Hemorrhage
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  Hemorrhage



Hemorrhage

    A general term for loss of blood, often profuse, brought about by injury to the blood vessels or by a deficiency of certain necessary blood elements such as platelets.

RELATED TERMS
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Blood
The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.

Injury
Injury is damage or harm caused to the structure or function of the body caused by an outside agent or force, which may be physical or chemical.

Elements
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.

Platelets
Cells found in the blood.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Hemobilia
Hemorrhage in or through the biliary tract, due to trauma, inflammation, cholelithiasis, vascular disease, or neoplasms.

Hemobilias
Hemorrhage in or through the biliary tract, due to trauma, inflammation, cholelithiasis, vascular disease, or neoplasms.

Hemochromatoses
A disorder due to the deposition of hemosiderin in the parenchymal cells, causing tissue damage and dysfunction of the liver, pancreas, heart, and pituitary. Full development of the disease in women is restricted by menstruation, pregnancy, and lower dietary intake of iron. Acquired hemochromatosis may be the result of blood transfusions, excessive dietary iron, or secondary to other disease. Idiopathic or genetic hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder of metabolism associated with a gene tightly linked to the A locus of the HLA complex on chromosome 6. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Hemochromatosis
A disorder due to the deposition of hemosiderin in the parenchymal cells, causing tissue damage and dysfunction of the liver, pancreas, heart, and pituitary. Full development of the disease in women is restricted by menstruation, pregnancy, and lower dietary intake of iron. Acquired hemochromatosis may be the result of blood transfusions, excessive dietary iron, or secondary to other disease. Idiopathic or genetic hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder of metabolism associated with a gene tightly linked to the A locus of the HLA complex on chromosome 6.

Hemoclar
A sulfated pentosyl polysaccharide with heparin-like properties.

Hemocoagulase
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.

Hemocuprein
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.

Hemocyte
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.

Hemocytes
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.

Hemodex
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.

Hemodiafiltration
The combination of hemodialysis and hemofiltration either simultaneously or sequentially. Convective transport (hemofiltration) may be better for removal of larger molecular weight substances and diffusive transport (hemodialysis) for smaller molecular weight solutes.

Hemodialysates
Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).

Hemodialyses
Removal of certain elements from the blood based on the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane.

Hemodialyses, Home
Long-term maintenance hemodialysis in the home.

Hemodialysis
A mechanical method of cleaning the blood for people who have kidney disease. See also: Dialysis.

Hemodialysis Dialysis Solutions
Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).

Hemodialysis Solutions
Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).

Hemodialysis Unit, Hospital
Hospital units in which care is provided the hemodialysis patient. This includes hemodialysis centers in hospitals.

Hemodialysis Units, Hospital
Hospital units in which care is provided the hemodialysis patient. This includes hemodialysis centers in hospitals.

Hemodialysis, Home
Long-term maintenance hemodialysis in the home.

Hemodialyzates
Solutions prepared for hemodialysis. The composition of the pre-dialysis solution may be varied in order to determine the effect of solvated metabolites on anoxia, malnutrition, acid-base balance, etc. Of principal interest are the effect of the choice of buffers (e.g., acetate or carbonate), the addition of cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+), and addition of carbohydrates (glucose).

Hemodilution
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically l) in states of impaired microcirculation, 2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and 3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.

Hemodilutions
Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically l) in states of impaired microcirculation, 2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and 3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.

Hemodynamic
Relating to the physical aspects of the blood circulation.

Hemodynamics
The movements of the blood and the forces involved in systemic or regional blood circulation.

Hemofil
Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.

Hemofil HM
Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.

Hemofil M
Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.

Hemofiltration
Extracorporeal ultrafiltration technique without hemodialysis for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.

Hemofiltration, Arteriovenous
Extracorporeal ultrafiltration technique without hemodialysis for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.

Hemofiltration, Continuous Arteriovenous
Extracorporeal ultrafiltration technique without hemodialysis for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.

Hemofiltration, Venovenous
Extracorporeal ultrafiltration technique without hemodialysis for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.

Hemofiltrations
Extracorporeal ultrafiltration technique without hemodialysis for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.

Hemofiltrations, Arteriovenous
Extracorporeal ultrafiltration technique without hemodialysis for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.

Hemofiltrations, Continuous Arteriovenous
Extracorporeal ultrafiltration technique without hemodialysis for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.

Hemofiltrations, Venovenous
Extracorporeal ultrafiltration technique without hemodialysis for treatment of fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances affecting renal, cardiac, or pulmonary function.

Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is a substance contained within the red blood cells and is responsible for their color. It has the unique property of combining reversibly with oxygen and is the medium by which oxygen is transported within the body. It takes up oxygen as blood passes through the lungs and releases it as blood passes through the tissues.

Hemoglobin A
Normal adult human hemoglobin. The globin moiety consists of two alpha and two beta chains.

Hemoglobin A(1)
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.

Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.

Hemoglobin A2
An adult hemoglobin component normally present in hemolysates from human erythrocytes in concentrations of about 3%. The hemoglobin is composed of two alpha chains and two delta chains. The percentage of HbA2 varies in some hematologic disorders, but is about double in beta-thalassemia.

Hemoglobin C
A commonly occurring abnormal hemoglobin in which lysine replaces a glutamic acid residue at the sixth position of the beta chains. It results in reduced plasticity of erythrocytes.

Hemoglobin C Disease
A disease characterized by compensated hemolysis with a normal hemoglobin level or a mild to moderate anemia. There may be intermittent abdominal discomfort, splenomegaly, and slight jaundice.

Hemoglobin C Diseases
A disease characterized by compensated hemolysis with a normal hemoglobin level or a mild to moderate anemia. There may be intermittent abdominal discomfort, splenomegaly, and slight jaundice.

Hemoglobin E
An abnormal hemoglobin that results from the substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 of the beta chain. It is most frequently observed in southeast Asian populations.

Hemoglobin F
The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.

Hemoglobin H
An abnormal hemoglobin composed of four beta chains. It is caused by the reduced synthesis of the alpha chain. This abnormality results in ALPHA-THALASSEMIA.

Hemoglobin H Disease
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.

Hemoglobin H Diseases
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the alpha chains of hemoglobin. The severity of this condition can vary from mild anemia to death, depending on the number of genes deleted.

Hemoglobin J
A group of abnormal hemoglobins with similar electrophoretic characteristics. They have faster electrophoretic mobility and different amino acid substitutions in either the alpha or beta chains than normal adult hemoglobin. Some of the variants produce hematologic abnormalities, others result in no clinical disorders.

Hemoglobin Level
The oxygen-carrying pigments of erythrocytes. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The structure of the globin moiety differs between species.

