Hepatitis
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  Hepatitis



Hepatitis

    Inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be caused by viruses, bacteria, alcohol, toxic chemicals, and certain drugs. Symptoms include jaundice (yellowish skin caused by the buildup of bile pigments in the body), fever, appetite loss and gastrointestinal upset.

RELATED TERMS
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Inflammation
A reaction to an injury to the body - by infection, chemicals or physical agents. The symptoms can be - depending on the location of the injury- redness, swelling, heat and pain. The purpose of the inflammation is to dilute and destroy the agent causing the inflammation. To do this, the immune system starts a cascade of actions that causes active cells to gather at the affected location. It is these cells and fluids that cause the redness, swelling, heat and pain.

Liver
The largest organ in the body. The liver carries out many important functions, such as making bile, changing food into energy, and cleaning alcohol and poisons from the blood.

Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be caused by viruses, bacteria, alcohol, toxic chemicals, and certain drugs. Symptoms include jaundice (yellowish skin caused by the buildup of bile pigments in the body), fever, appetite loss and gastrointestinal upset.

Bacteria
Single-celled microorganisms which can exist either as independent (free-living) organisms or as parasites (dependent upon another organism for life).

Alcohol
An organic chemical in which one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups are attached to carbon (C) atoms in place of hydrogen (H) atoms. Common alcohols include ethyl alcohol or ethanol (found in alcoholic beverages), methyl alcohol or methanol (can cause blindness) and propyl alcohol or propanol (used as a solvent and antiseptic). Rubbing alcohol is a mixture of acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and ethyl alcohol. In everyday talk, alcohol usually refers to ethanol as, for example, in wine, beer, and liquor. It can cause changes in behavior and be addictive.

Toxic
Poisonous.

Drugs
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.

Jaundice
A condition in which the skin and the whites of the eyes become yellow, urine darkens, and the color of stool becomes lighter than normal. Jaundice occurs when the liver is not working properly or when a bile duct is blocked.

Skin
Skin is an organ of the integumentary system; which is composed of a layer of tissues that protect underlying muscles and organs. Skin is used for insulation, vitamin D production, sensation, and excretion (through sweat).

Bile
Fluid made by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile helps break down fats and gets rid of wastes in the body.

Fever
When body temperature rises above its normal level - defined as 98.6 degrees F, though it varies by individual and time of day. A fever is the sign of an immune system at work and usually indicates an infection.

Gastrointestinal
Having to do with the stomach and intestines.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Hepacivirus
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the only member and type species.

Hepaciviruses
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the only member and type species.

Hepadnaviridae
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).

Hepadnaviridae Infection
Virus diseases caused by the HEPADNAVIRIDAE.

Hepadnaviridae Infections
Virus diseases caused by the HEPADNAVIRIDAE.

Hepadnavirus
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).

Hepadnaviruses
A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).

Heparan Sulfate
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)

Heparin
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.

Heparin Antagonists
Coagulant substances inhibiting the anticoagulant action of heparin.

Heparin Binding Growth Factor, Class I
A 17 kD single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).

Heparin Binding Protein 44
A membrane protein found in the rough endoplasm reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) that binds to LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEINS. It may function to prevent ligand binding of receptors during protein processing events within endosomal compartments.

Heparin Binding Protein p30
A 24 kD HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.

Heparin Binding Protein, 39 kDa
A membrane protein found in the rough endoplasm reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) that binds to LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEINS. It may function to prevent ligand binding of receptors during protein processing events within endosomal compartments.

Heparin Clearing Factor
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.

Heparin Co Factor I
A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes; it was formerly called Antithrombin II (AT II) which has now been shown to be identical to AT III; deficiency of AT III (ANTITHROMBIN III DEFICIENCY), hereditary or acquired, results in thromboembolism. It is a member of the serpin superfamily. Some authors use the term antithrombin to refer to antithrombin III.

Heparin Co Factor II
A sulfated plasma protein with the MW of approximately 66kDa that resembles ANTITHROMBIN III. The protein is an inhibitor of thrombin in plasma and is activated by dermatan sulfate or heparin. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.

Heparin Co-Factor I
A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes; it was formerly called Antithrombin II (AT II) which has now been shown to be identical to AT III; deficiency of AT III (ANTITHROMBIN III DEFICIENCY), hereditary or acquired, results in thromboembolism. It is a member of the serpin superfamily. Some authors use the term antithrombin to refer to antithrombin III.

Heparin Co-Factor II
A sulfated plasma protein with the MW of approximately 66kDa that resembles ANTITHROMBIN III. The protein is an inhibitor of thrombin in plasma and is activated by dermatan sulfate or heparin. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.

Heparin Cofactor I
A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes; it was formerly called Antithrombin II (AT II) which has now been shown to be identical to AT III; deficiency of AT III (ANTITHROMBIN III DEFICIENCY), hereditary or acquired, results in thromboembolism. It is a member of the serpin superfamily. Some authors use the term antithrombin to refer to antithrombin III.

