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  Heredity



Heredity

   Transmission of genetic traits from parents to children.

RELATED TERMS
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Genetic
Hereditary. Having to do with the genes.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Hereditary
Transmitted from parent to offspring; derived from ancestry.

Hereditary Amyloidoses
Diseases in which there is a familial pattern of AMYLOIDOSIS.

Hereditary Amyloidosis
Diseases in which there is a familial pattern of AMYLOIDOSIS.

Hereditary Ataxia
A heterogenous group of degenerative syndromes marked by progressive cerebellar dysfunction either in isolation or combined with other neurologic manifestations. Sporadic and inherited subtypes occur. Inheritance patterns include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.

Hereditary Ataxia, Friedreich
An autosomal recessive disease, usually of childhood onset, characterized pathologically by degeneration of the spinocerebellar tracts, posterior columns, and to a lesser extent the corticospinal tracts. Clinical manifestations include GAIT ATAXIA, pes cavus, speech impairment, lateral curvature of spine, rhythmic head tremor, kyphoscoliosis, congestive heart failure (secondary to a cardiomyopathy), and lower extremity weakness. Most forms of this condition are associated with a mutation in a gene on chromosome 9, at band q13, which codes for the mitochondrial protein frataxin. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1081; N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75) The severity of Friedreich ataxia associated with expansion of GAA repeats in the first intron of the frataxin gene correlates with the number of trinucleotide repeats. (From Durr et al, N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75)

Hereditary Ataxias
A heterogenous group of degenerative syndromes marked by progressive cerebellar dysfunction either in isolation or combined with other neurologic manifestations. Sporadic and inherited subtypes occur. Inheritance patterns include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.

Hereditary Autosomal Dominant Spastic Paraplegia
A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progessive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8)

Hereditary Autosomal Recessive Spastic Paraplegia
A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progessive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8)

Hereditary Blood Coagulation Disorders
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of inherited abnormalities in blood coagulation.

Hereditary Central Nervous System Demyelinating Diseases
Inherited conditions characterized by a loss of myelin in the central nervous system.

Hereditary Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy
A familial condition marked by the deposition of AMYLOID in the walls of small blood vessels in the cerebral cortex and meninges and characterized clinically by cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), CEREBRAL INFARCTION, and CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE..

Hereditary Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Dutch Type
A familial condition marked by the deposition of AMYLOID in the walls of small blood vessels in the cerebral cortex and meninges and characterized clinically by cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), CEREBRAL INFARCTION, and CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE..

Hereditary Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Icelandic Type
A familial condition marked by the deposition of AMYLOID in the walls of small blood vessels in the cerebral cortex and meninges and characterized clinically by cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), CEREBRAL INFARCTION, and CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE..

Hereditary Chorea
Acquired and hereditary conditions which feature CHOREA as a primary manifestation of the disease process.

Hereditary Chorea, Benign
Acquired and hereditary conditions which feature CHOREA as a primary manifestation of the disease process.

Hereditary Choreas
Acquired and hereditary conditions which feature CHOREA as a primary manifestation of the disease process.

Hereditary Choreas, Benign
Acquired and hereditary conditions which feature CHOREA as a primary manifestation of the disease process.

Hereditary Coagulation Disorder
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of inherited abnormalities in blood coagulation.

Hereditary Coagulation Disorders
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of inherited abnormalities in blood coagulation.

Hereditary Coproporphyria
Porphyria in which the liver is the site where excess formation of porphyrin or its precursors is found. PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT and PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA are types of hepatic porphyria.

Hereditary Coproporphyrias
Porphyria in which the liver is the site where excess formation of porphyrin or its precursors is found. PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT and PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA are types of hepatic porphyria.

Hereditary Corneal Dystrophies
Bilateral hereditary disorders of the cornea, usually autosomal dominant, which may be present at birth but more frequently develop during adolescence and progress slowly throughout life. Central macular dystrophy is transmitted as an autosomal recessive defect.