Hemoglobin M
A group of abnormal hemoglobins in which amino acid substitutions take place in either the alpha or beta chains but near the heme iron. This results in facilitated oxidation of the hemoglobin to yield excess methemoglobin which leads to cyanosis.

Hemoglobin S
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.

Hemoglobin S Disease
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.

Hemoglobin S Diseases
A disease characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia, episodic painful crises, and pathologic involvement of many organs. It is the clinical expression of homozygosity for hemoglobin S.

Hemoglobin SC Disease
One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.

Hemoglobin SC Diseases
One of the sickle cell disorders characterized by the presence of both hemoglobin S and hemoglobin C. It is similar to, but less severe than sickle cell anemia.

Hemoglobin SS
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.

Hemoglobin Substitutes
Substances that can carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the tissues when introduced into the blood stream. They are used to replace hemoglobin in severe hemorrhage and also to perfuse isolated organs. The best known are perfluorocarbon emulsions and various hemoglobin solutions.

Hemoglobin, Artificial
Substances that can carry oxygen to and carbon dioxide away from the tissues when introduced into the blood stream. They are used to replace hemoglobin in severe hemorrhage and also to perfuse isolated organs. The best known are perfluorocarbon emulsions and various hemoglobin solutions.

Hemoglobin, Deoxygenated Sickle
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.

Hemoglobin, Erythrocyte, Mean Cell
Quantification of size and cell hemoglobin content or concentration of the erythrocyte, usually derived from erythrocyte count, blood hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit. Includes the mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Use also for cell diameter and thickness.

Hemoglobin, Ferrous
The oxygen-carrying pigments of erythrocytes. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The structure of the globin moiety differs between species.

Hemoglobin, Fetal
The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.

Hemoglobin, Glycosylated
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.

Hemoglobin, Glycosylated A1a 1
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.

Hemoglobin, Glycosylated A1a-1
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.

Hemoglobin, Glycosylated A1b
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.

Hemoglobin, Oxycobalt
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.

Hemoglobin, Sickle
An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.

Hemoglobinometries
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.

Hemoglobinometry
Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.

Hemoglobinopathies
A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.

Hemoglobinopathy
A group of inherited disorders characterized by structural alterations within the hemoglobin molecule.

Hemoglobins
The oxygen-carrying pigments of erythrocytes. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The structure of the globin moiety differs between species.

Hemoglobins, Abnormal
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.

Hemoglobins, Glycated
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.

Hemoglobinuria
The presence of free hemoglobin in the urine.

Hemoglobinuria, Cold Paroxysmal
Disorder characterized by intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobinuria. Some cases occur on exposure to cold and are due to the presence of an autohemolysin in the serum. Other cases are more marked during or immediately after sleep and are considered to be due to an acquired intracorpuscular defect.

Hemoglobinuria, Nocturnal Paroxysmal
Disorder characterized by intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobinuria. Some cases occur on exposure to cold and are due to the presence of an autohemolysin in the serum. Other cases are more marked during or immediately after sleep and are considered to be due to an acquired intracorpuscular defect.

Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal
Disorder characterized by intravascular hemolysis and hemoglobinuria. Some cases occur on exposure to cold and are due to the presence of an autohemolysin in the serum. Other cases are more marked during or immediately after sleep and are considered to be due to an acquired intracorpuscular defect.

Hemoglobinurias
The presence of free hemoglobin in the urine.

Hemolymph
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.

Hemolymphs
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.

Hemolysin Factors
Plasmids controlling the synthesis of hemolysin by bacteria.

Hemolysins
Substances, usually of biological origin, that destroy blood cells; they may be antibodies or other immunologic factors, toxins, enzymes, etc.; hemotoxins are toxic to blood in general, including the clotting mechanism; hematotoxins may refer to the hematopoietic system.

Hemolysis
The destruction of red blood cells.

Hemolytic Anemia
Anemia due to decreased life span of erythrocytes.

Hemolytic Anemia, Acquired
Anemia due to decreased life span of erythrocytes.

Hemolytic Anemia, Congenital
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.

Hemolytic Anemia, Congenital Nonspherocytic
Any one of a group of congenital hemolytic anemias in which there is no abnormal hemoglobin or spherocytosis and in which there is a defect of glycolysis in the erythrocyte. In some cases, pyruvate kinase deficiency has been demonstrated; in other cases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency has been demonstrated.

Hemolytic Anemia, Hereditary
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.

Hemolytic Anemias
Anemia due to decreased life span of erythrocytes.

Hemolytic Anemias, Acquired
Anemia due to decreased life span of erythrocytes.

Hemolytic Anemias, Congenital
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.

Hemolytic Anemias, Hereditary
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.

Hemolytic Complement
A heat-sensitive complex system in fresh human and other sera which, in combination with antibodies, is important in the host defense mechanism against invading organisms. At least 20 distinct serum proteins operate within the complement system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific Terms, 4th ed)

Hemolytic Complement, Total
Usual screening assay for complement. Dilutions of the serum to be tested are added to antibody-coated erythrocytes and the percentage of lysis is measured. The values are expressed by CH50, hemolytic complement units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.

Hemolytic Complements, Total
Usual screening assay for complement. Dilutions of the serum to be tested are added to antibody-coated erythrocytes and the percentage of lysis is measured. The values are expressed by CH50, hemolytic complement units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.

Hemolytic Disease of Newborn
Hemolytic anemia of the fetus or newborn infant, caused by the transplacental transmission of maternally formed antibody, usually secondary to an incompatibility between the blood group of the mother and that of her offspring. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Hemolytic disease of the newborn
Also called Rh disease or erythroblastosis, hemolytic disease results when a woman who is Rh-negative (meaning she does not carry the Rh protein in her blood) has a fetus who is Rh-positive and her immune system makes antibodies against the fetus's blood. The disorder is treated with a compound that prevents the woman's immune system from making antibodies.

Hemolytic Jaundice
Anemia due to decreased life span of erythrocytes.

Hemolytic Jaundices
Anemia due to decreased life span of erythrocytes.

Hemolytic Malaria
A complication of MALARIA, FALCIPARUM characterized by the passage of dark red to black urine.

Hemolytic Malarias
A complication of MALARIA, FALCIPARUM characterized by the passage of dark red to black urine.

Hemolytic Titration Assay
Usual screening assay for complement. Dilutions of the serum to be tested are added to antibody-coated erythrocytes and the percentage of lysis is measured. The values are expressed by CH50, hemolytic complement units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.

Hemolytic Titration Assays
Usual screening assay for complement. Dilutions of the serum to be tested are added to antibody-coated erythrocytes and the percentage of lysis is measured. The values are expressed by CH50, hemolytic complement units per milliliter, which is the dilution of serum required to lyse 50 percent of the erythrocytes in the assay.