Heparin Cofactor II
A sulfated plasma protein with the MW of approximately 66kDa that resembles ANTITHROMBIN III. The protein is an inhibitor of thrombin in plasma and is activated by dermatan sulfate or heparin. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.

Heparin Eliminase
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.

Heparin Lock (Heplock)
A small tube connected to a catheter in a vein in the arm for easy access.

Heparin lock flush
Heparin lock flush is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin lock flush in plastic container
Heparin lock flush in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin lock flush preservative free
Heparin lock flush preservative free is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin lock flush preservative free in plastic container
Heparin lock flush preservative free in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin Lyase
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.

Heparin Neutralizing Protein
A high-molecular-weight proteoglycan-platelet factor complex which is released from blood platelets by thrombin. It acts as a mediator in the heparin-neutralizing capacity of the blood and plays a role in platelet aggregation. At high ionic strength (I=0.75), the complex dissociates into the active component (molecular weight 29,000) and the proteoglycan carrier (chondroitin 4-sulfate, molecular weight 350,000). The molecule exists in the form of a dimer consisting of 8 moles of platelet factor 4 and 2 moles of proteoglycan.

Heparin sodium
Heparin sodium is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 1,000 units and sodium chloride 0.9 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 1,000 units and sodium chloride 0.9 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 1,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 1,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 1,000 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 1,000 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 10,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent
Heparin sodium 10,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 10,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 10,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 10,000 units in sodium chloride 0.45 per cent
Heparin sodium 10,000 units in sodium chloride 0.45 per cent is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 10,000 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent
Heparin sodium 10,000 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 12,500 units in dextrose 5 per cent
Heparin sodium 12,500 units in dextrose 5 per cent is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 12,500 units in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 12,500 units in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 12,500 units in sodium chloride 0.45 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 12,500 units in sodium chloride 0.45 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 12,500 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent
Heparin sodium 12,500 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 2,000 units and sodium chloride 0.9 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 2,000 units and sodium chloride 0.9 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 2,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 2,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 2,000 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 2,000 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 20,000 units and dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 20,000 units and dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 20,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 20,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 25,000 units and dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 25,000 units and dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 25,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent
Heparin sodium 25,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 25,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 25,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 25,000 units in sodium chloride 0.45 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 25,000 units in sodium chloride 0.45 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 25,000 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent
Heparin sodium 25,000 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 25,000 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 25,000 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 5,000 units and sodium chloride 0.9 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 5,000 units and sodium chloride 0.9 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 5,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 5,000 units in dextrose 5 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 5,000 units in sodium chloride 0.45 per cent
Heparin sodium 5,000 units in sodium chloride 0.45 per cent is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 5,000 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent
Heparin sodium 5,000 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium 5,000 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent in plastic container
Heparin sodium 5,000 units in sodium chloride 0.9 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium in plastic container
Heparin sodium in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin sodium preservative free
Heparin sodium preservative free is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): heparin sodium.

Heparin, Low Molecular Weight
Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.

Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight
Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.

Heparin, Sodium
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.

Heparin-Binding Fibroblast Growth Factor Class I
A 17 kD single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).

Heparin-Binding Growth Factor Class II
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).

Heparin-Binding Growth Factor, Class I
A 17 kD single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).

Heparin-Binding Protein 44
A membrane protein found in the rough endoplasm reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) that binds to LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEINS. It may function to prevent ligand binding of receptors during protein processing events within endosomal compartments.

Heparin-Binding Protein p30
A 24 kD HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.

Heparin-Binding Protein, 39-kDa
A membrane protein found in the rough endoplasm reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) that binds to LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEINS. It may function to prevent ligand binding of receptors during protein processing events within endosomal compartments.

Heparin-Clearing Factor
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.

Heparinase
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.

Heparinase I
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.

Heparinic Acid
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.

Heparinoid
Heparin derivatives. The term has also been used more loosely to include naturally occurring and synthetic highly-sulphated polysaccharides of similar structure. Heparinoid preparations have been used for a wide range of applications including as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories and they have been claimed to have hypolipidemic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th, p232)

Heparinoids
Heparin derivatives. The term has also been used more loosely to include naturally occurring and synthetic highly-sulphated polysaccharides of similar structure. Heparinoid preparations have been used for a wide range of applications including as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories and they have been claimed to have hypolipidemic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th, p232)

Heparitin Sulfate
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.

Hepatamine 8 per cent
Hepatamine 8 per cent is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): amino acids.

Hepatasol 8 per cent
Hepatasol 8 per cent is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): amino acids.

Hepatectomies
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hepatectomy
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hepati, Peliosis
A condition in which microscopic pools of blood are present throughout the liver parenchyma, which may lead to congestion and necrosis.

Hepatic
Related to the liver.

