities are initially affected, followed by the lower trunk and arms. Episodes last from 15-60 minutes and typically occur after a period of rest following exercise. A defect in skeletal muscle sodium channels has been identified as the cause of this condition. Normokalemic periodic paralysis is a closely related disorder marked by a lack of alterations in potassium levels during attacks of weakness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1481)

Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis, Familial
An autosomal dominant familial disorder which presents in infancy or childhood and is characterized by episodes of weakness associated with hyperkalemia. During attacks, muscles of the lower extremities are initially affected, followed by the lower trunk and arms. Episodes last from 15-60 minutes and typically occur after a period of rest following exercise. A defect in skeletal muscle sodium channels has been identified as the cause of this condition. Normokalemic periodic paralysis is a closely related disorder marked by a lack of alterations in potassium levels during attacks of weakness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1481)

Hyperkeratoses, Epidermolytic
A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by erythroderma and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas.

Hyperkeratosis Palmaris et Plantaris
Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).

Hyperkeratosis, Epidermolytic
A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by erythroderma and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas.

Hyperkinesia
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.

Hyperkinesia, Generalized
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.

Hyperkinesias, Generalized
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.

Hyperkinesis
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.

Hyperkinetic Dysphonia
Disorders of voice pitch, loudness, or quality. Dysphonia refers to impaired utterance of sounds by the vocal folds.

Hyperkinetic Dysphonias
Disorders of voice pitch, loudness, or quality. Dysphonia refers to impaired utterance of sounds by the vocal folds.

Hyperkinetic Heart Syndrome
A clinical syndrome characterized by palpitation, shortness of breath, labored breathing, subjective complaints of effort and discomfort, all following slight exertion. Other symptoms may be dizziness, tremulousness, sweating, and insomnia. Neurocirculatory asthenia is most typically seen as a form of anxiety disorder.

Hyperkinetic Movement
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.

Hyperkinetic Movements
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.

Hyperkinetic Syndrome
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-IV)

Hyperlipemia
An excess of lipids in the blood.

Hyperlipemia, Mixed
A severe familial adult-onset hypertriglyceridemia different from that due to lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

Hyperlipemias
An excess of lipids in the blood.

Hyperlipemias, Mixed
A severe familial adult-onset hypertriglyceridemia different from that due to lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

Hyperlipidemia
Too high a level of fats (lipids) in the blood.

Hyperlipidemia, Familial Combined
A disorder genetically distinct from the other inherited hyperlipidemias characterized by the type II or type IV lipoprotein pattern (the pattern may change from time to time and the lipid level may be normal at one time and abnormal at another time).

Hyperlipidemia, Multiple Lipoprotein Type
A disorder genetically distinct from the other inherited hyperlipidemias characterized by the type II or type IV lipoprotein pattern (the pattern may change from time to time and the lipid level may be normal at one time and abnormal at another time).

Hyperlipidemia, Multiple Lipoprotein-Type
A disorder genetically distinct from the other inherited hyperlipidemias characterized by the type II or type IV lipoprotein pattern (the pattern may change from time to time and the lipid level may be normal at one time and abnormal at another time).

Hyperlipidemias
An excess of lipids in the blood.

Hyperlipidemias, Familial Combined
A disorder genetically distinct from the other inherited hyperlipidemias characterized by the type II or type IV lipoprotein pattern (the pattern may change from time to time and the lipid level may be normal at one time and abnormal at another time).

Hyperlipidemias, Multiple Lipoprotein-Type
A disorder genetically distinct from the other inherited hyperlipidemias characterized by the type II or type IV lipoprotein pattern (the pattern may change from time to time and the lipid level may be normal at one time and abnormal at another time).

Hyperlipoproteinemia
Metabolic disease characterized by excess plasma LIPOPROTEINS.

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type I
A rare familial condition characterized by massive chylomicronemia and decreased levels of other lipoproteins. It is due to deficiency of lipoprotein lipase, an alkaline triglyceride hydrolase which catalyzes an important step in the extrahepatic removal of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the blood.

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II
A familial disorder characterized by increased plasma concentration of cholesterol carried in low density lipoproteins (LDL) and by a deficiency in a cell surface receptor which regulates LDL degradation and cholesterol synthesis.