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia occurring with acute renal failure.

Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome
Syndrome of hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure, with pathological finding of thrombotic microangiopathy in kidney and renal cortical necrosis.

Hemolytic-Uremic Syndromes
Syndrome of hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure, with pathological finding of thrombotic microangiopathy in kidney and renal cortical necrosis.

Hemoperfusion
Removal of toxins or metabolites from the circulation by the passing of blood, within a suitable extracorporeal circuit, over semipermeable microcapsules containing adsorbents (e.g., activated charcoal) or enzymes, other enzyme preparations (e.g., gel-entrapped microsomes, membrane-free enzymes bound to artificial carriers), or other adsorbents (e.g., various resins, albumin-conjugated agarose).

Hemoperfusions
Removal of toxins or metabolites from the circulation by the passing of blood, within a suitable extracorporeal circuit, over semipermeable microcapsules containing adsorbents (e.g., activated charcoal) or enzymes, other enzyme preparations (e.g., gel-entrapped microsomes, membrane-free enzymes bound to artificial carriers), or other adsorbents (e.g., various resins, albumin-conjugated agarose).

Hemopericardium
Presence of fluid within the pericardium.

Hemoperitoneum
Hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity.

Hemoperitoneums
Hemorrhage into the peritoneal cavity.

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytoses
Group of disorders which feature accumulations of active histiocytes and lymphocytes, but where the histiocytes are not Langerhans cells. The group includes hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, sinus histiocytosis, xanthogranuloma, reticulohistiocytoma, juvenile xanthoma, xanthoma disseminatum, as well as the lipid storage diseases (sea-blue histiocyte syndrome and Niemann-Pick disease).

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis
Group of disorders which feature accumulations of active histiocytes and lymphocytes, but where the histiocytes are not Langerhans cells. The group includes hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, sinus histiocytosis, xanthogranuloma, reticulohistiocytoma, juvenile xanthoma, xanthoma disseminatum, as well as the lipid storage diseases (sea-blue histiocyte syndrome and Niemann-Pick disease).

Hemophagocytic Syndrome, Infection Associated
Group of disorders which feature accumulations of active histiocytes and lymphocytes, but where the histiocytes are not Langerhans cells. The group includes hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, sinus histiocytosis, xanthogranuloma, reticulohistiocytoma, juvenile xanthoma, xanthoma disseminatum, as well as the lipid storage diseases (sea-blue histiocyte syndrome and Niemann-Pick disease).

Hemophagocytic Syndrome, Infection-Associated
Group of disorders which feature accumulations of active histiocytes and lymphocytes, but where the histiocytes are not Langerhans cells. The group includes hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, sinus histiocytosis, xanthogranuloma, reticulohistiocytoma, juvenile xanthoma, xanthoma disseminatum, as well as the lipid storage diseases (sea-blue histiocyte syndrome and Niemann-Pick disease).

Hemophagocytic Syndromes, Infection-Associated
Group of disorders which feature accumulations of active histiocytes and lymphocytes, but where the histiocytes are not Langerhans cells. The group includes hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, sinus histiocytosis, xanthogranuloma, reticulohistiocytoma, juvenile xanthoma, xanthoma disseminatum, as well as the lipid storage diseases (sea-blue histiocyte syndrome and Niemann-Pick disease).

Hemophil
Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.

Hemophilia
A genetic blood disorder, almost always in males, in which blood does not clot properly as a result of an enzyme deficiency.

Hemophilia A
The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.

Hemophilia B
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)

Hemophilia, Vascular
Group of hemorrhagic disorders in which the von Willebrand factor (Factor VIII-related antigen) is either quantitatively or qualitatively abnormal. They are usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait though rare kindreds are autosomal recessive. Symptoms vary depending on severity and disease type but may include prolonged bleeding time, deficiency of factor VIII, and impaired platelet adhesion.

Hemophilias, Vascular
Group of hemorrhagic disorders in which the von Willebrand factor (Factor VIII-related antigen) is either quantitatively or qualitatively abnormal. They are usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait though rare kindreds are autosomal recessive. Symptoms vary depending on severity and disease type but may include prolonged bleeding time, deficiency of factor VIII, and impaired platelet adhesion.

Hemophilus
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.

Hemophilus ducreyi
A species of HAEMOPHILUS that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, CHANCROID.

Hemophilus Infection
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.

Hemophilus Infections
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.

Hemophilus influenzae
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.

Hemophilus influenzae Meningitis Type B
BACTERIAL INFECTIONS of the nervous system caused by HAEMOPHILUS organisms, and marked by prominent inflammation of the meninges. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults. Clinical manifestations include fever; nuchal rigidity; PHOTOPHOBIA; SEIZURES; HEARING LOSS; SENSORINEURONAL; COMA; and cerebrovascular thrombosis. The organism tends to enter the central nervous system following infections of adjacent structures, including the middle ear (see also OTITIS MEDIA), sinuses, and pharynx. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp396-7)

Hemophilus influenzae type b
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.

Hemophilus Meningitides
BACTERIAL INFECTIONS of the nervous system caused by HAEMOPHILUS organisms, and marked by prominent inflammation of the meninges. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults. Clinical manifestations include fever; nuchal rigidity; PHOTOPHOBIA; SEIZURES; HEARING LOSS; SENSORINEURONAL; COMA; and cerebrovascular thrombosis. The organism tends to enter the central nervous system following infections of adjacent structures, including the middle ear (see also OTITIS MEDIA), sinuses, and pharynx. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp396-7)

Hemophilus Meningitis
BACTERIAL INFECTIONS of the nervous system caused by HAEMOPHILUS organisms, and marked by prominent inflammation of the meninges. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults. Clinical manifestations include fever; nuchal rigidity; PHOTOPHOBIA; SEIZURES; HEARING LOSS; SENSORINEURONAL; COMA; and cerebrovascular thrombosis. The organism tends to enter the central nervous system following infections of adjacent structures, including the middle ear (see also OTITIS MEDIA), sinuses, and pharynx. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp396-7)

Hemophilus pertussis
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.

Hemophilus pleuropneumoniae
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.

Hemophilus Vaccines
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.

Hemophilus vaginalis
The only species in the genus GARDNERELLA, and previously classed as Haemophilus vaginalis. This bacterium, also isolated from the female genital tract of healthy women, is implicated in the cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL). It occasionally causes postpartum bacteremia and bacteremia following a transurethral resection of the prostate.

Hemophthalmos
Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.

Hemopneumothorax
Collection of air and blood in the pleural cavity.

Hemopneumothoraxs
Collection of air and blood in the pleural cavity.

Hemopoietic
Pertaining to or related to the formation of blood cells.

Hemoptyses
Bronchial hemorrhage manifested with spitting of blood.

