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    A single set of chromosomes (half the full set of genetic material), present in the egg and sperm cells of animals and in the egg and pollen cells of plants. Human beings have 23 chromosomes in their reproductive cells.


Filaments of genetic material in every cell nucleus that are made up of genes and that transmit genetic information from one generation of cells to the next.

Hereditary. Having to do with the genes.

A sperm cell, or spermatozoon (pl. spermatozoa) (in Greek: sperm = semen and zoon = alive), is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. It is carried in fluid called semen, and is capable of fertilising an egg cell to form a zygote. A zygote can grow into a new organism, such as a human. Sperm cells contain half of the genetic information needed to create life. Generally, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm, through the chromosomal pair "XX" (for a female) or "XY" (for a male).

Pollen is the male fertilising agent of flowering plants, grasses, trees and weeds.


The number of chromosomes in the gametes, which is half the number normally found in somatic cells. Symbol: N.

The number of chromosomes in the gametes, which is half the number normally found in somatic cells. Symbol: N.

A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), PONGIDAE (great apes), TARSIIDAE (tarsiers), and HOMINIDAE (humans).

Haploscopic stimulation
Different stimuli for the two eyes.

A particular combination of closely linked genes on a chromosome inherited from one patient.

The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.


A general term for loss of blood, often profuse, brought about by injury to the blood vessels or by a deficiency of certain necessary blood elements such as platelets.

Hemoglobin is a substance contained within the red blood cells and is responsible for their color. It has the unique property of combining reversibly with oxygen and is the medium by which oxygen is transported within the body. It takes up oxygen as blood passes through the lungs and releases it as blood passes through the tissues.

A chemical substance formed in the body that is carried in the bloodstream to affect another part of the body; an example is thyroid hormone, produced by the thyroid gland in the neck, which affects growth, temperature regulation, metabolic rate, and other body functions.

Inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis can be caused by viruses, bacteria, alcohol, toxic chemicals, and certain drugs. Symptoms include jaundice (yellowish skin caused by the buildup of bile pigments in the body), fever, appetite loss and gastrointestinal upset.


An individual with both male and female genitalia.

High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
The "good" cholesterol that helps remove cholesterol from cells. If insulin levels go up, then HDL levels go down. The lower your HDL level, the more likely you are to suffer cardiovascular complications.

The portion of the limbic system in the brain that integrates incoming nerve impulses to the hypothalamus. It is also the memory center of the brain.

Biological compounds that communicate information at a distance. Hormones require specific receptors to begin their biological action and use second messengers to initiate the cellular process that uses that information.

Hormone Releasing Factors
Hormones released from the hypothalamus that directly affect the pituitary and initiate the release of other hormones into the bloodstream. Many hormone releasing factors use cyclic AMP as their secondary messengers.

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