Hepatic Abscess
Solitary or multiple collections of pus within the liver. It is usually associated with systemic manifestations of toxemia and clinical signs of disease in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. It was known in ancient times to Hippocrates and Celsus. (Bockus, Gastroenterology, 4th ed, p3288-9)

Hepatic Abscess, Amoebic
Liver abscess caused by ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.

Hepatic Abscesses
Solitary or multiple collections of pus within the liver. It is usually associated with systemic manifestations of toxemia and clinical signs of disease in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. It was known in ancient times to Hippocrates and Celsus. (Bockus, Gastroenterology, 4th ed, p3288-9)

Hepatic Abscesses, Amoebic
Liver abscess caused by ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.

Hepatic Alveolar Echinococci
Helminth infection of the liver caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

Hepatic Alveolar Echinococcis
Helminth infection of the liver caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

Hepatic Alveolar Echinococcoses
Helminth infection of the liver caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

Hepatic Alveolar Echinococcosis
Helminth infection of the liver caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

Hepatic Amebiasis
Liver abscess caused by ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.

Hepatic Amoebiasis
Liver abscess caused by ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.

Hepatic Arteries
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.

Hepatic Artery
A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.

Hepatic Cancer
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.

Hepatic Cancers
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.

Hepatic Cell
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.

Hepatic Cells
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.

Hepatic Cirrhoses
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.

Hepatic Cirrhosis
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.

Hepatic coma
A condition that may cause loss of consciousness and coma. It is usually the result of advanced liver disease. Also called hepatic encephalopathy.

Hepatic Coma
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); asterixis; NYSTAGMUS; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)

Hepatic Comas
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); asterixis; NYSTAGMUS; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)

Hepatic Duct
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.

Hepatic Duct, Common
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.

Hepatic Ducts
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.

Hepatic Ducts, Common
Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.

Hepatic Echinococcoses
Helminth infection of the liver caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

Hepatic Echinococcosis
Helminth infection of the liver caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

Hepatic Encephalopathies
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); asterixis; NYSTAGMUS; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)

Hepatic encephalopathy
A condition that may cause loss of consciousness and coma. It is usually the result of advanced liver disease. Also called hepatic coma.

Hepatic Encephalopathy
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); asterixis; NYSTAGMUS; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)

Hepatic Entamoebiasis
Liver abscess caused by ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.

Hepatic Failure, Acute
A form of liver failure with rapid onset. It is often induced by the toxic effect of drugs and various toxic substances in experimental studies in animals and in clinical states in humans. If coma ensues, the constellation of neurological symptoms is referred to as HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY.

Hepatic Form of Wilson Disease
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. Clinical features include LIVER CIRRHOSIS; LIVER FAILURE; SPLENOMEGALY; TREMOR; bradykinesia; DYSARTHRIA; CHOREA; MUSCLE RIGIDITY; Kayser-Fleischer rings (pigmented corneal lesions); ATAXIA; and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed pp969-71)

Hepatic Glycogen
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hepatic Hydatid Cyst
Helminth infection of the liver caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

Hepatic Hydatid Cysts
Helminth infection of the liver caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

Hepatic Hydatidoses
Helminth infection of the liver caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

Hepatic Hydatidosis
Helminth infection of the liver caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.

Hepatic Neoplasm
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.

Hepatic Neoplasms
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.

Hepatic Porphyria
Porphyria in which the liver is the site where excess formation of porphyrin or its precursors is found. PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT and PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA are types of hepatic porphyria.

Hepatic Porphyrias
Porphyria in which the liver is the site where excess formation of porphyrin or its precursors is found. PORPHYRIA, ACUTE INTERMITTENT and PORPHYRIA CUTANEA TARDA are types of hepatic porphyria.

Hepatic Portoenterostomies
Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.

Hepatic Portoenterostomy
Operation for biliary atresia by anastomosis of the bile ducts into the jejunum or duodenum.

Hepatic Proliferation Inhibitor
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ORNITHINE and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.

Hepatic Stupor
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); asterixis; NYSTAGMUS; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)

Hepatic Stupors
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); asterixis; NYSTAGMUS; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)

Hepatic Transplantation
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.

Hepatic Transplantations
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.

Hepatic Tuberculoses
Infection of the liver with tubercle bacilli producing localized granulomata, miliary lesions, or tuberculoma.

Hepatic Tuberculosis
Infection of the liver with tubercle bacilli producing localized granulomata, miliary lesions, or tuberculoma.

Hepatic Vein
Veins which drain the liver.

Hepatic Vein Thromboses
Occlusion of the hepatic veins caused by thrombi or fibrous obliteration of the veins.

Hepatic Vein Thrombosis
Occlusion of the hepatic veins caused by thrombi or fibrous obliteration of the veins.

Hepatic Veins
Veins which drain the liver.

Hepatic Veno Occlusive Disease
Blockage of the small- or medium-sized hepatic veins due to nonthrombotic subendothelial edema which may progress to fibrosis.

Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease
Blockage of the small- or medium-sized hepatic veins due to nonthrombotic subendothelial edema which may progress to fibrosis.

Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Diseases
Blockage of the small- or medium-sized hepatic veins due to nonthrombotic subendothelial edema which may progress to fibrosis.

Hepaticola hepatica
A genus of trichuroid nematodes parasitic in the liver and intestines of many mammals and birds. Two species, C. hepatica and C. philippinensis, produce often fatal infections in man.

Hepatis, Peliosis
A condition in which microscopic pools of blood are present throughout the liver parenchyma, which may lead to congestion and necrosis.

Hepatitides
Inflammation of the liver and liver disease involving degenerative or necrotic alterations of hepatocytes.

Hepatitides, Autoimmune
An unresolving, predominately periportal, hepatitis, usually with hypergammaglobulinemia and serum autoantibodies. The existence of subgroups (types 1, 2, and 3) based on serological findings are controversial. Additionally, some patients have variant forms, where there are features associated with both autoimmune hepatitis and another type of chronic liver disease (overlap syndromes) or where there are findings incompatible with autoimmune hepatitis (outlier syndromes). (From Czaja, Ann Intern Med. 1996; 125:588-598)

Hepatitides, Canine Infectious
An adenovirus infection causing fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs, especially puppies. In foxes it causes acute encephalitis with convulsions, paralysis, coma, and death.

Hepatitides, Chronic
A collective term for a clinical and pathological syndrome which has several causes and is characterized by varying degrees of hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation. Specific forms of chronic hepatitis include autoimmune hepatitis (HEPATITIS, AUTOIMMUNE), chronic hepatitis B; (HEPATITIS B, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis C; (HEPATITIS C, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis D; (HEPATITIS D, CHRONIC), indeterminate chronic viral hepatitis, cryptogenic chronic hepatitis and drug-related chronic hepatitis (HEPATITIS, CHRONIC, DRUG-INDUCED).

Hepatitides, Chronic Active
A collective term for a clinical and pathological syndrome which has several causes and is characterized by varying degrees of hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation. Specific forms of chronic hepatitis include autoimmune hepatitis (HEPATITIS, AUTOIMMUNE), chronic hepatitis B; (HEPATITIS B, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis C; (HEPATITIS C, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis D; (HEPATITIS D, CHRONIC), indeterminate chronic viral hepatitis, cryptogenic chronic hepatitis and drug-related chronic hepatitis (HEPATITIS, CHRONIC, DRUG-INDUCED).

Hepatitides, Chronic Delta
Inflammatory disease of the liver caused by hepatitis D virus in conjunction with hepatitis B virus and lasting six months or more.

Hepatitides, Cryptogenic Chronic
A collective term for a clinical and pathological syndrome which has several causes and is characterized by varying degrees of hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation. Specific forms of chronic hepatitis include autoimmune hepatitis (HEPATITIS, AUTOIMMUNE), chronic hepatitis B; (HEPATITIS B, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis C; (HEPATITIS C, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis D; (HEPATITIS D, CHRONIC), indeterminate chronic viral hepatitis, cryptogenic chronic hepatitis and drug-related chronic hepatitis (HEPATITIS, CHRONIC, DRUG-INDUCED).

Hepatitides, Delta
Hepatitis caused by the HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in association with hepatitis B. It is endemic in some European countries and is seen in drug users, hemophiliacs, and polytransfused persons.

Hepatitides, Drug-Induced
Acute hepatitis caused by true hepatotoxins such as Amanita phaloides toxin, carbon tetrachloride, yellow phosphorus, and a variety of drugs. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Hepatitides, Infectious
Hepatitis caused by HEPATOVIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.

Hepatitides, Infectious Canine
An adenovirus infection causing fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs, especially puppies. In foxes it causes acute encephalitis with convulsions, paralysis, coma, and death.

Hepatitides, Toxic
Acute hepatitis caused by true hepatotoxins such as Amanita phaloides toxin, carbon tetrachloride, yellow phosphorus, and a variety of drugs. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Hepatitides, Water-Borne
An acute form of hepatitis caused by a virus serologically distinct from the agents of hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis E is associated with fecally-contaminated water, is enterically transmitted, and is commonly found in tropical or subtropical countries.

Hepatitis A
A virus most often spread by unclean food and water.

Hepatitis A Vaccine
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).

Hepatitis A Vaccines
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).

Hepatitis A virus
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HEPATITIS A, HUMAN and Simian hepatitis A virus.

Hepatitis A Virus, Human
A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.

Hepatitis A viruses
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HEPATITIS A, HUMAN and Simian hepatitis A virus.

Hepatitis Agents, GB
Proposed members of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. ""GB"" originated from the initials of a surgeon who supplied the serum that was passaged in primates.

Hepatitis Antibodies
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.

Hepatitis Antigens
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.