Hemoptysis
A cough that produces blood.

Hemorheologies
The study of the flow of blood in relation to the pressures, flow, volumes, and resistances in blood vessels in macroscopic, microscopic, and submicroscopic dimensions.

Hemorheology
The study of the flow of blood in relation to the pressures, flow, volumes, and resistances in blood vessels in macroscopic, microscopic, and submicroscopic dimensions.

Hemorrhage, Aneurysmal Subarachnoid
Hemorrhage within the intracranial or spinal subarachnoid space, most often resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture or CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (see also SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurologic deficits, intraocular subhyaloid hemorrhages, and a reduced level of consciousness which may progress to coma or death. Spasm of intracranial arteries (see VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL) frequently accompanies this condition and may lead to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or CEREBRAL INFARCTION. (From N Engl J Med 1997 Jan 2;336(1):28-40)

Hemorrhage, Basal Ganglia
Extravasation of blood into a basal ganglia nucleus (e.g., caudate, globus pallidus, amygdala, putamen, and claustrum). Clinical manifestations may include acute hemiparesis, movement disorders, headache and/or alterations of consciousness. Hypertension and vascular malformations are relatively common causes of this condition. Pathologically, these hemorrhages are associated with lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels and Charcot-Bouchard microaneurysm formation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p836)

Hemorrhage, Biliary Tract
Hemorrhage in or through the biliary tract, due to trauma, inflammation, cholelithiasis, vascular disease, or neoplasms.

Hemorrhage, Brain
Bleeding within the intracranial cavity, including hemorrhages in the brain and within the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.

Hemorrhage, Brain Stem , Traumatic
Extravasation of blood into the midbrain, pons, or medulla following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations which may be associated with this condition include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.

Hemorrhage, Cerebral
Bleeding into a cerebral hemisphere of the brain, including lobar, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Commonly associated conditions include HYPERTENSION; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS; INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY; and CEREBRAL INFARCTION.

Hemorrhage, Cerebral Brain
Bleeding into a cerebral hemisphere of the brain, including lobar, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Commonly associated conditions include HYPERTENSION; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS; INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY; and CEREBRAL INFARCTION.

Hemorrhage, Cerebral Hypertensive
Bleeding within the brain or adjacent structures which results from systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.

Hemorrhage, Cerebral Parenchymal
Bleeding into a cerebral hemisphere of the brain, including lobar, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Commonly associated conditions include HYPERTENSION; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS; INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY; and CEREBRAL INFARCTION.

Hemorrhage, Cerebrum
Bleeding into a cerebral hemisphere of the brain, including lobar, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Commonly associated conditions include HYPERTENSION; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS; INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY; and CEREBRAL INFARCTION.

Hemorrhage, Choroid
Hemorrhage from the vessels of the choroid.

Hemorrhage, Choroidal
Hemorrhage from the vessels of the choroid.

Hemorrhage, Epidural
Accumulation of blood in the cranial epidural space due to rupture of the middle meningeal artery or rarely the meningeal vein, often associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. The hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features include the acute or subacute onset of headache, VOMITING, alterations of mentation, and hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA). The natural history of the process is progression to coma and eventually death. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p885)

Hemorrhage, Extradural
Accumulation of blood in the cranial epidural space due to rupture of the middle meningeal artery or rarely the meningeal vein, often associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. The hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features include the acute or subacute onset of headache, VOMITING, alterations of mentation, and hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA). The natural history of the process is progression to coma and eventually death. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p885)

Hemorrhage, Eye
Intraocular hemorrhage from the vessels of various tissues of the eye.

Hemorrhage, Fetomaternal
Transplacental passage of fetal blood into the circulation of the maternal organism. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hemorrhage, Gastrointestinal
Bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract.

Hemorrhage, Gingival
The flowing of blood from the marginal gingival area, particularly the sulcus, seen in such conditions as GINGIVITIS, marginal PERIODONTITIS, injury, and ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY.

Hemorrhage, Hypertensive Cerebral
Bleeding within the brain or adjacent structures which results from systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.

Hemorrhage, Hypertensive Intracerebral
Bleeding within the brain or adjacent structures which results from systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.

Hemorrhage, Hypertensive Intracranial
Bleeding within the brain or adjacent structures which results from systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.

Hemorrhage, Intracerebral
Bleeding into a cerebral hemisphere of the brain, including lobar, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Commonly associated conditions include HYPERTENSION; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS; INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY; and CEREBRAL INFARCTION.

Hemorrhage, Intracranial
Bleeding within the intracranial cavity, including hemorrhages in the brain and within the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.

Hemorrhage, Intracranial Hypertensive
Bleeding within the brain or adjacent structures which results from systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.

Hemorrhage, Intracranial Subarachnoid
Hemorrhage within the intracranial or spinal subarachnoid space, most often resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture or CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (see also SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurologic deficits, intraocular subhyaloid hemorrhages, and a reduced level of consciousness which may progress to coma or death. Spasm of intracranial arteries (see VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL) frequently accompanies this condition and may lead to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or CEREBRAL INFARCTION. (From N Engl J Med 1997 Jan 2;336(1):28-40)

Hemorrhage, Intracranial, Traumatic
Bleeding within the cranial vault induced by penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries, including hemorrhages into the epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces, cerebral hemispheres, DIENCEPHALON; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.

Hemorrhage, Oral
Bleeding from the blood vessels of the mouth, which may occur as a result of injuries to the mouth, accidents in oral surgery, or diseases of the gums.

Hemorrhage, Peptic Ulcer
Bleeding from a peptic ulcer.

Hemorrhage, Perinatal Subarachnoid
Hemorrhage within the intracranial or spinal subarachnoid space, most often resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture or CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (see also SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurologic deficits, intraocular subhyaloid hemorrhages, and a reduced level of consciousness which may progress to coma or death. Spasm of intracranial arteries (see VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL) frequently accompanies this condition and may lead to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or CEREBRAL INFARCTION. (From N Engl J Med 1997 Jan 2;336(1):28-40)

Hemorrhage, Post-Traumatic Brainstem
Extravasation of blood into the midbrain, pons, or medulla following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations which may be associated with this condition include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.

Hemorrhage, Post-Traumatic Subarachnoid
Bleeding into the subarachnoid space following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Minor hemorrhages may be asymptomatic; moderate to severe hemorrhages may be associated with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION and VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL.

Hemorrhage, Posterior Fossa
Bleeding within the intracranial cavity, including hemorrhages in the brain and within the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.

Hemorrhage, Postoperative
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.

Hemorrhage, Postpartum
The presence of abnormal uterine bleeding immediately after labor or childbirth.