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III
A rather uncommon form of familial hyperlipemia characterized by the presence of lipoproteins of abnormal composition. The main abnormal lipoproteins are called beta-VLDL and have a different apoprotein content and a higher proportion of cholesterol relative to triglyceride than normal VLDL.

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IIIs
A rather uncommon form of familial hyperlipemia characterized by the presence of lipoproteins of abnormal composition. The main abnormal lipoproteins are called beta-VLDL and have a different apoprotein content and a higher proportion of cholesterol relative to triglyceride than normal VLDL.

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IIs
A familial disorder characterized by increased plasma concentration of cholesterol carried in low density lipoproteins (LDL) and by a deficiency in a cell surface receptor which regulates LDL degradation and cholesterol synthesis.

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type Is
A rare familial condition characterized by massive chylomicronemia and decreased levels of other lipoproteins. It is due to deficiency of lipoprotein lipase, an alkaline triglyceride hydrolase which catalyzes an important step in the extrahepatic removal of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the blood.

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV
A familial disorder characterized by an isolated elevation in the plasma level of endogenously synthesized triglyceride carried in VLDL. It is considered to be an autosomal dominant trait.

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IVs
A familial disorder characterized by an isolated elevation in the plasma level of endogenously synthesized triglyceride carried in VLDL. It is considered to be an autosomal dominant trait.

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type V
A severe familial adult-onset hypertriglyceridemia different from that due to lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

Hyperlipoproteinemia Type Vs
A severe familial adult-onset hypertriglyceridemia different from that due to lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

Hyperlipoproteinemias
Metabolic disease characterized by excess plasma LIPOPROTEINS.

Hyperlucent Lung
Hyperlucency of one lung with decreased size and vascularity of the lung. It is often associated with BRONCHIOLITIS OBLITERANS and with adenovirus infection in childhood.

Hyperlucent Lungs
Hyperlucency of one lung with decreased size and vascularity of the lung. It is often associated with BRONCHIOLITIS OBLITERANS and with adenovirus infection in childhood.

Hyperlucent Thorax
Hyperlucency of one lung with decreased size and vascularity of the lung. It is often associated with BRONCHIOLITIS OBLITERANS and with adenovirus infection in childhood.

Hyperlysinemia
A group of inherited metabolic disorders which have in common elevations of serum LYSINE levels. Enzyme deficiencies of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and the SACCHAROPINE DEHYDROGENASES have been associated with hyperlysinemia. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, recurrent emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, diarrhea, and developmental delay. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p56)

Hyperlysinemia, Familial
A group of inherited metabolic disorders which have in common elevations of serum LYSINE levels. Enzyme deficiencies of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and the SACCHAROPINE DEHYDROGENASES have been associated with hyperlysinemia. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, recurrent emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, diarrhea, and developmental delay. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p56)

Hyperlysinemia, Periodic
A group of inherited metabolic disorders which have in common elevations of serum LYSINE levels. Enzyme deficiencies of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and the SACCHAROPINE DEHYDROGENASES have been associated with hyperlysinemia. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, recurrent emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, diarrhea, and developmental delay. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p56)

Hyperlysinemias
A group of inherited metabolic disorders which have in common elevations of serum LYSINE levels. Enzyme deficiencies of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and the SACCHAROPINE DEHYDROGENASES have been associated with hyperlysinemia. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, recurrent emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, diarrhea, and developmental delay. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p56)

Hyperlysinemias, Familial
A group of inherited metabolic disorders which have in common elevations of serum LYSINE levels. Enzyme deficiencies of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and the SACCHAROPINE DEHYDROGENASES have been associated with hyperlysinemia. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, recurrent emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, diarrhea, and developmental delay. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p56)

Hyperlysinemias, Periodic
A group of inherited metabolic disorders which have in common elevations of serum LYSINE levels. Enzyme deficiencies of alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase and the SACCHAROPINE DEHYDROGENASES have been associated with hyperlysinemia. Clinical manifestations include mental retardation, recurrent emesis, hypotonia, lethargy, diarrhea, and developmental delay. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p56)

Hypermedia
Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)

Hypermedium
Computerized compilations of information units (text, sound, graphics, and/or video) interconnected by logical nonlinear linkages that enable users to follow optimal paths through the material and also the systems used to create and display this information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)

Hypermelanoses
Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.

Hypermelanosis
Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.

Hypermenorrhea
Excessive menstrual flow.

