HYPOPIGMENTATION
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  Hypopigmentation



Hypopigmentation

   A condition caused by a deficiency or a loss of melanin pigmentation in the epidermis, also known as hypomelanosis. Hypopigmentation can be localized or generalized, and may result from genetic defects, trauma, inflammation, or infections.

RELATED TERMS
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Condition
The term "condition" has a number of biomedical meanings including the following: 1.An unhealthy state, such as in "this is a progressive condition." 2.A state of fitness, such as "getting into condition." 3.Something that is essential to the occurrence of something else; essentially a "precondition." 4.As a verb: to cause a change in something so that a response that was previously associated with a certain stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus; to condition a person, as in behavioral conditioning.

Melanin
Black pigment in the pigment epithelium cells that absorbs light not captured by the retina preventing it from being reflected off the back of the eye.

Epidermis
The outermost layer of skin.

Hypomelanosis
A condition caused by a deficiency or a loss of melanin pigmentation in the epidermis, also known as hypomelanosis. Hypopigmentation can be localized or generalized, and may result from genetic defects, trauma, inflammation, or infections.

Hypopigmentation
A condition caused by a deficiency or a loss of melanin pigmentation in the epidermis, also known as hypomelanosis. Hypopigmentation can be localized or generalized, and may result from genetic defects, trauma, inflammation, or infections.

Genetic
Hereditary. Having to do with the genes.

Trauma
Injury caused by external force, chemical, temperature extremes, or poor tooth alignment.

Inflammation
A reaction to an injury to the body - by infection, chemicals or physical agents. The symptoms can be - depending on the location of the injury- redness, swelling, heat and pain. The purpose of the inflammation is to dilute and destroy the agent causing the inflammation. To do this, the immune system starts a cascade of actions that causes active cells to gather at the affected location. It is these cells and fluids that cause the redness, swelling, heat and pain.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
Disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiologic changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)

Hypoacuses
A condition in which the sense of hearing, although defective, is functional with or without a hearing aid. The hearing loss may affect one or both ears. The normal hearing level for speech is approximately 40-70 decibels I.S.O. (International Organization for Standardization) or 30-60 db A.S.A. (American Standards Association).

Hypoacusis
A condition in which the sense of hearing, although defective, is functional with or without a hearing aid. The hearing loss may affect one or both ears. The normal hearing level for speech is approximately 40-70 decibels I.S.O. (International Organization for Standardization) or 30-60 db A.S.A. (American Standards Association).

Hypoaldosteronism
Aldosterone deficiency, usually associated with hypoadrenalism, and characterized by hypotension, dehydration, and a tendency to excrete excessive amounts of sodium. A selective aldosterone deficiency resulting from low renin production is called hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)

Hypoaldosteronism, Hyporeninemic
Aldosterone deficiency, usually associated with hypoadrenalism, and characterized by hypotension, dehydration, and a tendency to excrete excessive amounts of sodium. A selective aldosterone deficiency resulting from low renin production is called hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)

Hypoalphalipoproteinemia, Familial
A rare autosomal recessive familial disorder of cholesterol metabolism, characterized by extremely low HDL-cholesterol, reduced total cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels in serum. Clinical features include the onset before age 20 years of HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; the deposition of cholesterol in each TONSIL (creating a yellow-orange appearance); and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. A sensorimotor or distal sensory POLYNEUROPATHY occurs in approximately 50% of affected individuals. The condition is associated with decreased synthesis and increased catabolism of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II, and a defect in cellular signaling and mobilization of lipids. (From Nat Genet 1998 Sep;20(1):96-8; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1347-8; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118)

Hypoalphalipoproteinemias, Familial
A rare autosomal recessive familial disorder of cholesterol metabolism, characterized by extremely low HDL-cholesterol, reduced total cholesterol, and increased triglyceride levels in serum. Clinical features include the onset before age 20 years of HEPATOMEGALY; SPLENOMEGALY; the deposition of cholesterol in each TONSIL (creating a yellow-orange appearance); and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. A sensorimotor or distal sensory POLYNEUROPATHY occurs in approximately 50% of affected individuals. The condition is associated with decreased synthesis and increased catabolism of APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II, and a defect in cellular signaling and mobilization of lipids. (From Nat Genet 1998 Sep;20(1):96-8; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1347-8; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p118)

Hypobetalipoproteinemia
A disease in which the low density lipoprotein (beta-lipoprotein) concentrations are far below normal.