Hemorrhage, Putamen
Bleeding into the PUTAMEN, a BASAL GANGLIA nucleus. This is a relatively common site of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and is associated with chronic HYPERTENSION and lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels in the putamen. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of hemorrhage, but include hemiparesis, headache, and alterations of consciousness.

Hemorrhage, Putaminal
Bleeding into the PUTAMEN, a BASAL GANGLIA nucleus. This is a relatively common site of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and is associated with chronic HYPERTENSION and lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels in the putamen. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of hemorrhage, but include hemiparesis, headache, and alterations of consciousness.

Hemorrhage, Putaminal Brain
Bleeding into the PUTAMEN, a BASAL GANGLIA nucleus. This is a relatively common site of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and is associated with chronic HYPERTENSION and lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels in the putamen. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of hemorrhage, but include hemiparesis, headache, and alterations of consciousness.

Hemorrhage, Retinal
Bleeding from the vessels of the retina.

Hemorrhage, Retrobulbar
Hemorrhage within the orbital cavity, posterior to the eyeball.

Hemorrhage, Spontaneous Subarachnoid
Hemorrhage within the intracranial or spinal subarachnoid space, most often resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture or CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (see also SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurologic deficits, intraocular subhyaloid hemorrhages, and a reduced level of consciousness which may progress to coma or death. Spasm of intracranial arteries (see VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL) frequently accompanies this condition and may lead to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or CEREBRAL INFARCTION. (From N Engl J Med 1997 Jan 2;336(1):28-40)

Hemorrhage, Subarachnoid
Hemorrhage within the intracranial or spinal subarachnoid space, most often resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture or CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (see also SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurologic deficits, intraocular subhyaloid hemorrhages, and a reduced level of consciousness which may progress to coma or death. Spasm of intracranial arteries (see VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL) frequently accompanies this condition and may lead to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or CEREBRAL INFARCTION. (From N Engl J Med 1997 Jan 2;336(1):28-40)

Hemorrhage, Subdural
Extravasation and subsequent accumulation of blood in the subdural space between the dural and arachnoidal layers of the meninges. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a cerebral hemisphere, but may develop in the posterior fossa and spinal canal. Acute (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, ACUTE) and chronic (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, CHRONIC) forms exist.

Hemorrhage, Subdural, Acute
Hemorrhage and accumulation of blood in the subdural space associated with the acute onset of neurologic deficits, usually following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Hematoma formation occurs most frequently over the lateral and superior aspects of a cerebral hemisphere, but may also occur in the posterior fossa and spinal canal. Clinical manifestations may include hemiparesis, SEIZURES, third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES), mental status changes, and COMA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p886)

Hemorrhage, Subdural, Chronic
Chronic accumulation of blood in the subdural space, most frequently occurring over the lateral and superior aspects of a cerebral hemisphere. Clinical manifestations may be delayed for days to weeks, when affected individuals may present with confusion, drowsiness, hemiparesis, ATAXIA, APHASIA, and other signs of neurologic dysfunction. The condition tends to occur after the age of 50 years. It may be spontaneous, follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, or occur in association with bleeding disorders, the use of anticoagulant medication, locally invasive tumors, and other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p887)

Hemorrhage, Surgical
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.

Hemorrhage, Traumatic Brain
Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC), and cerebellum.

Hemorrhage, Traumatic Brainstem
Extravasation of blood into the midbrain, pons, or medulla following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations which may be associated with this condition include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.

Hemorrhage, Traumatic Bulbar
Extravasation of blood into the midbrain, pons, or medulla following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations which may be associated with this condition include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.

Hemorrhage, Traumatic Cerebellar
Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC), and cerebellum.

Hemorrhage, Traumatic Cerebral
Bleeding into the CEREBRAL CORTEX; CORPUS CALLOSUM; BASAL GANGLIA, or subcortical white matter following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY, cerebral edema, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION are frequently associated conditions. Relatively frequent clinical manifestations include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS, and COMA.

Hemorrhage, Traumatic Intracerebral
Bleeding into the CEREBRAL CORTEX; CORPUS CALLOSUM; BASAL GANGLIA, or subcortical white matter following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY, cerebral edema, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION are frequently associated conditions. Relatively frequent clinical manifestations include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS, and COMA.

Hemorrhage, Traumatic Intracranial
Bleeding within the cranial vault induced by penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries, including hemorrhages into the epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces, cerebral hemispheres, DIENCEPHALON; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.

Hemorrhage, Traumatic Medullary
Extravasation of blood into the midbrain, pons, or medulla following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations which may be associated with this condition include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.

Hemorrhage, Traumatic Midbrain
Extravasation of blood into the midbrain, pons, or medulla following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations which may be associated with this condition include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.

Hemorrhage, Traumatic Pontine
Extravasation of blood into the midbrain, pons, or medulla following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations which may be associated with this condition include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.

Hemorrhage, Traumatic Subarachnoid
Bleeding into the subarachnoid space following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Minor hemorrhages may be asymptomatic; moderate to severe hemorrhages may be associated with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION and VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL.

Hemorrhage, Uterine
Hemorrhage from vessels in the uterus, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.

Hemorrhage, Vitreous
Hemorrhage into the VITREOUS BODY.

Hemorrhages
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.

Hemorrhages, Aneurysmal Subarachnoid
Hemorrhage within the intracranial or spinal subarachnoid space, most often resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture or CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (see also SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurologic deficits, intraocular subhyaloid hemorrhages, and a reduced level of consciousness which may progress to coma or death. Spasm of intracranial arteries (see VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL) frequently accompanies this condition and may lead to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or CEREBRAL INFARCTION. (From N Engl J Med 1997 Jan 2;336(1):28-40)

Hemorrhages, Basal Ganglia
Extravasation of blood into a basal ganglia nucleus (e.g., caudate, globus pallidus, amygdala, putamen, and claustrum). Clinical manifestations may include acute hemiparesis, movement disorders, headache and/or alterations of consciousness. Hypertension and vascular malformations are relatively common causes of this condition. Pathologically, these hemorrhages are associated with lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels and Charcot-Bouchard microaneurysm formation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p836)

Hemorrhages, Brain
Bleeding within the intracranial cavity, including hemorrhages in the brain and within the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.

Hemorrhages, Cerebral
Bleeding into a cerebral hemisphere of the brain, including lobar, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Commonly associated conditions include HYPERTENSION; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS; INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY; and CEREBRAL INFARCTION.

Hemorrhages, Cerebral Brain
Bleeding into a cerebral hemisphere of the brain, including lobar, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Commonly associated conditions include HYPERTENSION; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS; INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY; and CEREBRAL INFARCTION.