Hepatitis B
A virus commonly spread by sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, from mother to newborn at birth, or by using a needle that was used by an infected person. Hepatitis B is more common and much more easily spread than the AIDS virus and may lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Hepatitis B Antibodies
Antibodies to the hepatitis B antigens, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the ""e"" antigens.

Hepatitis B Antigens
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.

Hepatitis B Core Antigen
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.

Hepatitis B Core Antigens
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.

Hepatitis B e Antigens
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.

Hepatitis B Surface Antigen
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.

Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.

Hepatitis B vaccine
The vaccine against hepatitis B, a virus that affects primarily the liver. This series of three shots, given between birth and 2 weeks and at 2 and 6 months, may cause fussiness, low-grade fever,headache, and soreness at the injection site.

Hepatitis B Vaccine
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.

Hepatitis B Vaccines
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.

Hepatitis B Virus
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human hepatitis B and is also apparently a causal agent in human hepatocellular carcinoma. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.

Hepatitis B Virus Antibodies
Antibodies to the hepatitis B antigens, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the ""e"" antigens.

Hepatitis B Virus, Duck
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.

Hepatitis B Virus, Ground Squirrel
A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE causing hepatitis in humans, woodchucks (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK) and ground squirrels. HEPATITIS B VIRUS is the type species.

Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.

Hepatitis B Viruses
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human hepatitis B and is also apparently a causal agent in human hepatocellular carcinoma. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.

Hepatitis B Viruses, Duck
A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.

Hepatitis B, Chronic
An inflammatory disease of the liver caused by hepatitis B virus and lasting six months or more.

Hepatitis Be Antigens
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.

Hepatitis C
A virus spread by blood transfusion and possibly by sexual intercourse or sharing needles with infected people. Hepatitis C may lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis C used to be called non-A, non-B hepatitis.

Hepatitis C Antibodies
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.

Hepatitis C Antigen
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.

Hepatitis C Antigens
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.

Hepatitis C Like Viruses
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the only member and type species.

Hepatitis C Virus
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the only member and type species.

Hepatitis C Virus Antibodies
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.

Hepatitis C Viruses
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the only member and type species.

Hepatitis C, Chronic
An inflammatory disease of the liver caused by hepatitis C virus lasting six months or more.

Hepatitis C-Like Virus
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the only member and type species.

Hepatitis C-Like Viruses
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the only member and type species.

Hepatitis D
Hepatitis caused by the HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in association with hepatitis B. It is endemic in some European countries and is seen in drug users, hemophiliacs, and polytransfused persons.

Hepatitis D (Delta)
A virus that occurs mostly in people who take illegal drugs by using needles. Only people who have hepatitis B can get hepatitis D.

Hepatitis D Virus
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.

Hepatitis D Viruses
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.

Hepatitis D, Chronic
Inflammatory disease of the liver caused by hepatitis D virus in conjunction with hepatitis B virus and lasting six months or more.

Hepatitis Delta Virus
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.

Hepatitis Delta Viruses
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.

Hepatitis E
A virus spread mostly through unclean water. This type of hepatitis is common in developing countries and has not occurred in the United States.

Hepatitis E virus
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in an unassigned genus, Hepatitis E-like Viruses, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).

Hepatitis G virus
A species of virus (unassigned to a genus) in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. It is genetically heterogeneous, of human origin, and transmitted by blood or blood products. Despite its alternate name (Hepatitis G virus), its pathogenicity remains controversial.

Hepatitis Non A, Non B Antigen
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.

Hepatitis Non-A, Non-B Antigen
Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.

Hepatitis Vaccines, Viral
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.

Hepatitis Virus
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.

Hepatitis Virus (MHV) Glycoprotein E2
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.

Hepatitis Virus, Canine
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.

Hepatitis Virus, Duck
Unassigned species, in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE, causing high mortality in ducklings 3 days to 3 weeks old.

Hepatitis Virus, Homologous Serum
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human hepatitis B and is also apparently a causal agent in human hepatocellular carcinoma. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.

Hepatitis Virus, Infectious
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.

Hepatitis Virus, Infectious Canine
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.

Hepatitis Virus, Marmoset
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.

Hepatitis Virus, Mouse
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).

Hepatitis virus, Murine
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).

Hepatitis Virus, Woodchuck
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.

Hepatitis Viruses
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.

Hepatitis Viruses, Canine
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS that causes fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs and encephalitis in foxes. Epizootics have also been caused in bears, wolves, coyotes, and skunks. The official species name is Canine adenovirus and it contains two serotypes.

Hepatitis Viruses, GB
Proposed members of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. ""GB"" originated from the initials of a surgeon who supplied the serum that was passaged in primates.

Hepatitis Viruses, Infectious
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.

Hepatitis Viruses, Marmoset
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.

Hepatitis Viruses, Mouse
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).

Hepatitis Viruses, Woodchuck
An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.