Hypobetalipoproteinemias
A disease in which the low density lipoprotein (beta-lipoprotein) concentrations are far below normal.

Hypocapnia
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.

Hypocapnias
Clinical manifestation consisting of a deficiency of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.

Hypocatalasemia
A rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the absence of CATALASE activity. Though usually asymptomatic, a syndrome of oral ulcerations and gangrene may be present.

Hypocatalasia
A rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the absence of CATALASE activity. Though usually asymptomatic, a syndrome of oral ulcerations and gangrene may be present.

Hypochlorhydria
A lack of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice despite stimulation of gastric secretion.

Hypochlorite
An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.

Hypochlorous Acid
An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.

Hypochlorous Acids
An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.

Hypocholesteremic Agents
Substances used to lower plasma cholesterol levels.

Hypochromic Anemia
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)

Hypochromic Anemias
Anemia characterized by a decrease in the ratio of the weight of hemoglobin to the volume of the erythrocyte, i.e., the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is less than normal. The individual cells contain less hemoglobin than they could have under optimal conditions. Hypochromic anemia may be caused by iron deficiency from a low iron intake, diminished iron absorption, or excessive iron loss. It can also be caused by infections or other diseases, therapeutic drugs, lead poisoning, and other conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Miale, Laboratory Medicine: Hematology, 6th ed, p393)

Hypocomplementemic Glomerulonephritides
Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of mesangial cells, increase in the mesangial matrix, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. The wall thickening is sometimes said to be a result of the interposition of mesangial cytoplasm or matrix between the basement membrane and the endothelium of the capillary wall. It is often divided into types I and II, and sometimes III. Pathogenesis is not well understood, but some types are thought to involve the immune system, with the complement system, in particular, being implicated.

Hypocomplementemic Glomerulonephritis
Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of mesangial cells, increase in the mesangial matrix, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. The wall thickening is sometimes said to be a result of the interposition of mesangial cytoplasm or matrix between the basement membrane and the endothelium of the capillary wall. It is often divided into types I and II, and sometimes III. Pathogenesis is not well understood, but some types are thought to involve the immune system, with the complement system, in particular, being implicated.

Hypocotyl
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

Hypocotyls
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

Hypocreales
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.

Hypocupremia, Congenital
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)

Hypocupremias, Congenital
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)

Hypodermic
Beneath the skin.

Hypodermyiases
Infestation with larvae of the genus Hypoderma, the warble fly.

Hypodermyiasis
Infestation with larvae of the genus Hypoderma, the warble fly.

Hypodontia
Congenital absence of the teeth; it may involve all (total anodontia) or only some of the teeth (partial anodontia, hypodontia), and both the deciduous and the permanent dentition, or only teeth of the permanent dentition. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypodynamia
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility; and other conditions.

Hypoesthesia
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.

Hypoesthesias
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.

Hypogalactia
Disturbances of milk secretion in either sex, not necessarily related to pregnancy.

Hypogalactias
Disturbances of milk secretion in either sex, not necessarily related to pregnancy.

Hypogammaglobulinemia
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.

Hypogammaglobulinemias
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.

Hypogastric Plexus
A complex network of nerve fibers in the pelvic region. The hypogastric plexus distributes sympathetic fibers from the lumbar paravertebral ganglia and the aortic plexus, parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic nerve, and visceral afferents. The bilateral pelvic plexus is in its lateral extent.

Hypogeusia
Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.

Hypogeusias
Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.

Hypoglicemia
A condition in which the blood sugar is lower than normal.

Hypoglossal Nerve
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.

Hypoglossal Nerve Disease
Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.

Hypoglossal Nerve Diseases
Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.

Hypoglossal Nerve Palsies
Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.

Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy
Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.

Hypoglossal Nerves
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.

Hypoglossal Neuralgia
Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.

Hypoglossal Neuralgias
Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.

Hypoglossal Neuropathies
Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.

Hypoglossal Neuropathy
Diseases of the twelfth cranial (hypoglossal) nerve or nuclei. The nuclei and fascicles of the nerve are located in the medulla, and the nerve exits the skull via the hypoglossal foramen and innervates the muscles of the tongue. Lower brain stem diseases, including ischemia and MOTOR NEURON DISEASES may affect the nuclei or nerve fascicles. The nerve may also be injured by diseases of the posterior fossa or skull base. Clinical manifestations include unilateral weakness of tongue musculature and lingual dysarthria, with deviation of the tongue towards the side of weakness upon attempted protrusion.