Hypermetria
Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of rapidly alternating movements (adiadochokinesis), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)

Hypermetrias
Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of rapidly alternating movements (adiadochokinesis), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)

Hypermetropia
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypermobilities, Joint
Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.

Hypermobility syndrome
Syndrome of arthralgia associated with joint hypermobility.

Hypermobility, Joint
Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.

Hypermutation, Ig Somatic
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.

Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin Somatic
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.

Hypermutation, Somatic, Immunoglobulin
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.

Hypermutations, Ig Somatic
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.

Hypermutations, Immunoglobulin Somatic
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.

Hypermyotonia
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.

Hypermyotonias
Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.

Hypernatremia
Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypernatremias
Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypernephroid Carcinoma
Carcinoma of the renal parenchyma usually occurring in middle age or later and composed of tubular cells in varying arrangements.

Hypernephroid Carcinomas
Carcinoma of the renal parenchyma usually occurring in middle age or later and composed of tubular cells in varying arrangements.

Hypernephroma
Carcinoma of the renal parenchyma usually occurring in middle age or later and composed of tubular cells in varying arrangements.

Hypernephromas
Carcinoma of the renal parenchyma usually occurring in middle age or later and composed of tubular cells in varying arrangements.

Hyperoodon
Large marine mammals of the order Cetacea. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in animal feed and fertilizer, and for baleen. The sperm whale produces AMBERGRIS, an intestinal secretion used in perfumery. (From Webster, 3d ed)

Hyperopia
Hyperopia (or more rarely, hypermetropia), also known as farsightedness or longsightedness, is a defect of vision caused by an imperfection in the eye (often when the eyeball is too short), causing inability to focus on near objects, and in extreme cases causing a sufferer to be unable to focus on objects at any distance. As an object moves towards the eye, the eye must increase its power to keep the image on the retina.

Hyperorgasmia
The phenomenon of having an inordinate number of orgasms within a given period, as compared with a given criterion standard.

Hyperostoses
Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.

Hyperostoses, Congenital Cortical
A disease of young infants characterized by soft tissue swellings over the affected bones, fever, and irritability, and marked by periods of remission and exacerbation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperostoses, Cortical Congenital
A disease of young infants characterized by soft tissue swellings over the affected bones, fever, and irritability, and marked by periods of remission and exacerbation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperostoses, Infantile Cortical
A disease of young infants characterized by soft tissue swellings over the affected bones, fever, and irritability, and marked by periods of remission and exacerbation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperostoses, Sternocostoclavicular
A rare, benign rheumatologic disorder or syndrome characterized by hyperostosis and soft tissue ossification between the clavicles and the anterior part of the upper ribs. It is often associated with the dermatologic disorder palmoplantar pustulosis, particularly in Japan. Careful diagnosis is required to distinguish it from psoriatic arthritis, OSTEITIS DEFORMANS, and other diseases. Spondylitis of pustulosis palmaris et plantaris is one of the possible causes; also, evidence suggests one origin may be bone infection. Bone imaging is especially useful for diagnosis. It was originally described by Sonozaki in 1974.

Hyperostoses, Vertebral Ankylosing
A disease of elderly men characterized by large osteophytes that bridge vertebrae and ossification of ligaments and tendon insertions.

Hyperostosis
Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.

Hyperostosis Corticalis Generalisata
Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.

Hyperostosis Frontalis Interna
Thickening of the inner table of the frontal bone, which may be associated with hypertrichosis and obesity. It most commonly affects women near menopause.

Hyperostosis Syndrome, Acquired
Syndrome consisting of synovitis, acne, palmoplantar pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO). The most common site of the disease is the upper anterior chest wall, characterized by predominantly osteosclerotic lesions, hyperostosis, and arthritis of the adjacent joints. The association of sterile inflammatory bone lesions and neutrophilic skin eruptions is indicative of this syndrome.

Hyperostosis Syndromes, Acquired
Syndrome consisting of synovitis, acne, palmoplantar pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO). The most common site of the disease is the upper anterior chest wall, characterized by predominantly osteosclerotic lesions, hyperostosis, and arthritis of the adjacent joints. The association of sterile inflammatory bone lesions and neutrophilic skin eruptions is indicative of this syndrome.