Hereditary Corneal Dystrophy
Bilateral hereditary disorders of the cornea, usually autosomal dominant, which may be present at birth but more frequently develop during adolescence and progress slowly throughout life. Central macular dystrophy is transmitted as an autosomal recessive defect.

Hereditary Deforming Chondrodysplasia
Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.

Hereditary Deforming Chondrodysplasias
Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.

Hereditary Degenerative Disorders, Nervous System
Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.

Hereditary Demyelinating Diseases, Central Nervous System
Inherited conditions characterized by a loss of myelin in the central nervous system.

Hereditary Disease, Neurodegenerative
Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.

Hereditary Diseases, Neurodegenerative
Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.

Hereditary Elliptocytoses
An intrinsic defect of erythrocytes inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The erythrocytes assume an oval or elliptical shape.

Hereditary Elliptocytosis
An intrinsic defect of erythrocytes inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The erythrocytes assume an oval or elliptical shape.

Hereditary Exostoses, Multiple
Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.

Hereditary Eye Disease
Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.

Hereditary Eye Diseases
Transmission of gene defects or chromosomal aberrations/abnormalities which are expressed in extreme variation in the structure or function of the eye. These may be evident at birth, but may be manifested later with progression of the disorder.

Hereditary Hemolytic Anemia
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.

Hereditary Hemolytic Anemias
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.

Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia
An autosomal dominant vascular anomaly characterized by the presence of multiple small telangiectases of the skin, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs, associated with recurrent episodes of bleeding from affected sites and gross or occult melena. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasias
An autosomal dominant vascular anomaly characterized by the presence of multiple small telangiectases of the skin, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs, associated with recurrent episodes of bleeding from affected sites and gross or occult melena. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hereditary Hyperbilirubinemia
Inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism resulting in excessive amounts of bilirubin in the circulating blood, either because of increased bilirubin production or because of delayed clearance of bilirubin from the blood.

Hereditary Hyperbilirubinemias
Inborn errors of bilirubin metabolism resulting in excessive amounts of bilirubin in the circulating blood, either because of increased bilirubin production or because of delayed clearance of bilirubin from the blood.

Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathies
A group of slowly progressive inherited disorders affecting motor and sensory peripheral nerves. Subtypes include HMSNs I-VII. HMSN I and II both refer to CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE. HMSN III refers to hypertrophic neuropathy of infancy, HMSN IV refers to REFSUM DISEASE, HMSN V refers to a condition marked by a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with spastic paraplegia (see SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA, HEREDITARY). HMSN VI refers to HMSN associated with an inherited optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY), and HMSN VII refers to HMSN associated with retinitis pigmentosa. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)

Hereditary Motor and Sensory-Neuropathy Type II
A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)

Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy with Pyramidal Signs
A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progessive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8)

Hereditary Motor, and Sensory Neuropathy Type I
A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)

Hereditary Motor-Sensory Neuropathy with Pyramidal Signs
A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progessive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8)

Hereditary Multiple Exostoses
Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.

Hereditary Multiple Exostosis
Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.

Hereditary Nephritides
Hereditary disease characterized initially by hematuria and slowly progressing to renal insufficiency. It is sometimes associated with perceptual deafness and/or congenital ocular defects.

Hereditary Nephritis
Hereditary disease characterized initially by hematuria and slowly progressing to renal insufficiency. It is sometimes associated with perceptual deafness and/or congenital ocular defects.

Hereditary Neurodegenerative Disease
Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.

Hereditary Neurodegenerative Diseases
Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.