Hypoglycemia
Low levels of blood sugar.

Hypoglycemia Unawareness
A situation in which the usual epinephrine-induced symptoms of a fall in blood sugar are, for a variety of reasons, either not felt or not recognized. |This situation may be dangerous, as the patient may go from functioning normally to unconscious within a short time. It is generally thought that if such a patient is allowed to maintain somewhat elevated blood sugar levels for several weeks, that the hypoglycemic unawareness may resolve.

Hypoglycemias
An abnormally diminished concentration of glucose in the blood, which may lead to tremulousness, cold sweat, piloerection, hypothermia, and headache, accompanied by irritability, confusion, hallucinations, bizarre behavior, and ultimately, convulsions and coma. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypoglycemic Agents
Agents which lower the blood glucose level.

Hypoglycemic Drugs
Agents which lower the blood glucose level.

Hypoglycemics
Agents which lower the blood glucose level.

Hypoglycins
Methylene cyclopropyl alanine and congeners isolated from the unripe edible fruit of the akee plant (Blighia sapida); hypoglycin B is the gamma-glutamyl congener of hypoglycin A; they are very toxic and teratogenic, causing a fall in blood glucose due to the interference of fatty acid and leucine metabolism which leads to vomiting, liver damage, convulsions and death; the syndrome is called Jamaican Vomiting Sickness.

Hypogonadism
Condition resulting from or characterized by abnormally decreased functional activity of the gonads, with retardation of growth and sexual development.

Hypogonadisms
Condition resulting from or characterized by abnormally decreased functional activity of the gonads, with retardation of growth and sexual development.

Hypogravity
Condition wherein the force of gravity is less than or is decreased below that on the surface of the earth. This is expressed as being between 0 and 1 g.

Hypohidrosis
Abnormally diminished or absent perspiration. Both generalized and segmented (reduced or absent sweating in circumscribed locations) forms of the disease are usually associated with other underlying conditions.

Hypokalemia
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypokalemias
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis
An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)

Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis, Familial
An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)

Hypokinesia
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility; and other conditions.

Hypokinesia, Antiorthostatic
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility; and other conditions.

Hypokinesia, Experimental
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility; and other conditions.

Hypokinesias, Antiorthostatic
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility; and other conditions.

Hypokinesias, Experimental
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility; and other conditions.

Hypolipidemic Agents
Substances used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIA.

Hypolipoproteinemia
The presence of abnormally low levels of lipoproteins in the serum.

Hypolipoproteinemias
The presence of abnormally low levels of lipoproteins in the serum.

Hypomelanoses
A condition caused by a deficiency or a loss of melanin pigmentation in the epidermis, also known as hypomelanosis. Hypopigmentation can be localized or generalized, and may result from genetic defects, trauma, inflammation, or infections.

Hypomelanosis
A condition caused by a deficiency or a loss of melanin pigmentation in the epidermis, also known as hypomelanosis. Hypopigmentation can be localized or generalized, and may result from genetic defects, trauma, inflammation, or infections.

Hypomenorrhea
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.

Hypomenorrheas
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.

Hypomyotonia
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.

Hyponatremia
Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hyponatremias
Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypoparathyroidism
Parathyroid hormone insufficiency due to lack of secretion of the parathyroid gland.

Hypopharyngeal Cancer
Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.

Hypopharyngeal Cancers
Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.

Hypopharyngeal Neoplasm
Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.

Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms
Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.

Hypopharynges
The portion of the pharynx between the inferior portion of the oropharynx and the larynx.

Hypopharynx
The portion of the pharynx between the inferior portion of the oropharynx and the larynx.

Hypopharynxes
The portion of the pharynx between the inferior portion of the oropharynx and the larynx.

Hypophilia
A condition or syndrome, variable in etiology and diagnosis, of being sexuoerotically substandard or deficient, particularly with respect to some aspect of genital functioning at the acceptive phase; impaired or deficient in sexual and genital responsiveness or frequency. The condition of being subnormal in sexual and genital responsiveness or frequency.

Hypophosphataemic rickets
X-linked, vitamin D-resistant. May resemble ankylosing spondylitis.

Hypophosphatasia
Rare autosomal recessive cause of rickets. Associated with a lack of alkaline phosphatase.