Hyperostosis, Congenital Cortical
A disease of young infants characterized by soft tissue swellings over the affected bones, fever, and irritability, and marked by periods of remission and exacerbation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperostosis, Cortical Congenital
A disease of young infants characterized by soft tissue swellings over the affected bones, fever, and irritability, and marked by periods of remission and exacerbation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperostosis, Cortical, Congenital
A disease of young infants characterized by soft tissue swellings over the affected bones, fever, and irritability, and marked by periods of remission and exacerbation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperostosis, Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal
A disease of elderly men characterized by large osteophytes that bridge vertebrae and ossification of ligaments and tendon insertions.

Hyperostosis, Infantile Cortical
A disease of young infants characterized by soft tissue swellings over the affected bones, fever, and irritability, and marked by periods of remission and exacerbation. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperostosis, Sternocostoclavicular
A rare, benign rheumatologic disorder or syndrome characterized by hyperostosis and soft tissue ossification between the clavicles and the anterior part of the upper ribs. It is often associated with the dermatologic disorder palmoplantar pustulosis, particularly in Japan. Careful diagnosis is required to distinguish it from psoriatic arthritis, OSTEITIS DEFORMANS, and other diseases. Spondylitis of pustulosis palmaris et plantaris is one of the possible causes; also, evidence suggests one origin may be bone infection. Bone imaging is especially useful for diagnosis. It was originally described by Sonozaki in 1974.

Hyperostosis, Vertebral Ankylosing
A disease of elderly men characterized by large osteophytes that bridge vertebrae and ossification of ligaments and tendon insertions.

Hyperotreti
A group of invertebrate chordates (CHORDATA, NONVERTEBRATES) in the subphylum Craniota. They include the single order Myxiniformes, which comprise various HAGFISHES.

Hyperoxaluria
Excretion of an excessive amount of oxalate in the urine.

Hyperoxaluria, Primary
Either of two genetic disorders characterized by urinary excretion of large amounts of oxalate, with nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, early onset of renal failure, and often a generalized deposit of calcium oxalate, resulting from a defect in glyoxalate metabolism.

Hyperoxalurias, Primary
Either of two genetic disorders characterized by urinary excretion of large amounts of oxalate, with nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, early onset of renal failure, and often a generalized deposit of calcium oxalate, resulting from a defect in glyoxalate metabolism.

Hyperoxia
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.

Hyperoxias
An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.

Hyperparathyroidism
Excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid glands, which are situated alongside the thyroid gland in the throat, and which play a role in regulating the amount of calcium in blood and body tissues.

Hyperphagia
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.

Hyperphenylalaninaemia
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).

Hyperphenylalaninaemias
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).

Hyperphenylalaninemia, Non Phenylketonuric
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).

Hyperphenylalaninemia, Non-Phenylketonuric
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).

Hyperphenylalaninemias, Non-Phenylketonuric
A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).

Hyperphilia
A condition or syndrome, variable in etiology and diagnosis, of being sexuoerotically above standard or inordinate, particularly with respect to some aspect of genital functioning prior to and at the acceptive phase. The condition of being supranormal in sexual and genital responsiveness or frequency.

Hyperphoria
A tendency for one eye to drift upward. A vertical type of muscle imbalance between the eyes.

Hyperpigmentation
Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation is an excessive skin darkening at places where the skin was inflamed.

Hyperpipecolic Acidemia
A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; infantile Refsum disease; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.

Hyperpipecolic Acidemias
A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; infantile Refsum disease; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.

Hyperpituitarism
Inappropriate secretion of anterior pituitary gland hormones. The most common hormones involved in over-secretion are SOMATOTROPIN (which may cause ACROMEGALY) and PROLACTIN (which results in HYPERPROLACTINEMIA). THYROTROPIN; luteinizing hormone (LH); CORTICOTROPIN; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE may also be secreted at inappropriate levels. Hypersecretion syndromes are frequently associated with the presence of a pituitary ADENOMA (see also PITUITARY NEOPLASMS).

Hyperplasia
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ, usually as a physiologic response to a stimulus.

Hyperplasia, Angiofollicular Lymphoid
Large benign, hyperplastic lymph nodes. The more common hyaline vascular subtype is characterized by small hyaline vascular follicles and interfollicular capillary proliferations. Plasma cells are often present and represent another subtype with the plasma cells containing IgM and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.