Hereditary Neuropathies, Tangier
A rare autosomal recessive familial disorder of cholesterol metabolism, characterized by extremely low HDL-cholesterol, reduced total cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels in serum. Clinical features include the onset before age 20 years of HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; the deposition of cholesterol in each TONSIL (creating a yellow-orange appearance); and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. A sensorimotor or distal sensory POLYNEUROPATHY occurs in approximately 50% of affected individuals. The condition is associated with decreased synthesis and increased catabolism of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II, and a defect in cellular signaling and mobilization of lipids. (From Nat Genet 1998 Sep;20(1):96-8; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1347-8; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118)

Hereditary Neuropathy, Tangier
A rare autosomal recessive familial disorder of cholesterol metabolism, characterized by extremely low HDL-cholesterol, reduced total cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels in serum. Clinical features include the onset before age 20 years of HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; the deposition of cholesterol in each TONSIL (creating a yellow-orange appearance); and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. A sensorimotor or distal sensory POLYNEUROPATHY occurs in approximately 50% of affected individuals. The condition is associated with decreased synthesis and increased catabolism of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II, and a defect in cellular signaling and mobilization of lipids. (From Nat Genet 1998 Sep;20(1):96-8; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1347-8; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118)

Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer
A syndrome characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, a low mean age (41 years) for occurrence of colon cancer, and a marked increase in the proportion of tumors in the proximal colon.

Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Neoplasms
A syndrome characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, a low mean age (41 years) for occurrence of colon cancer, and a marked increase in the proportion of tumors in the proximal colon.

Hereditary Opalescent Dentin
An autosomal dominant disorder of tooth development characterized by opalescent dentin resulting in discoloration of the teeth, ranging from dusky blue to brownish. The dentin is poorly formed with an abnormally low mineral content; the pulp canal is obliterated, but the enamel is normal. The teeth usually wear down rapidly, leaving short, brown stumps. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hereditary Opalescent Dentins
An autosomal dominant disorder of tooth development characterized by opalescent dentin resulting in discoloration of the teeth, ranging from dusky blue to brownish. The dentin is poorly formed with an abnormally low mineral content; the pulp canal is obliterated, but the enamel is normal. The teeth usually wear down rapidly, leaving short, brown stumps. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hereditary Optic Atrophies
Hereditary conditions that feature progressive visual loss in association with optic atrophy. Relatively common forms include autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT) and Leber hereditary optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, HEREDITARY, LEBER).

Hereditary Optic Atrophy
Hereditary conditions that feature progressive visual loss in association with optic atrophy. Relatively common forms include autosomal dominant optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT) and Leber hereditary optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHY, HEREDITARY, LEBER).

Hereditary Osteo-Onychodysplasia
A syndrome of multiple abnormalities characterized by the absence or hypoplasia of the patella and congenital nail dystrophy. It is a genetically determined autosomal dominant trait.

Hereditary Osteo-Onychodysplasias
A syndrome of multiple abnormalities characterized by the absence or hypoplasia of the patella and congenital nail dystrophy. It is a genetically determined autosomal dominant trait.

Hereditary Ovalocytoses
An intrinsic defect of erythrocytes inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The erythrocytes assume an oval or elliptical shape.

Hereditary Ovalocytosis
An intrinsic defect of erythrocytes inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. The erythrocytes assume an oval or elliptical shape.

Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes
An autosomal recessive inherited disease characterized by episodic fever, severe abdominal pain, pleurisy, arthritis, and a characteristic ankle rash. Disease flare-ups tend to last 3 days, and individuals are asymptomatic between attacks. Orchitis, a benign recurrent MENINGITIS, headaches, and amyloid nephropathy may also occur. (From Medicine (Baltimore) 1998 Jul;77(4):268-97)

Hereditary Retinoblastoma
A malignant tumor arising from the nuclear layer of the retina that is the most common primary tumor of the eye in children. The tumor tends to occur in early childhood or infancy and may be present at birth. The majority are sporadic, but the condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Histologic features include dense cellularity, small round polygonal cells, and areas of calcification and necrosis. An abnormal pupil reflex (leukokoria); NYSTAGMUS; STRABISMUS; and visual loss represent common clinical characteristics of this condition. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2104)

Hereditary Retinoblastomas
A malignant tumor arising from the nuclear layer of the retina that is the most common primary tumor of the eye in children. The tumor tends to occur in early childhood or infancy and may be present at birth. The majority are sporadic, but the condition may be transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Histologic features include dense cellularity, small round polygonal cells, and areas of calcification and necrosis. An abnormal pupil reflex (leukokoria); NYSTAGMUS; STRABISMUS; and visual loss represent common clinical characteristics of this condition. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2104)

Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies
A group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of dorsal root and autonomic ganglion cells, and clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. There are five subtypes. Type I features autosomal dominant inheritance and distal sensory involvement. Type II is characterized by autosomal inheritance and distal and proximal sensory loss. Type III is DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL. Type IV features insensitivity to pain, heat intolerance, and mental deficiency. Type V is characterized by a selective loss of pain with intact light touch and vibratory sensation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, pp142-4)

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy, Type 1
A group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of dorsal root and autonomic ganglion cells, and clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. There are five subtypes. Type I features autosomal dominant inheritance and distal sensory involvement. Type II is characterized by autosomal inheritance and distal and proximal sensory loss. Type III is DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL. Type IV features insensitivity to pain, heat intolerance, and mental deficiency. Type V is characterized by a selective loss of pain with intact light touch and vibratory sensation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, pp142-4)

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy, Type 2
A group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of dorsal root and autonomic ganglion cells, and clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. There are five subtypes. Type I features autosomal dominant inheritance and distal sensory involvement. Type II is characterized by autosomal inheritance and distal and proximal sensory loss. Type III is DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL. Type IV features insensitivity to pain, heat intolerance, and mental deficiency. Type V is characterized by a selective loss of pain with intact light touch and vibratory sensation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, pp142-4)

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy, Type 4
A group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of dorsal root and autonomic ganglion cells, and clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. There are five subtypes. Type I features autosomal dominant inheritance and distal sensory involvement. Type II is characterized by autosomal inheritance and distal and proximal sensory loss. Type III is DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL. Type IV features insensitivity to pain, heat intolerance, and mental deficiency. Type V is characterized by a selective loss of pain with intact light touch and vibratory sensation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, pp142-4)

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy, Type 5
A group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of dorsal root and autonomic ganglion cells, and clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. There are five subtypes. Type I features autosomal dominant inheritance and distal sensory involvement. Type II is characterized by autosomal inheritance and distal and proximal sensory loss. Type III is DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL. Type IV features insensitivity to pain, heat intolerance, and mental deficiency. Type V is characterized by a selective loss of pain with intact light touch and vibratory sensation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, pp142-4)

Hereditary Sensory Neuropathies
A group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of dorsal root and autonomic ganglion cells, and clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. There are five subtypes. Type I features autosomal dominant inheritance and distal sensory involvement. Type II is characterized by autosomal inheritance and distal and proximal sensory loss. Type III is DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL. Type IV features insensitivity to pain, heat intolerance, and mental deficiency. Type V is characterized by a selective loss of pain with intact light touch and vibratory sensation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, pp142-4)

Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy
A group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of dorsal root and autonomic ganglion cells, and clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. There are five subtypes. Type I features autosomal dominant inheritance and distal sensory involvement. Type II is characterized by autosomal inheritance and distal and proximal sensory loss. Type III is DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL. Type IV features insensitivity to pain, heat intolerance, and mental deficiency. Type V is characterized by a selective loss of pain with intact light touch and vibratory sensation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, pp142-4)

Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy, Dominant, Type 3
An autosomal disorder of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems limited to individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. Clinical manifestations are present at birth and include diminished lacrimation, defective thermoregulation, orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC), fixed pupils, excessive SWEATING, loss of pain and temperature sensation, and absent reflexes. Pathologic features include reduced numbers of small diameter peripheral nerve fibers and autonomic ganglion neurons. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1348; Nat Genet 1993;4(2):160-4)

Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy, Dominant, Type III
An autosomal disorder of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems limited to individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. Clinical manifestations are present at birth and include diminished lacrimation, defective thermoregulation, orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC), fixed pupils, excessive SWEATING, loss of pain and temperature sensation, and absent reflexes. Pathologic features include reduced numbers of small diameter peripheral nerve fibers and autonomic ganglion neurons. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1348; Nat Genet 1993;4(2):160-4)

Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy, Type 3, Dominant
An autosomal disorder of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems limited to individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. Clinical manifestations are present at birth and include diminished lacrimation, defective thermoregulation, orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC), fixed pupils, excessive SWEATING, loss of pain and temperature sensation, and absent reflexes. Pathologic features include reduced numbers of small diameter peripheral nerve fibers and autonomic ganglion neurons. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1348; Nat Genet 1993;4(2):160-4)

Hereditary Sensory Radicular Neuropathy
A group of inherited disorders characterized by degeneration of dorsal root and autonomic ganglion cells, and clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. There are five subtypes. Type I features autosomal dominant inheritance and distal sensory involvement. Type II is characterized by autosomal inheritance and distal and proximal sensory loss. Type III is DYSAUTONOMIA, FAMILIAL. Type IV features insensitivity to pain, heat intolerance, and mental deficiency. Type V is characterized by a selective loss of pain with intact light touch and vibratory sensation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, pp142-4)

Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia
A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progessive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8)

Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia, Autosomal Recessive
A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progessive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8)

Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias
A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progessive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8)

Hereditary Spherocytoses
A familial congenital hemolytic anemia characterized by numerous abnormally shaped erythrocytes which are generally spheroidal. The erythrocytes have increased osmotic fragility and are abnormally permeable to sodium ions.

Hereditary Spherocytosis
A familial congenital hemolytic anemia characterized by numerous abnormally shaped erythrocytes which are generally spheroidal. The erythrocytes have increased osmotic fragility and are abnormally permeable to sodium ions.

Hereditary Spinal Ataxia, Friedreich
An autosomal recessive disease, usually of childhood onset, characterized pathologically by degeneration of the spinocerebellar tracts, posterior columns, and to a lesser extent the corticospinal tracts. Clinical manifestations include GAIT ATAXIA, pes cavus, speech impairment, lateral curvature of spine, rhythmic head tremor, kyphoscoliosis, congestive heart failure (secondary to a cardiomyopathy), and lower extremity weakness. Most forms of this condition are associated with a mutation in a gene on chromosome 9, at band q13, which codes for the mitochondrial protein frataxin. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1081; N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75) The severity of Friedreich ataxia associated with expansion of GAA repeats in the first intron of the frataxin gene correlates with the number of trinucleotide repeats. (From Durr et al, N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75)

Hereditary Spinal Scleroses
An autosomal recessive disease, usually of childhood onset, characterized pathologically by degeneration of the spinocerebellar tracts, posterior columns, and to a lesser extent the corticospinal tracts. Clinical manifestations include GAIT ATAXIA, pes cavus, speech impairment, lateral curvature of spine, rhythmic head tremor, kyphoscoliosis, congestive heart failure (secondary to a cardiomyopathy), and lower extremity weakness. Most forms of this condition are associated with a mutation in a gene on chromosome 9, at band q13, which codes for the mitochondrial protein frataxin. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1081; N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75) The severity of Friedreich ataxia associated with expansion of GAA repeats in the first intron of the frataxin gene correlates with the number of trinucleotide repeats. (From Durr et al, N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75)

Hereditary Spinal Sclerosis
An autosomal recessive disease, usually of childhood onset, characterized pathologically by degeneration of the spinocerebellar tracts, posterior columns, and to a lesser extent the corticospinal tracts. Clinical manifestations include GAIT ATAXIA, pes cavus, speech impairment, lateral curvature of spine, rhythmic head tremor, kyphoscoliosis, congestive heart failure (secondary to a cardiomyopathy), and lower extremity weakness. Most forms of this condition are associated with a mutation in a gene on chromosome 9, at band q13, which codes for the mitochondrial protein frataxin. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1081; N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75) The severity of Friedreich ataxia associated with expansion of GAA repeats in the first intron of the frataxin gene correlates with the number of trinucleotide repeats. (From Durr et al, N Engl J Med 1996 Oct 17;335(16):1169-75)

Hereditary Spinocerebellar Degeneration
A heterogenous group of degenerative syndromes marked by progressive cerebellar dysfunction either in isolation or combined with other neurologic manifestations. Sporadic and inherited subtypes occur. Inheritance patterns include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.