Hypophosphatasias
A genetic metabolic disorder resulting from serum and bone alkaline phosphatase deficiency leading to hypercalcemia, ethanolamine phosphatemia, and ethanolamine phosphaturia. Clinical manifestations include severe skeletal defects resembling vitamin D-resistant rickets, failure of the calvarium to calcify, dyspnea, cyanosis, vomiting, constipation, renal calcinosis, failure to thrive, disorders of movement, beading of the costochondral junction, and rachitic bone changes. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypophosphatemia
An abnormally decreased level of phosphates in the blood. The manifestations include hemolysis, lassitude, weakness, and convulsions. It may be found in hyperparathyroidism, rickets, osteomalacia, and several renal tubular abnormalities. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypophosphatemia, Familial
Familial disorder characterized by hypophosphatemia associated with decreased renal tubular reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus. It is sometimes associated with osteomalacia or rickets which do not respond to the usual doses of vitamin D.

Hypophosphatemias
An abnormally decreased level of phosphates in the blood. The manifestations include hemolysis, lassitude, weakness, and convulsions. It may be found in hyperparathyroidism, rickets, osteomalacia, and several renal tubular abnormalities. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypophosphatemias, Familial
Familial disorder characterized by hypophosphatemia associated with decreased renal tubular reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus. It is sometimes associated with osteomalacia or rickets which do not respond to the usual doses of vitamin D.

Hypophosphatemic Rickets
Familial disorder characterized by hypophosphatemia associated with decreased renal tubular reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus. It is sometimes associated with osteomalacia or rickets which do not respond to the usual doses of vitamin D.

Hypophosphatemic Rickets, X-Linked
Familial disorder characterized by hypophosphatemia associated with decreased renal tubular reabsorption of inorganic phosphorus. It is sometimes associated with osteomalacia or rickets which do not respond to the usual doses of vitamin D.

Hypophosphorous Acids
Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.

Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.

Hypophyseal Disorder
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Hypophyseal Disorders
Disorders of the anterior or posterior pituitary gland which usually manifest as hypersecretion or hyposecretion of pituitary hormones. Pituitary mass lesions may also produce compression of the OPTIC CHIASM and other adjacent structures.

Hypophysectomies
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hypophysectomies, Chemical
Total or subtotal destruction of the pituitary gland by chemical injection. It is usually achieved by injection of ethyl alcohol via trans-sphenoidal cannulation under stereotaxic control. It is usually performed for the treatment of intractable pain.

Hypophysectomy
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hypophysectomy, Chemical
Total or subtotal destruction of the pituitary gland by chemical injection. It is usually achieved by injection of ethyl alcohol via trans-sphenoidal cannulation under stereotaxic control. It is usually performed for the treatment of intractable pain.

Hypophyses
A small, unpaired gland situated in the sella turcica tissue. It is connected to the hypothalamus by a short stalk.

Hypophysial Dwarf
A form of dwarfism due to deficient release of SOMATOTROPIN which may result from dysfunction of the hypothalamus or anterior pituitary gland.

Hypophysial Dwarfs
A form of dwarfism due to deficient release of SOMATOTROPIN which may result from dysfunction of the hypothalamus or anterior pituitary gland.

Hypophysial Stalk
A small, unpaired gland situated in the sella turcica tissue. It is connected to the hypothalamus by a short stalk.

Hypophysial Stalks
A small, unpaired gland situated in the sella turcica tissue. It is connected to the hypothalamus by a short stalk.

Hypophysis
Pituitary gland.

Hypopituitarism
A generalized endocrine deficiency condition produced by failure, either partial or complete, of the pituitary gland to secrete its proper hormones. Failure after surgery for a pituitary tumor is usually complete. Idiopathic failure may be either complete or partial. In some instances, partial failure may involve chiefly the secretion of pituitary gonadotropins, the hormones that stimulate the ovaries or the testes to produce their own hormones.

Hypoplasia
Underdevelopment of a tissue or organ usually due to a decrease in the number of cells.

Hypoplasia, Dental Enamel
A form of AMELOGENESIS IMPERFECTA characterized by incomplete formation of the dental enamel and transmitted as an X-linked or autosomal dominant trait. It is also associated with vitamin A, C, or D deficiency, infectious disease, prematurity, birth injury, Rh incompatibility, trauma, or local infection. Small grooves, pits, and fissures are seen in mild cases, deep horizontal rows of pits in severe cases, or absence of enamel in extreme cases. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypoplasia, Focal Dermal
A genetic skin disease characterized by hypoplasia of the dermis, herniations of fat, and hand anomalies. It is found exclusively in females and transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait.