Hyperplasia, Congenital Adrenal
A group of syndromes caused by inherited defects in cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and, in some types, ALDOSTERONE biosynthesis. Each of the several types that occur, such as simple virilizing forms (adrenogenital syndrome), salt-wasting forms, and virilizing hypertension forms may be caused by a variety of defects. Defects in 21-hydroxylase (STEROID 21-MONOOXYGENASE) are most common. Other defects occur in the enzymes 11 beta-hydroxylase (STEROID 11 BETA-MONOOXYGENASE), 17 alpha-hydroxylase (STEROID 17 ALPHA-MONOOXYGENASE), or 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES).

Hyperplasia, Endometrial
Abnormal overgrowth of endometrium. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperplasia, Focal Epithelial
Hyperplasia of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue, and less commonly, the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, and palate, presenting soft, painless, round to oval sessile papules about 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The condition usually occurs in children and young adults and has familial predilection, lasting for several months, sometimes years, before running its course. A viral etiology is suspected, the isolated organism being usually the human papillomavirus. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry; Belshe, Textbook of Human Virology, 2d ed, p954)

Hyperplasia, Focal Nodular
Benign, usually asymptomatic nodule of the liver, occurring chiefly in women. It is a firm, highly vascular mass resembling cirrhosis, usually with a stellate fibrous core containing numerous small bile ducts, and having vessels lined by Kupffer cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hyperplasia, Giant Lymph Node
Large benign, hyperplastic lymph nodes. The more common hyaline vascular subtype is characterized by small hyaline vascular follicles and interfollicular capillary proliferations. Plasma cells are often present and represent another subtype with the plasma cells containing IgM and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.

Hyperplasia, Prostatic
Enlargement or overgrowth of the prostate gland as a result of an increase in the number of its constituent cells.

Hyperplasia, Reactive Lymphoid
A group of disorders having a benign course but exhibiting clinical and histological features suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Pseudolymphoma is characterized by a benign infiltration of lymphoid cells or histiocytes which microscopically resembles a malignant lymphoma. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 26th ed)

Hyperplasias
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ, not due to tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.

Hyperplasias, Angiofollicular Lymphoid
Large benign, hyperplastic lymph nodes. The more common hyaline vascular subtype is characterized by small hyaline vascular follicles and interfollicular capillary proliferations. Plasma cells are often present and represent another subtype with the plasma cells containing IgM and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.

Hyperplasias, Congenital Adrenal
A group of syndromes caused by inherited defects in cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and, in some types, ALDOSTERONE biosynthesis. Each of the several types that occur, such as simple virilizing forms (adrenogenital syndrome), salt-wasting forms, and virilizing hypertension forms may be caused by a variety of defects. Defects in 21-hydroxylase (STEROID 21-MONOOXYGENASE) are most common. Other defects occur in the enzymes 11 beta-hydroxylase (STEROID 11 BETA-MONOOXYGENASE), 17 alpha-hydroxylase (STEROID 17 ALPHA-MONOOXYGENASE), or 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES).

Hyperplasias, Endometrial
Abnormal overgrowth of endometrium. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperplasias, Focal Epithelial
Hyperplasia of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue, and less commonly, the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, and palate, presenting soft, painless, round to oval sessile papules about 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The condition usually occurs in children and young adults and has familial predilection, lasting for several months, sometimes years, before running its course. A viral etiology is suspected, the isolated organism being usually the human papillomavirus. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry; Belshe, Textbook of Human Virology, 2d ed, p954)

Hyperplasias, Focal Nodular
Benign, usually asymptomatic nodule of the liver, occurring chiefly in women. It is a firm, highly vascular mass resembling cirrhosis, usually with a stellate fibrous core containing numerous small bile ducts, and having vessels lined by Kupffer cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hyperplasias, Reactive Lymphoid
A group of disorders having a benign course but exhibiting clinical and histological features suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Pseudolymphoma is characterized by a benign infiltration of lymphoid cells or histiocytes which microscopically resembles a malignant lymphoma. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 26th ed)

Hyperpotassemia
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperpotassemias
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyperprebetalipoproteinemia
A familial disorder characterized by an isolated elevation in the plasma level of endogenously synthesized triglyceride carried in VLDL. It is considered to be an autosomal dominant trait.

Hyperprebetalipoproteinemias
A familial disorder characterized by an isolated elevation in the plasma level of endogenously synthesized triglyceride carried in VLDL. It is considered to be an autosomal dominant trait.