Hepatitis, Alcoholic
An acute or chronic degenerative and inflammatory lesion of the liver in the alcoholic which is potentially progressive though sometimes reversible. It does not necessarily include steatosis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis of alcoholics, although it is frequently associated with these conditions. It is characterized by liver cell necrosis, infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes, and Mallory bodies. The morphologic changes of chronic alcoholic hepatitis are not likely to be confused with chronic hepatitis (HEPATITIS, CHRONIC).

Hepatitis, Alcoholic, Chronic
An acute or chronic degenerative and inflammatory lesion of the liver in the alcoholic which is potentially progressive though sometimes reversible. It does not necessarily include steatosis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis of alcoholics, although it is frequently associated with these conditions. It is characterized by liver cell necrosis, infiltration by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes, and Mallory bodies. The morphologic changes of chronic alcoholic hepatitis are not likely to be confused with chronic hepatitis (HEPATITIS, CHRONIC).

Hepatitis, Autoimmune
An unresolving, predominately periportal, hepatitis, usually with hypergammaglobulinemia and serum autoantibodies. The existence of subgroups (types 1, 2, and 3) based on serological findings are controversial. Additionally, some patients have variant forms, where there are features associated with both autoimmune hepatitis and another type of chronic liver disease (overlap syndromes) or where there are findings incompatible with autoimmune hepatitis (outlier syndromes). (From Czaja, Ann Intern Med. 1996; 125:588-598)

Hepatitis, Canine Infectious
An adenovirus infection causing fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs, especially puppies. In foxes it causes acute encephalitis with convulsions, paralysis, coma, and death.

Hepatitis, Chronic
A collective term for a clinical and pathological syndrome which has several causes and is characterized by varying degrees of hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation. Specific forms of chronic hepatitis include autoimmune hepatitis (HEPATITIS, AUTOIMMUNE), chronic hepatitis B; (HEPATITIS B, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis C; (HEPATITIS C, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis D; (HEPATITIS D, CHRONIC), indeterminate chronic viral hepatitis, cryptogenic chronic hepatitis and drug-related chronic hepatitis (HEPATITIS, CHRONIC, DRUG-INDUCED).

Hepatitis, Chronic Active
A collective term for a clinical and pathological syndrome which has several causes and is characterized by varying degrees of hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation. Specific forms of chronic hepatitis include autoimmune hepatitis (HEPATITIS, AUTOIMMUNE), chronic hepatitis B; (HEPATITIS B, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis C; (HEPATITIS C, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis D; (HEPATITIS D, CHRONIC), indeterminate chronic viral hepatitis, cryptogenic chronic hepatitis and drug-related chronic hepatitis (HEPATITIS, CHRONIC, DRUG-INDUCED).

Hepatitis, Chronic Delta
Inflammatory disease of the liver caused by hepatitis D virus in conjunction with hepatitis B virus and lasting six months or more.

Hepatitis, Chronic, Cryptogenic
A collective term for a clinical and pathological syndrome which has several causes and is characterized by varying degrees of hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation. Specific forms of chronic hepatitis include autoimmune hepatitis (HEPATITIS, AUTOIMMUNE), chronic hepatitis B; (HEPATITIS B, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis C; (HEPATITIS C, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis D; (HEPATITIS D, CHRONIC), indeterminate chronic viral hepatitis, cryptogenic chronic hepatitis and drug-related chronic hepatitis (HEPATITIS, CHRONIC, DRUG-INDUCED).

Hepatitis, Chronic, Drug-Induced
An inflammatory disease of the liver, lasting six months or more, and caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite. The clinical and histological changes can mimic viral or autoimmune hepatitis.

Hepatitis, Chronic, Drug-Related
An inflammatory disease of the liver, lasting six months or more, and caused by an adverse drug effect. The adverse effect may result from a direct toxic effect of a drug or metabolite, or an idiosyncratic response to a drug or metabolite. The clinical and histological changes can mimic viral or autoimmune hepatitis.

Hepatitis, Cryptogenic Chronic
A collective term for a clinical and pathological syndrome which has several causes and is characterized by varying degrees of hepatocellular necrosis and inflammation. Specific forms of chronic hepatitis include autoimmune hepatitis (HEPATITIS, AUTOIMMUNE), chronic hepatitis B; (HEPATITIS B, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis C; (HEPATITIS C, CHRONIC), chronic hepatitis D; (HEPATITIS D, CHRONIC), indeterminate chronic viral hepatitis, cryptogenic chronic hepatitis and drug-related chronic hepatitis (HEPATITIS, CHRONIC, DRUG-INDUCED).

Hepatitis, Delta
Hepatitis caused by the HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in association with hepatitis B. It is endemic in some European countries and is seen in drug users, hemophiliacs, and polytransfused persons.

Hepatitis, Drug Induced
Acute hepatitis caused by true hepatotoxins such as Amanita phaloides toxin, carbon tetrachloride, yellow phosphorus, and a variety of drugs. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Hepatitis, Drug-Induced
Acute hepatitis caused by true hepatotoxins such as Amanita phaloides toxin, carbon tetrachloride, yellow phosphorus, and a variety of drugs. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Hepatitis, Infectious
Hepatitis caused by HEPATOVIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.