Hypoplasias, Focal Dermal
A genetic skin disease characterized by hypoplasia of the dermis, herniations of fat, and hand anomalies. It is found exclusively in females and transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait.

Hypoplastic Anemia
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.

Hypoplastic Anemia, Congenital
An inborn condition characterized by deficiencies of red cell precursors that sometimes also includes LEUKOPENIA and THROMBOCYTOPENIA.

Hypoplastic Anemias
A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.

Hypoplastic Anemias, Congenital
An inborn condition characterized by deficiencies of red cell precursors that sometimes also includes LEUKOPENIA and THROMBOCYTOPENIA.

Hypoplastic Enamel
A form of AMELOGENESIS IMPERFECTA characterized by incomplete formation of the dental enamel and transmitted as an X-linked or autosomal dominant trait. It is also associated with vitamin A, C, or D deficiency, infectious disease, prematurity, birth injury, Rh incompatibility, trauma, or local infection. Small grooves, pits, and fissures are seen in mild cases, deep horizontal rows of pits in severe cases, or absence of enamel in extreme cases. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
A condition characterized by underdevelopment of the left cardiac chambers, atresia or stenosis of the aorta or mitral valve or both, and hypoplasia of the aorta. These anomalies are a common cause of heart failure in early infancy.

Hypopnea, Sleep
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APENA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.

Hypopneas, Sleep
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APENA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.

Hypopotassemia
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypopotassemias
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypoproconvertinemia
An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.

Hypoproconvertinemias
An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.

Hypoproteinemia, Idiopathic Hypercatabolic
A series of gastrointestinal disorders which share in common the excessive loss of protein, mainly albumin, across the gut wall. They occur in the stomach (Menetrier disease), as well as the small bowel (intestinal lymphangiectases, assorted inflammatory states). They are also occasionally associated with congestive heart failure (again a small bowel protein loss).

Hypoproteinemias, Idiopathic Hypercatabolic
A series of gastrointestinal disorders which share in common the excessive loss of protein, mainly albumin, across the gut wall. They occur in the stomach (Menetrier disease), as well as the small bowel (intestinal lymphangiectases, assorted inflammatory states). They are also occasionally associated with congestive heart failure (again a small bowel protein loss).

Hypoprothrombinemia
Absence or reduced levels of prothrombin in the blood.

Hypoprothrombinemias
Absence or reduced levels of prothrombin in the blood.

Hyporeflexia
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.

Hyporeninemic Hypoaldosteronism
Aldosterone deficiency, usually associated with hypoadrenalism, and characterized by hypotension, dehydration, and a tendency to excrete excessive amounts of sodium. A selective aldosterone deficiency resulting from low renin production is called hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)

Hyposalivation
Decreased salivary flow.

Hyposalivations
Decreased salivary flow.

Hyposecretion Syndrome, Anterior Pituitary
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.

Hyposecretion, Adenohypophyseal
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.

Hyposecretions, Adenohypophyseal
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.

Hyposensitisation
See specific allergy vaccination.

Hyposensitization
To treat with frequent, small injections of an antigen to decrease the symptoms of an allergy to that antigen. Also called desensitization.

Hyposensitization Therapies
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.

Hyposensitization Therapy
Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.

Hyposomatotrophic Dwarfism
A form of dwarfism due to deficient release of SOMATOTROPIN which may result from dysfunction of the hypothalamus or anterior pituitary gland.

Hypospadia
A developmental anomaly in the male in which the urethra opens on the underside of the penis or on the perineum.

Hypospadias
A birth defect in the positioning of the urethral (urinary meatus) opening on the penis in males or into the vagina in females. In mild male hypospadias, the opening is only slightly displaced from the tip of the penis. In severe male hypospadias, the opening is in the female position, at the base of the scrotum, and the penis has an open gutter on its underside, instead of a covered urinary canal. A hypospadiac penis may be normal sized or small. 2. A birth defect in the male in which the urinary opening is on the underside of the shaft of the penis anywhere from the glans (first degree) to the perineum (third degree or penoscrotal hypospadias). A small penis with a severe degree of hypospadias is identical in appearance with an enlarged clitoris below which is a single opening or urogenital sinus leading to both the urethra and the vagina. Artificial hypospadias may occur as a sequel to an injury, as in a circumcision accident, or be self-inflicted.