Hemorrhages, Cerebral Hypertensive
Bleeding within the brain or adjacent structures which results from systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.

Hemorrhages, Cerebral Parenchymal
Bleeding into a cerebral hemisphere of the brain, including lobar, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Commonly associated conditions include HYPERTENSION; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS; INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY; and CEREBRAL INFARCTION.

Hemorrhages, Cerebrum
Bleeding into a cerebral hemisphere of the brain, including lobar, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Commonly associated conditions include HYPERTENSION; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS; INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY; and CEREBRAL INFARCTION.

Hemorrhages, Epidural
Accumulation of blood in the cranial epidural space due to rupture of the middle meningeal artery or rarely the meningeal vein, often associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. The hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features include the acute or subacute onset of headache, VOMITING, alterations of mentation, and hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA). The natural history of the process is progression to coma and eventually death. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p885)

Hemorrhages, Extradural
Accumulation of blood in the cranial epidural space due to rupture of the middle meningeal artery or rarely the meningeal vein, often associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. The hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features include the acute or subacute onset of headache, VOMITING, alterations of mentation, and hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA). The natural history of the process is progression to coma and eventually death. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p885)

Hemorrhages, Fetomaternal
Transplacental passage of fetal blood into the circulation of the maternal organism. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hemorrhages, Hypertensive Cerebral
Bleeding within the brain or adjacent structures which results from systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.

Hemorrhages, Hypertensive Intracerebral
Bleeding within the brain or adjacent structures which results from systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.

Hemorrhages, Hypertensive Intracranial
Bleeding within the brain or adjacent structures which results from systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.

Hemorrhages, Intracerebral
Bleeding into a cerebral hemisphere of the brain, including lobar, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Commonly associated conditions include HYPERTENSION; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS; INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; CEREBRAL AMYLOID ANGIOPATHY; and CEREBRAL INFARCTION.

Hemorrhages, Intracranial
Bleeding within the intracranial cavity, including hemorrhages in the brain and within the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.

Hemorrhages, Intracranial Hypertensive
Bleeding within the brain or adjacent structures which results from systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.

Hemorrhages, Intracranial Subarachnoid
Hemorrhage within the intracranial or spinal subarachnoid space, most often resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture or CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (see also SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurologic deficits, intraocular subhyaloid hemorrhages, and a reduced level of consciousness which may progress to coma or death. Spasm of intracranial arteries (see VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL) frequently accompanies this condition and may lead to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or CEREBRAL INFARCTION. (From N Engl J Med 1997 Jan 2;336(1):28-40)

Hemorrhages, Perinatal Subarachnoid
Hemorrhage within the intracranial or spinal subarachnoid space, most often resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture or CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (see also SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurologic deficits, intraocular subhyaloid hemorrhages, and a reduced level of consciousness which may progress to coma or death. Spasm of intracranial arteries (see VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL) frequently accompanies this condition and may lead to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or CEREBRAL INFARCTION. (From N Engl J Med 1997 Jan 2;336(1):28-40)

Hemorrhages, Post-Traumatic Brainstem
Extravasation of blood into the midbrain, pons, or medulla following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations which may be associated with this condition include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.

Hemorrhages, Post-Traumatic Subarachnoid
Bleeding into the subarachnoid space following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Minor hemorrhages may be asymptomatic; moderate to severe hemorrhages may be associated with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION and VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL.

Hemorrhages, Posterior Fossa
Bleeding within the intracranial cavity, including hemorrhages in the brain and within the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.

Hemorrhages, Postoperative
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.

Hemorrhages, Putamen
Bleeding into the PUTAMEN, a BASAL GANGLIA nucleus. This is a relatively common site of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and is associated with chronic HYPERTENSION and lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels in the putamen. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of hemorrhage, but include hemiparesis, headache, and alterations of consciousness.

Hemorrhages, Putaminal
Bleeding into the PUTAMEN, a BASAL GANGLIA nucleus. This is a relatively common site of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and is associated with chronic HYPERTENSION and lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels in the putamen. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of hemorrhage, but include hemiparesis, headache, and alterations of consciousness.

Hemorrhages, Putaminal Brain
Bleeding into the PUTAMEN, a BASAL GANGLIA nucleus. This is a relatively common site of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and is associated with chronic HYPERTENSION and lipohyalinosis of small blood vessels in the putamen. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of hemorrhage, but include hemiparesis, headache, and alterations of consciousness.

Hemorrhages, Spontaneous Subarachnoid
Hemorrhage within the intracranial or spinal subarachnoid space, most often resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture or CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (see also SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurologic deficits, intraocular subhyaloid hemorrhages, and a reduced level of consciousness which may progress to coma or death. Spasm of intracranial arteries (see VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL) frequently accompanies this condition and may lead to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or CEREBRAL INFARCTION. (From N Engl J Med 1997 Jan 2;336(1):28-40)

Hemorrhages, Subarachnoid
Hemorrhage within the intracranial or spinal subarachnoid space, most often resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture or CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (see also SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurologic deficits, intraocular subhyaloid hemorrhages, and a reduced level of consciousness which may progress to coma or death. Spasm of intracranial arteries (see VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL) frequently accompanies this condition and may lead to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or CEREBRAL INFARCTION. (From N Engl J Med 1997 Jan 2;336(1):28-40)

Hemorrhages, Subdural
Extravasation and subsequent accumulation of blood in the subdural space between the dural and arachnoidal layers of the meninges. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a cerebral hemisphere, but may develop in the posterior fossa and spinal canal. Acute (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, ACUTE) and chronic (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, CHRONIC) forms exist.

Hemorrhages, Traumatic Brainstem
Extravasation of blood into the midbrain, pons, or medulla following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations which may be associated with this condition include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.

Hemorrhages, Traumatic Bulbar
Extravasation of blood into the midbrain, pons, or medulla following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations which may be associated with this condition include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.

Hemorrhages, Traumatic Cerebellar
Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC), and cerebellum.

Hemorrhages, Traumatic Cerebral
Bleeding into the CEREBRAL CORTEX; CORPUS CALLOSUM; BASAL GANGLIA, or subcortical white matter following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY, cerebral edema, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION are frequently associated conditions. Relatively frequent clinical manifestations include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS, and COMA.

Hemorrhages, Traumatic Intracerebral
Bleeding into the CEREBRAL CORTEX; CORPUS CALLOSUM; BASAL GANGLIA, or subcortical white matter following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY, cerebral edema, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION are frequently associated conditions. Relatively frequent clinical manifestations include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS, and COMA.

Hemorrhages, Traumatic Intracranial
Bleeding within the cranial vault induced by penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries, including hemorrhages into the epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces, cerebral hemispheres, DIENCEPHALON; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.