Hepatitis, Infectious Canine
An adenovirus infection causing fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs, especially puppies. In foxes it causes acute encephalitis with convulsions, paralysis, coma, and death.

Hepatitis, Toxic
Acute hepatitis caused by true hepatotoxins such as Amanita phaloides toxin, carbon tetrachloride, yellow phosphorus, and a variety of drugs. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Hepatitis, Viral, Animal
Viral hepatitis in animals.

Hepatitis, Viral, Human
Viral hepatitis in man.

Hepatitis, Viral, Non-A, Non-B, Enterically-Transmitted
An acute form of hepatitis caused by a virus serologically distinct from the agents of hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis E is associated with fecally-contaminated water, is enterically transmitted, and is commonly found in tropical or subtropical countries.

Hepatitis, Viral, Non-A, Non-B, Parenterally-Transmitted
A form of hepatitis, similar to type B post-transfusion hepatitis, but caused by a virus which is serologically distinct from the agents of hepatitis A, B, and E, and which may persist in the blood of chronic asymptomatic carriers. Hepatitis C is parenterally transmitted and associated with transfusions and drug abuse.

Hepatitis, Viral, Vaccines
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.

Hepatitis, Water Borne
An acute form of hepatitis caused by a virus serologically distinct from the agents of hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis E is associated with fecally-contaminated water, is enterically transmitted, and is commonly found in tropical or subtropical countries.

Hepatitis, Water-Borne
An acute form of hepatitis caused by a virus serologically distinct from the agents of hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis E is associated with fecally-contaminated water, is enterically transmitted, and is commonly found in tropical or subtropical countries.

Hepato Neurologic Wilson Disease
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. Clinical features include LIVER CIRRHOSIS; LIVER FAILURE; SPLENOMEGALY; TREMOR; bradykinesia; DYSARTHRIA; CHOREA; MUSCLE RIGIDITY; Kayser-Fleischer rings (pigmented corneal lesions); ATAXIA; and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed pp969-71)

Hepato Pulmonary Syndrome
A syndrome consisting of the triad of liver dysfunction, pulmonary vascular dilatation, and abnormal arterial oxygenation in the absence of detectable intrinsic disease of the lung and heart.

Hepato-Neurologic Wilson Disease
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. Clinical features include LIVER CIRRHOSIS; LIVER FAILURE; SPLENOMEGALY; TREMOR; bradykinesia; DYSARTHRIA; CHOREA; MUSCLE RIGIDITY; Kayser-Fleischer rings (pigmented corneal lesions); ATAXIA; and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed pp969-71)

Hepato-Neurologic Wilson Diseases
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. Clinical features include LIVER CIRRHOSIS; LIVER FAILURE; SPLENOMEGALY; TREMOR; bradykinesia; DYSARTHRIA; CHOREA; MUSCLE RIGIDITY; Kayser-Fleischer rings (pigmented corneal lesions); ATAXIA; and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed pp969-71)

Hepato-Pulmonary Syndrome
A syndrome consisting of the triad of liver dysfunction, pulmonary vascular dilatation, and abnormal arterial oxygenation in the absence of detectable intrinsic disease of the lung and heart.

Hepato-Pulmonary Syndromes
A syndrome consisting of the triad of liver dysfunction, pulmonary vascular dilatation, and abnormal arterial oxygenation in the absence of detectable intrinsic disease of the lung and heart.

Hepatoblastoma
A malignant neoplasm occurring in young children, primarily in the liver, composed of tissue resembling embryonal or fetal hepatic epithelium, or mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Hepatoblastomas
A malignant neoplasm occurring in young children, primarily in the liver, composed of tissue resembling embryonal or fetal hepatic epithelium, or mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Hepatocellular Adenoma
A benign epithelial tumor of the liver.

Hepatocellular Adenomas
A benign epithelial tumor of the liver.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Primary carcinoma of the liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor difficult to distinguish from normal hepatocytes to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic or may form giant cells. Several classification schemes have been suggested.

Hepatocellular Carcinomas
Primary carcinoma of the liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor difficult to distinguish from normal hepatocytes to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic or may form giant cells. Several classification schemes have been suggested.

Hepatocerebral Degeneration
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. Clinical features include LIVER CIRRHOSIS; LIVER FAILURE; SPLENOMEGALY; TREMOR; bradykinesia; DYSARTHRIA; CHOREA; MUSCLE RIGIDITY; Kayser-Fleischer rings (pigmented corneal lesions); ATAXIA; and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed pp969-71)

Hepatocerebral Degenerations
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. Clinical features include LIVER CIRRHOSIS; LIVER FAILURE; SPLENOMEGALY; TREMOR; bradykinesia; DYSARTHRIA; CHOREA; MUSCLE RIGIDITY; Kayser-Fleischer rings (pigmented corneal lesions); ATAXIA; and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed pp969-71)

Hepatocerebral Encephalopathies
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); asterixis; NYSTAGMUS; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)

Hepatocerebral Encephalopathy
A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); asterixis; NYSTAGMUS; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)

Hepatocyte
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.