Hereditary Spinocerebellar Degenerations
A heterogenous group of degenerative syndromes marked by progressive cerebellar dysfunction either in isolation or combined with other neurologic manifestations. Sporadic and inherited subtypes occur. Inheritance patterns include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.

Hereditary Type I Motor and Sensory Neuropathy
A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)

Hereditary Type IV Motor and Sensory Neuropathy
An autosomal recessive familial disorder that usually presents in childhood with POLYNEUROPATHY, sensorineural DEAFNESS; ICHTHYOSIS; ATAXIA; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; and cardiomyopathy. CEREBROSPINAL FLUID PROTEINS and serum PHYTANIC ACID are generally elevated. This condition is associated with the impaired metabolism of phytanic acid in PEROXISOMES. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1991, Ch37, p58-9; Rev Med Interne 1996;17(5):391-8)

Hereditary Tyrosinemia
A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features mental retardation, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features mental retardation and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)

Hereditary Tyrosinemia, Type I
A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features mental retardation, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features mental retardation and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)

Hereditary Tyrosinemia, Type II
A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features mental retardation, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features mental retardation and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)

Hereditary Tyrosinemia, Type III
A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features mental retardation, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features mental retardation and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)

Hereditary Tyrosinemias
A group of disorders which have in common elevations of tyrosine in the blood and urine secondary to an enzyme deficiency. Type I tyrosinemia features episodic weakness, self-mutilation, hepatic necrosis, renal tubular injury, and seizures and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetase. Type II tyrosinemia features mental retardation, painful corneal ulcers, and keratoses of the palms and plantar surfaces and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme TYROSINE TRANSAMINASE. Type III tyrosinemia features mental retardation and is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 4-HYDROXYPHENYLPYRUVATE DIOXYGENASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp42-3)

Hereditary X linked Recessive Spastic Paraplegia
A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progessive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8)

Hereditary X-linked Recessive Spastic Paraplegia
A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progessive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8)

Hereditary, Spastic Paraplegia, Autosomal Dominant
A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progessive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8)

Hereditary, Spastic Paraplegia, X-linked Recessive
A group of inherited diseases that share similar phenotypes but are genetically diverse. Different genetic loci for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and x-linked forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia have been identified. Clinically, patients present with slowly progessive distal limb weakness and lower extremity spasticity. Peripheral sensory neurons may be affected in the later stages of the disease. (J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Jan;64(1):61-6; Curr Opin Neurol 1997 Aug;10(4):313-8)

Hereditary, Type III, Motor and Sensory Neuropathy
A group of slowly progressive inherited disorders affecting motor and sensory peripheral nerves. Subtypes include HMSNs I-VII. HMSN I and II both refer to CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE. HMSN III refers to hypertrophic neuropathy of infancy, HMSN IV refers to REFSUM DISEASE, HMSN V refers to a condition marked by a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with spastic paraplegia (see SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA, HEREDITARY). HMSN VI refers to HMSN associated with an inherited optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY), and HMSN VII refers to HMSN associated with retinitis pigmentosa. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)

Hereditary, Type VII, Motor and Sensory Neuropathy
A group of slowly progressive inherited disorders affecting motor and sensory peripheral nerves. Subtypes include HMSNs I-VII. HMSN I and II both refer to CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE. HMSN III refers to hypertrophic neuropathy of infancy, HMSN IV refers to REFSUM DISEASE, HMSN V refers to a condition marked by a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with spastic paraplegia (see SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA, HEREDITARY). HMSN VI refers to HMSN associated with an inherited optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY), and HMSN VII refers to HMSN associated with retinitis pigmentosa. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)

Hereditary-Degenerative Disorders, Nervous System
Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.