Hemorrhages, Traumatic Medullary
Extravasation of blood into the midbrain, pons, or medulla following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations which may be associated with this condition include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.

Hemorrhages, Traumatic Midbrain
Extravasation of blood into the midbrain, pons, or medulla following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations which may be associated with this condition include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.

Hemorrhages, Traumatic Pontine
Extravasation of blood into the midbrain, pons, or medulla following CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY is commonly associated. Clinical manifestations which may be associated with this condition include OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; ATAXIA; PARALYSIS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; and COMA.

Hemorrhagic Adrenalitides, Meningococcal
A condition characterized by the abrupt onset of fever, petechiae, ARTHRALGIA, weakness, and myalgias followed by acute hemorrhagic necrosis of the adrenal glands and severe cardiovascular dysfunction. The syndrome is most often associated with meningococcal septicemia but may occur as a complication of sepsis caused by other organisms, including certain STREPTOCOCCUS species. This disorder may be associated with a prior history of SPLENECTOMY. (From J Emerg Med 1998 Jul-Aug;16(4):643-7)

Hemorrhagic Adrenalitis, Meningococcal
A condition characterized by the abrupt onset of fever, petechiae, ARTHRALGIA, weakness, and myalgias followed by acute hemorrhagic necrosis of the adrenal glands and severe cardiovascular dysfunction. The syndrome is most often associated with meningococcal septicemia but may occur as a complication of sepsis caused by other organisms, including certain STREPTOCOCCUS species. This disorder may be associated with a prior history of SPLENECTOMY. (From J Emerg Med 1998 Jul-Aug;16(4):643-7)

Hemorrhagic Bacteremia
Any of several diseases usually caused by PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA, marked by the presence of hemorrhagic areas in the subcutaneous tissues, serous membranes, muscles, lymph glands, and throughout the internal organs.

Hemorrhagic Bacteremias
Any of several diseases usually caused by PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA, marked by the presence of hemorrhagic areas in the subcutaneous tissues, serous membranes, muscles, lymph glands, and throughout the internal organs.

Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitides, Acute
A highly contagious disease characterized by subconjunctival hemorrhage, sudden swelling of the eyelids and congestion, redness, and pain in the eye. Epidemic conjunctivitis caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV-70) was first described in Africa in 1969. It is caused also by Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v). Epidemics by this organism have appeared most frequently in Asia.

Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis, Acute
A highly contagious disease characterized by subconjunctival hemorrhage, sudden swelling of the eyelids and congestion, redness, and pain in the eye. Epidemic conjunctivitis caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV-70) was first described in Africa in 1969. It is caused also by Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v). Epidemics by this organism have appeared most frequently in Asia.

Hemorrhagic Diatheses
Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (VASCULAR HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).

Hemorrhagic Diathesis
Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (VASCULAR HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).

Hemorrhagic Disease of Newborn
A self-limited hemorrhagic disorder of the first days of life, caused by a deficiency of the vitamin K-dependent blood coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic
A species of ORBIVIRUS causing a fatal disease in deer. It is transmitted by flies of the genus Culicoides.

Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Rabbit
A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.

Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Simian
A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.

Hemorrhagic Disorder
Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (VASCULAR HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).

Hemorrhagic Disorders
Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (VASCULAR HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).

Hemorrhagic Encephalomyelitides, Necrotizing
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)

Hemorrhagic Encephalomyelitis, Necrotizing
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)

Hemorrhagic Fever Renal Syndrome Virus
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.

Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Argentinian
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the New World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD), causing Argentinian hemorrhagic fever. The disease is characterized by congestion, edema, generalized lymphadenopathy and hemorrhagic necrosis and is sometimes fatal.

Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Bolivian
One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.

Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.

Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean Congo
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.

Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.

Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Epidemic
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.

Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Korean
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.

Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Omsk
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.

Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses, American
One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.

Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.

Hemorrhagic Fever, American
Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).

Hemorrhagic Fever, Argentinian
Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).

Hemorrhagic Fever, Bolivian
Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).

Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean
A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).

Hemorrhagic Fever, Dengue
A distinct and virulent form of DENGUE characterized by thrombocytopenia and hemoconcentration (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive tourniquet test. When accompanied by circulatory failure and shock (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola
A highly fatal, acute hemorrhagic fever, clinically very similar to MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE, caused by the EBOLA VIRUS, first occurring in the Sudan and adjacent northwestern (what was then) Zaire. The natural reservoir and mode of transmission of the virus are unknown, but secondary infection is by direct contact with infected blood and other body secretions. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Hemorrhagic Fever, Epidemic
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.

Hemorrhagic Fever, Korean
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.

Hemorrhagic Fever, Omsk
Infection with the Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, a Flavivirus.

Hemorrhagic Fever, Viral
A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.

Hemorrhagic Fevers, Crimean
A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).

Hemorrhagic Fevers, Epidemic
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.

Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral
A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.

Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitides, Acute
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)

Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitides, Subacute
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)

Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis, Acute
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)

Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis, Subacute
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)

Hemorrhagic Necrotizing Encephalomyelitis
A fulminant and often fatal demyelinating disease of the brain which primarily affects young adults and children. Clinical features include the rapid onset of weakness, SEIZURES, and COMA. It may follow a viral illness or MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE infections but in most instances there is no precipitating event. Pathologic examination reveals marked perivascular demyelination and necrosis of white matter with microhemorrhages. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp924-5)

Hemorrhagic Nephroso Nephritis
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.

Hemorrhagic Nephroso Nephritis Virus
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.

Hemorrhagic Nephroso-Nephritides
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.

Hemorrhagic Nephroso-Nephritis
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.

Hemorrhagic Nephroso-Nephritis Virus
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.

Hemorrhagic Nephroso-Nephritis Viruses
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.

Hemorrhagic Proctocolitides
Inflammatory disease of unknown cause which involves the mucosa of the colon. Onset may be acute and fulminant, and its course often continues chronically in an intermittent or continuous form. Diarrhea is a common symptom and bleeding an almost constant concomitant symptom.

Hemorrhagic Proctocolitis
Inflammatory disease of unknown cause which involves the mucosa of the colon. Onset may be acute and fulminant, and its course often continues chronically in an intermittent or continuous form. Diarrhea is a common symptom and bleeding an almost constant concomitant symptom.

Hemorrhagic Rectocolitides
Inflammatory disease of unknown cause which involves the mucosa of the colon. Onset may be acute and fulminant, and its course often continues chronically in an intermittent or continuous form. Diarrhea is a common symptom and bleeding an almost constant concomitant symptom.

Hemorrhagic Rectocolitis
Inflammatory disease of unknown cause which involves the mucosa of the colon. Onset may be acute and fulminant, and its course often continues chronically in an intermittent or continuous form. Diarrhea is a common symptom and bleeding an almost constant concomitant symptom.