Hyperprolactinemia
Increased levels of prolactin in the blood, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the pituitary gland, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)

Hyperprolactinemias
Increased levels of prolactin in the blood, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the pituitary gland, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)

Hyperpyrexia, Malignant
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.

Hyperpyrexias, Malignant
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.

Hyperreactivities, Bronchial
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.

Hyperreactivity, Bronchial
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.

Hyperreflexia
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.

Hyperreflexia, Autonomic
A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp538 and 1232; J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20(3):355-60)

Hyperreflexias, Autonomic
A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp538 and 1232; J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20(3):355-60)

Hypersalivation
Increased salivary flow.

Hypersecretion Syndrome, Prolactin
Increased levels of prolactin in the blood, which may be associated with AMENORRHEA and GALACTORRHEA. Relatively common etiologies include PROLACTINOMA, medication effect, KIDNEY FAILURE, granulomatous diseases of the pituitary gland, and disorders which interfere with the hypothalamic inhibition of prolactin release. Ectopic (non-pituitary) production of prolactin may also occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp77-8)

Hypersecretion Syndrome, Somatotropin (Acromegaly)
A disorder caused by excessive secretion of SOMATOTROPIN, characterized by bony enlargement of the face (especially prognathism), hands, feet, head, and thorax. Impaired glucose tolerance; HYPERTENSION; ARTHRITIS; diffuse hyperplasia of soft tissues; CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME; visceromegaly; and MUSCULAR WEAKNESS are frequently associated with this condition. The most common etiology is a somatotropin secreting pituitary ADENOMA (see also PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)

Hypersecretion Syndromes, Somatotropin (Acromegaly)
A disorder caused by excessive secretion of SOMATOTROPIN, characterized by bony enlargement of the face (especially prognathism), hands, feet, head, and thorax. Impaired glucose tolerance; HYPERTENSION; ARTHRITIS; diffuse hyperplasia of soft tissues; CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME; visceromegaly; and MUSCULAR WEAKNESS are frequently associated with this condition. The most common etiology is a somatotropin secreting pituitary ADENOMA (see also PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)

Hypersensitivities
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.

Hypersensitivities, Atopic
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.

Hypersensitivities, Contact
A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.

Hypersensitivities, Delayed
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.

Hypersensitivities, Drug
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.

Hypersensitivities, Egg
Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.

Hypersensitivities, Environmental
A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this ""disease"", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Hypersensitivities, Food
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.

Hypersensitivities, IgE-Mediated
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.

Hypersensitivities, Immediate
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.

Hypersensitivities, Latex
Allergic reaction to products containing processed natural rubber latex such as rubber gloves, condoms, catheters, dental dams, balloons, and sporting equipment. Both T-cell mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, DELAYED) and IgE antibody-mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) allergic responses are possible. Delayed hypersensitivity results from exposure to antioxidants present in the rubber; immediate hypersensitivity results from exposure to a latex protein.

Hypersensitivities, Nut
Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.

Hypersensitivities, Respiratory
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and HAY FEVER.

Hypersensitivities, Tree Nut
Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.

Hypersensitivities, Tuberculin-Type
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.

Hypersensitivities, Type I
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.

Hypersensitivities, Type III
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other systemic immunologic diseases including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.

Hypersensitivities, Type IV
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.

Hypersensitivities, Wheat
Allergic reaction to wheat that is triggered by the immune system.

Hypersensitivity
State of reactivity to antigen that is greater than normal for the antigenic challenge; hypersensitivity is the same as allergy and denotes a deleterious outcome rather than a protective one.

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitides
Conditions in which inhalation of organic dusts results in hypersensitivity reactions at the alveolar level, associated with the production of precipitins.

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitides, Avian
A respiratory disorder due to an acquired hypersensitivity to the dust of bird droppings.

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
Conditions in which inhalation of organic dusts results in hypersensitivity reactions at the alveolar level, associated with the production of precipitins.

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis, Avian
A respiratory disorder due to an acquired hypersensitivity to the dust of bird droppings.

Hypersensitivity, Atopic
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.

Hypersensitivity, Contact
A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.

Hypersensitivity, Delayed
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.

Hypersensitivity, Drug
Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.