Hepatocyte Growth Factor
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-MET.

Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor for HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR. It consists of an extracellular alpha chain which is disulfide-linked to the transmembrane beta chain. The cytoplasmic portion contains the catalytic domain and critical sites for the regulation of kinase activity. Mutations of the gene for PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-MET are associated with papillary renal carcinoma and other neoplasia. EC 2.7.11.-.

Hepatocyte Stimulating Factor
Factor that stimulates the growth and differentiation of human B-cells and is also a growth factor for hybridomas and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-cells, monocytes, and fibroblasts.

Hepatocyte-Stimulating Factor
Factor that stimulates the growth and differentiation of human B-cells and is also a growth factor for hybridomas and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-cells, monocytes, and fibroblasts.

Hepatocytes
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.

Hepatolenticular Degeneration
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. Clinical features include LIVER CIRRHOSIS; LIVER FAILURE; SPLENOMEGALY; TREMOR; bradykinesia; DYSARTHRIA; CHOREA; MUSCLE RIGIDITY; Kayser-Fleischer rings (pigmented corneal lesions); ATAXIA; and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed pp969-71)

Hepatolite
Hepatolite is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): technetium tc-99m disofenin kit.

Hepatologist
A doctor who specializes in liver diseases.

Hepatology
The field of medicine concerned with the functions and disorders of the liver.

Hepatoma
Primary carcinoma of the liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor difficult to distinguish from normal hepatocytes to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic or may form giant cells. Several classification schemes have been suggested.

Hepatoma, Benign
A benign epithelial tumor of the liver.

Hepatoma, Experimental
Experimentally induced tumors of the liver.

Hepatoma, Morris
Experimentally induced tumors of the liver.

Hepatoma, Novikoff
Experimentally induced tumors of the liver.

Hepatomas
Primary carcinoma of the liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor difficult to distinguish from normal hepatocytes to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic or may form giant cells. Several classification schemes have been suggested.

Hepatomas, Benign
A benign epithelial tumor of the liver.

Hepatomas, Experimental
Experimentally induced tumors of the liver.

Hepatomegaly
Enlargement of the liver.

Hepatopancreatic Ampulla
The hepatopancreatic ampulla. A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct.

Hepatopancreatic Ampullas
The hepatopancreatic ampulla. A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct.

Hepatopoietin
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-MET.

Hepatopoietin A
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-MET.

Hepatopulmonary Syndrome
A syndrome consisting of the triad of liver dysfunction, pulmonary vascular dilatation, and abnormal arterial oxygenation in the absence of detectable intrinsic disease of the lung and heart.

Hepatopulmonary Syndromes
A syndrome consisting of the triad of liver dysfunction, pulmonary vascular dilatation, and abnormal arterial oxygenation in the absence of detectable intrinsic disease of the lung and heart.

Hepatorenal Glycogen Storage Disease
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.

Hepatorenal Syndrome
Renal failure in those with liver disease, usually liver cirrhosis or obstructive jaundice. Historically called Heyd disease, urohepatic syndrome, or bile nephrosis.

Hepatorenal Syndromes
Renal failure in those with liver disease, usually liver cirrhosis or obstructive jaundice. Historically called Heyd disease, urohepatic syndrome, or bile nephrosis.

Hepatovirus
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.

Hepatovirus Vaccines
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).

Hepatoviruses
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.



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Hemorrhage
A general term for loss of blood, often profuse, brought about by injury to the blood vessels or by a deficiency of certain necessary blood elements such as platelets.

Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is a substance contained within the red blood cells and is responsible for their color. It has the unique property of combining reversibly with oxygen and is the medium by which oxygen is transported within the body. It takes up oxygen as blood passes through the lungs and releases it as blood passes through the tissues.

Hormone
A chemical substance formed in the body that is carried in the bloodstream to affect another part of the body; an example is thyroid hormone, produced by the thyroid gland in the neck, which affects growth, temperature regulation, metabolic rate, and other body functions.

Hepatitis

Haploid
A single set of chromosomes (half the full set of genetic material), present in the egg and sperm cells of animals and in the egg and pollen cells of plants. Human beings have 23 chromosomes in their reproductive cells.

Hermaphrodite
An individual with both male and female genitalia.

High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
The "good" cholesterol that helps remove cholesterol from cells. If insulin levels go up, then HDL levels go down. The lower your HDL level, the more likely you are to suffer cardiovascular complications.

Hippocampus
The portion of the limbic system in the brain that integrates incoming nerve impulses to the hypothalamus. It is also the memory center of the brain.

Hormones
Biological compounds that communicate information at a distance. Hormones require specific receptors to begin their biological action and use second messengers to initiate the cellular process that uses that information.

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