Hemorrhagic Septicemia
Any of several diseases usually caused by PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA, marked by the presence of hemorrhagic areas in the subcutaneous tissues, serous membranes, muscles, lymph glands, and throughout the internal organs.

Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus, Viral
A genus in the family RHABDOVIRIDAE, infecting numerous species of fish with broad geographic distribution. The type species is INFECTIOUS HEMATOPOIETIC NECROSIS VIRUS.

Hemorrhagic Septicemias
Any of several diseases usually caused by PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA, marked by the presence of hemorrhagic areas in the subcutaneous tissues, serous membranes, muscles, lymph glands, and throughout the internal organs.

Hemorrhagic Shock
Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.

Hemorrhagic Syndrome, Bovine
Clinically severe acute disease of cattle caused by noncytopathic forms of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (DIARRHEA VIRUS 2, BOVINE VIRAL). Outbreaks are characterized by high morbidity and high mortality.

Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia, Hereditary
An autosomal dominant vascular anomaly characterized by the presence of multiple small telangiectases of the skin, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs, associated with recurrent episodes of bleeding from affected sites and gross or occult melena. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hemorrhagic Telangiectasias, Hereditary
An autosomal dominant vascular anomaly characterized by the presence of multiple small telangiectases of the skin, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs, associated with recurrent episodes of bleeding from affected sites and gross or occult melena. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hemorrhagic Thrombocythemia
A clinical syndrome characterized by repeated spontaneous hemorrhages and a remarkable increase in the number of circulating platelets.

Hemorrhagic Thrombocythemias
A clinical syndrome characterized by repeated spontaneous hemorrhages and a remarkable increase in the number of circulating platelets.

Hemorrhagic Vasculitis
A form of nonthrombocytopenic purpura due to a hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with a variety of clinical symptoms including urticaria and erythema, arthropathy and arthritis, gastrointestinal symptoms, and renal involvement.

Hemorrhagica, Purpura
A form of nonthrombocytopenic purpura due to a hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with a variety of clinical symptoms including urticaria and erythema, arthropathy and arthritis, gastrointestinal symptoms, and renal involvement.

Hemorrhaging
Heavy bleeding. A cerebral hemorrhage can lead to a stroke.

Hemorrheologies
The study of the flow of blood in relation to the pressures, flow, volumes, and resistances in blood vessels in macroscopic, microscopic, and submicroscopic dimensions.

Hemorrheology
The study of the flow of blood in relation to the pressures, flow, volumes, and resistances in blood vessels in macroscopic, microscopic, and submicroscopic dimensions.

Hemorrhoid
Caused by increased blood volume and pressure from the uterus on the veinsin the legs and pelvis, these swollen blood vessels in the anus are commonduring pregnancy. Constipation can also cause (or compound) the problem.

Hemorrhoidectomy
An operation to remove hemorrhoids.

Hemorrhoids
Enlarged veins protruding into the anorectal area, either internal or externally visible. They are either the result of poor sphincter tone and portal congestion, or sphincter hypertonicity, skeletal muscle and adrenergic excess.

Hemosideroses
Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the reticuloendothelial system, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.

Hemosiderosis
Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the reticuloendothelial system, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.

Hemosorption
Removal of toxins or metabolites from the circulation by the passing of blood, within a suitable extracorporeal circuit, over semipermeable microcapsules containing adsorbents (e.g., activated charcoal) or enzymes, other enzyme preparations (e.g., gel-entrapped microsomes, membrane-free enzymes bound to artificial carriers), or other adsorbents (e.g., various resins, albumin-conjugated agarose).

Hemosorptions
Removal of toxins or metabolites from the circulation by the passing of blood, within a suitable extracorporeal circuit, over semipermeable microcapsules containing adsorbents (e.g., activated charcoal) or enzymes, other enzyme preparations (e.g., gel-entrapped microsomes, membrane-free enzymes bound to artificial carriers), or other adsorbents (e.g., various resins, albumin-conjugated agarose).

Hemostases
The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of blood from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements, and the process of blood or plasma coagulation.

Hemostases, Endoscopic
Control of bleeding performed through the channel of the endoscope. Techniques include use of lasers, heater probes, bipolar electrocoagulation, and local injection. Endoscopic hemostasis is commonly used to treat bleeding esophageal and gastrointestinal varices and ulcers.

Hemostases, Surgical
Control of bleeding during or after surgery.

Hemostasis
Arrest of blood circulation.

Hemostasis, Endoscopic
Control of bleeding performed through the channel of the endoscope. Techniques include use of lasers, heater probes, bipolar electrocoagulation, and local injection. Endoscopic hemostasis is commonly used to treat bleeding esophageal and gastrointestinal varices and ulcers.

Hemostasis, Surgical
Control of bleeding during or after surgery.

Hemostatic Disorder, Vascular
Alterations in the mechanical integrity or structure of the blood vessels leading to bleeding disorders.

Hemostatic Disorders, Vascular
Alterations in the mechanical integrity or structure of the blood vessels leading to bleeding disorders.

Hemostatic Technic
Techniques for controlling bleeding.

Hemostatic Technics
Techniques for controlling bleeding.

Hemostatic Technique
Techniques for controlling bleeding.

Hemostatic Techniques
Techniques for controlling bleeding.

Hemostatics
Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.

Hemothorax
Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.

Hemothoraxs
Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.

Hemotoxins
Substances, usually of biological origin, that destroy blood cells; they may be antibodies or other immunologic factors, toxins, enzymes, etc.; hemotoxins are toxic to blood in general, including the clotting mechanism; hematotoxins may refer to the hematopoietic system.

Hemotoxylin
A dye obtained from the heartwood of logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum Linn., Leguminosae) used as a stain in microscopy and in the manufacture of ink.



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Hemorrhage

Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is a substance contained within the red blood cells and is responsible for their color. It has the unique property of combining reversibly with oxygen and is the medium by which oxygen is transported within the body. It takes up oxygen as blood passes through the lungs and releases it as blood passes through the tissues.

Hormone
A chemical substance formed in the body that is carried in the bloodstream to affect another part of the body; an example is thyroid hormone, produced by the thyroid gland in the neck, which affects growth, temperature regulation, metabolic rate, and other body functions.

Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be caused by viruses, bacteria, alcohol, toxic chemicals, and certain drugs. Symptoms include jaundice (yellowish skin caused by the buildup of bile pigments in the body), fever, appetite loss and gastrointestinal upset.

Haploid
A single set of chromosomes (half the full set of genetic material), present in the egg and sperm cells of animals and in the egg and pollen cells of plants. Human beings have 23 chromosomes in their reproductive cells.

Hermaphrodite
An individual with both male and female genitalia.

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