Hypersensitivity, Egg
Allergic reaction to eggs that is triggered by the immune system.

Hypersensitivity, Environmental
A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this ""disease"", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Hypersensitivity, Food
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.

Hypersensitivity, Groundnut
Allergic reaction to peanuts that is triggered by the immune system.

Hypersensitivity, IgE-Mediated
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.

Hypersensitivity, Immediate
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.

Hypersensitivity, Latex
Allergic reaction to products containing processed natural rubber latex such as rubber gloves, condoms, catheters, dental dams, balloons, and sporting equipment. Both T-cell mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, DELAYED) and IgE antibody-mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) allergic responses are possible. Delayed hypersensitivity results from exposure to antioxidants present in the rubber; immediate hypersensitivity results from exposure to a latex protein.

Hypersensitivity, Nut
Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.

Hypersensitivity, Peanut
Allergic reaction to peanuts that is triggered by the immune system.

Hypersensitivity, Respiratory
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and HAY FEVER.

Hypersensitivity, Tree Nut
Allergic reaction to tree nuts that is triggered by the immune system.

Hypersensitivity, Tuberculin Type
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.

Hypersensitivity, Tuberculin-Type
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.

Hypersensitivity, Type I
Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.

Hypersensitivity, Type III
Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other systemic immunologic diseases including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.

Hypersensitivity, Type IV
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.

Hypersensitivity, Wheat
Allergic reaction to wheat that is triggered by the immune system.

Hypersomnia
Excessive difficulty maintaining an alert awake state during the day, or undesired daytime sleep episodes. sleepiness, as evidenced by prolonged nocturnal sleep, ideas of reference The feeling that casual incidents and external events have a particular and unusual meaning that is specific to the person. This is to be distinguished from a delusion of reference, in which there is a belief that is held with delusional conviction

Hypersomnia with Periodic Respiration
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APENA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.

Hypersomnia, Post Traumatic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)

Hypersomnia, Post-Traumatic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)

Hypersomnia, Posttraumatic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)

Hypersomnia, Recurrent
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)

Hypersomnias
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)

Hypersomnias, Idiopathic
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)

Hypersomnias, Post-Traumatic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)

Hypersomnias, Posttraumatic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)

Hypersomnias, Recurrent
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)

Hypersomnolence
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)

Hypersomnolence Disorder
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)

Hypersomnolence Disorder, Primary
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)

Hypersomnolence Disorder, Secondary
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)

Hypersomnolence Disorders
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)

Hypersomnolence Disorders, Primary
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)

Hypersomnolence Disorders, Secondary
Disorders characterized by hypersomnolence during normal waking hours that may impair cognitive functioning. Subtypes include primary hypersomnia disorders (e.g., IDIOPATHIC HYPERSOMNOLENCE; NARCOLEPSY; and KLEINE-LEVIN SYNDROME) and secondary hypersomnia disorders where excessive somnolence can be attributed to a known cause (e.g., drug affect, MENTAL DISORDERS, and SLEEP APNEA SYNDROME). (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):192-202; Thorpy, Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 2nd ed, p320)

Hypersomnolence, CNS, Idiopathic
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)

Hypersomnolence, Idiopathic
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)

Hypersomnolence, Idiopathic CNS
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)

Hypersomnolences, Idiopathic
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)

Hypersomnolences, Idiopathic CNS
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)

Hyperspadias
A congenital malformation or misplacement of the urethra as in hypospadias except that the position of the opening is on the upper or superior/dorsal surface of the penis.

Hyperstat
Hyperstat is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): diazoxide.

Hypertension (high blood pressure)
An arterial condition whose primary feature is chronically elevated blood pressure.

Hypertensive Cerebral Hemorrhages
Bleeding within the brain or adjacent structures which results from systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.

Hyperthermia
The treatment of cancers with heat.

Hyperthyroidism
Overproduction of thyroid hormone.

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)
In this condition, the muscle mass of the left ventricle enlarges or "hypertrophies."

Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM)
A bulge in the ventricle that causes impeded blood flow.

Hypertrophy
Over-development in size of an organ or of its constituent cells.

Hypertropia
A muscle imbalance in which one eye is straight and the other is turned upward.

Hypervariable regions
Portions of the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains that are highly variable in amino acid sequence from one immunoglobulin molecule to another, and that, together, constitute the antigen-binding site of an antibody molecule. Also, portions of the T-cell receptor which constitute the antigen-binding site.