Hereditary-Motor and Sensory-Neuropathy Type IV
An autosomal recessive familial disorder that usually presents in childhood with POLYNEUROPATHY, sensorineural DEAFNESS; ICHTHYOSIS; ATAXIA; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; and cardiomyopathy. CEREBROSPINAL FLUID PROTEINS and serum PHYTANIC ACID are generally elevated. This condition is associated with the impaired metabolism of phytanic acid in PEROXISOMES. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1991, Ch37, p58-9; Rev Med Interne 1996;17(5):391-8)

Hereditary-Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type III
An autosomal disorder of the peripheral and autonomic nervous systems limited to individuals of Ashkenazic Jewish descent. Clinical manifestations are present at birth and include diminished lacrimation, defective thermoregulation, orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC), fixed pupils, excessive SWEATING, loss of pain and temperature sensation, and absent reflexes. Pathologic features include reduced numbers of small diameter peripheral nerve fibers and autonomic ganglion neurons. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1348; Nat Genet 1993;4(2):160-4)

Heredoataxia Polyneuritiformi, Hemeralopia
An autosomal recessive familial disorder that usually presents in childhood with POLYNEUROPATHY, sensorineural DEAFNESS; ICHTHYOSIS; ATAXIA; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; and cardiomyopathy. CEREBROSPINAL FLUID PROTEINS and serum PHYTANIC ACID are generally elevated. This condition is associated with the impaired metabolism of phytanic acid in PEROXISOMES. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1991, Ch37, p58-9; Rev Med Interne 1996;17(5):391-8)

Heredoataxia Polyneuritiformis, Hemeralopia
An autosomal recessive familial disorder that usually presents in childhood with POLYNEUROPATHY, sensorineural DEAFNESS; ICHTHYOSIS; ATAXIA; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; and cardiomyopathy. CEREBROSPINAL FLUID PROTEINS and serum PHYTANIC ACID are generally elevated. This condition is associated with the impaired metabolism of phytanic acid in PEROXISOMES. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1991, Ch37, p58-9; Rev Med Interne 1996;17(5):391-8)

Heredodegenerative Disorders, Nervous System
Inherited disorders characterized by progressive atrophy and dysfunction of anatomically or physiologically related neurologic systems.

Heredopathia Atactica Polyneuritiformis
An autosomal recessive familial disorder that usually presents in childhood with POLYNEUROPATHY, sensorineural DEAFNESS; ICHTHYOSIS; ATAXIA; RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; and cardiomyopathy. CEREBROSPINAL FLUID PROTEINS and serum PHYTANIC ACID are generally elevated. This condition is associated with the impaired metabolism of phytanic acid in PEROXISOMES. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1991, Ch37, p58-9; Rev Med Interne 1996;17(5):391-8)

Heregulin
A peptide factor originally identified by its ability to stimulate the phosphorylation the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2). It is a ligand for the erbB-3 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-3) and the erbB-4 receptor. Variant forms of NEUREGULIN-1 occur through alternative splicing of its mRNA.

Herellea
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family NEISSERIACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Heart failure
Inability of the heart to adequately pump blood.

Heat exhaustion
Headache, profuse sweating, weakness, muscle cramps, nausea and vomiting caused by excessive exposure to heat.

Hematuria
The presence of blood in the urine.

Hemolysis
The destruction of red blood cells.

Hemoptysis
A cough that produces blood.

Heredity

Herpes
A recurring viral skin infection characterized by clusters of small blisters. Typically, sores are located near the mouth (fever blisters or cold sores) or in the genital region (genital herpes).

Hexachlorophene
A detergent that kills germs.

Hiccup
A sudden, involuntary spasm of the diaphragm. The sound of hiccups is caused by the sudden intake of air.

Hidradenitis
Inflammation of the sweat glands.

Histoplasmosis
A fungal disease caused by inhaling the spores of Histoplasma capsulatum.

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