Hyperventilation
Rapid or deep breathing producing faintness, numbness, chest pain, apprehension and tingling, and spasms of the extremities.

Hyperventilation Syncope
A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)

Hyperventilation Syncopes
A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)

Hyperventilations
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.

Hypervitaminosis A
A symptom complex resulting from ingestion of excessive amounts of vitamin A.

Hypesthesia
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.

Hypesthesia, Tactile
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.

Hypesthesia, Thermal
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.

Hypesthesias, Tactile
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.



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Hormones
Biological compounds that communicate information at a distance. Hormones require specific receptors to begin their biological action and use second messengers to initiate the cellular process that uses that information.

Hormone Releasing Factors
Hormones released from the hypothalamus that directly affect the pituitary and initiate the release of other hormones into the bloodstream. Many hormone releasing factors use cyclic AMP as their secondary messengers.

Hyperinsulinemia
The excess production of insulin. This is usually a consequence of insulin resistance in which the cells do not respond to insulin to reduce blood glucose levels.

Hypothalamus
The portion of the brain's limbic system that integrates incoming information, and either increases or decreases the release of certain hormones that instruct the pituitary gland to release hormones.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
A virus that steadily weakens the body's defense (immune) system until it can no longer fight off infections such as pneumonia, diarrhea, tumors and other illnesses. All of which can be part of AIDS (Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome). Unable to fight back, most people die within three years of the first signs of AIDS appearing. Most of all HIV infections have been transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse with someone who is already infected with HIV. HIV can also be transmitted by infected blood or blood products (as in blood transfusions).

Hypertension

Hearing impairment
Complete or partial loss of the ability to hear, caused by a variety of injuries or diseases, including congenital causes. Limitations, including difficulties in understanding language or other auditory messages and/or in production of understandable speech, are possible.

Hemiplegia
Paralysis of one side of the body as a result of injury to neurons carrying signals to muscles from the motor areas of the brain.

Hyperopia
Hyperopia (or more rarely, hypermetropia), also known as farsightedness or longsightedness, is a defect of vision caused by an imperfection in the eye (often when the eyeball is too short), causing inability to focus on near objects, and in extreme cases causing a sufferer to be unable to focus on objects at any distance. As an object moves towards the eye, the eye must increase its power to keep the image on the retina.

Hemophilia
A genetic blood disorder, almost always in males, in which blood does not clot properly as a result of an enzyme deficiency.

Hallucination
A false perception of something that is not really there. Hallucinations may be seen, heard, touched, tasted, or smelled by the ill individual. In schizophrenia, auditory hallucinations are most common.

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   ypertension / hpertension / hyertension / hyprtension / hypetension / hyperension / hypertnsion / hypertesion / hypertenion / hypertenson / hypertensin / hypertensio / hhypertension / hyypertension / hyppertension / hypeertension / hyperrtension / hyperttension / hyperteension / hypertennsion / hypertenssion / hypertensiion / hypertensioon / hypertensionn / yypertension / uypertension / jypertension / nypertension / bypertension / gypertension / typertension / h6pertension / h7pertension / hupertension / hjpertension / hhpertension / hgpertension / htpertension / h5pertension / hy0ertension / hy-ertension / hy[ertension / hy;ertension / hylertension / hyoertension / hy9ertension / hyp3rtension / hyp4rtension / hyprrtension / hypfrtension / hypdrtension / hypsrtension / hypwrtension / hype4tension / hype5tension / hypettension / hypegtension / hypeftension / hypedtension / hypeetension / hype3tension / hyper5ension / hyper6ension / hyperyension / hyperhension / hypergension / hyperfension / hyperrension / hyper4ension / hypert3nsion / hypert4nsion / hypertrnsion / hypertfnsion / hypertdnsion / hypertsnsion / hypertwnsion / hypertebsion / hypertehsion / hypertejsion / hypertemsion / hyperte sion / hypertenwion / hyperteneion / hypertendion / hypertenxion / hypertenzion / hypertenaion / hypertenqion / hypertenson / hypertensi9n / hypertensi0n / hypertensipn / hypertensiln / hypertensikn / hypertensiin / hypertensi8n / hypertensiob / hypertensioh / hypertensioj / hypertensiom / hypertensio /