Hypostases, Genetic
A form of gene interaction whereby one gene interferes with the phenotypic expression of another nonallelic gene or genes. Genes whose expression is altered by nonallelic genes are said to be ""hypostatic"" or to exhibit ""hypostasis"".

Hypostasis, Genetic
A form of gene interaction whereby one gene interferes with the phenotypic expression of another nonallelic gene or genes. Genes whose expression is altered by nonallelic genes are said to be ""hypostatic"" or to exhibit ""hypostasis"".

Hypostatic Gene
A form of gene interaction whereby one gene interferes with the phenotypic expression of another nonallelic gene or genes. Genes whose expression is altered by nonallelic genes are said to be ""hypostatic"" or to exhibit ""hypostasis"".

Hypostatic Genes
A form of gene interaction whereby one gene interferes with the phenotypic expression of another nonallelic gene or genes. Genes whose expression is altered by nonallelic genes are said to be ""hypostatic"" or to exhibit ""hypostasis"".

Hyposulfite
Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.

Hypotension
Subnormal arterial blood pressure.

Hypotension Syndrome, Dysautonomia-Orthostatic
A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord, which differentiates this condition from other forms of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC). This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with orthostasis and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p536)

Hypotension Syndromes, Dysautonomia-Orthostatic
A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord, which differentiates this condition from other forms of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC). This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with orthostasis and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p536)

Hypotension, Dysautonomic Orthostatic
A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord, which differentiates this condition from other forms of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC). This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with orthostasis and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p536)

Hypotension, Essential Intracranial
Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS), NAUSEA, and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)

Hypotension, Intracranial
Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS), NAUSEA, and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)

Hypotension, Ocular
Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).

Hypotension, Orthostatic
A drop in blood pressure upon standing or after standing motionless in a static position.

Hypotension, Postural
A drop in blood pressure upon standing or after standing motionless in a static position.

Hypotension, Secondary Intracranial
Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS), NAUSEA, and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)

Hypotension, Spontaneous Intracranial
Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS), NAUSEA, and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)

Hypotensions
Abnormally low blood pressure seen in shock but not necessarily indicative of it. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hypotensions, Dysautonomic Orthostatic
A progressive neurodegenerative condition of the central and autonomic nervous systems characterized by atrophy of the preganglionic lateral horn neurons of the thoracic spinal cord, which differentiates this condition from other forms of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension (HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC). This disease is generally considered a clinical variant of MULTIPLE SYSTEM ATROPHY. Affected individuals present in the fifth or sixth decade with orthostasis and bladder dysfunction; and later develop FECAL INCONTINENCE; anhidrosis; ATAXIA; IMPOTENCE; and alterations of tone suggestive of basal ganglia dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p536)

Hypothalamic Adenohypophyseal Disorders
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic Area, Anterior
Loose heterogeneous collection of cells in the anterior hypothalamus, continuous rostrally with the medial and lateral preoptic areas and caudally with the tuber cinereum.

Hypothalamic Areas, Anterior
Loose heterogeneous collection of cells in the anterior hypothalamus, continuous rostrally with the medial and lateral preoptic areas and caudally with the tuber cinereum.

Hypothalamic Cancer
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic Cancers
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic Chiasmatic Neoplasms
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic Disease
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic Diseases
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic Dysfunction Syndrome
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic Dysfunction Syndromes
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic Dysinhibition Syndrome
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic Dysinhibition Syndromes
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic Hormones
Hormones isolated from the hypothalamus which exercise control over other organs, primarily the pituitary gland. Well-known members include certain pituitary hormone-releasing hormones and pituitary hormone release inhibiting hormones. Vasopressin and oxytocin which are found in the posterior pituitary may also be secreted by the hypothalamus but are not grouped here (PITUITARY HORMONES, POSTERIOR).

Hypothalamic Neoplasm
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic Neoplasm, Malignant
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic Neoplasms
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic Neoplasms, Benign
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic Neoplasms, Malignant
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic Neurohypophyseal Disorders
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic Nucleus, Anterior
Loose heterogeneous collection of cells in the anterior hypothalamus, continuous rostrally with the medial and lateral preoptic areas and caudally with the tuber cinereum.

Hypothalamic Nucleus, Dorsomedial
An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the third ventricle.

Hypothalamic Nucleus, Paraventricular
Nucleus in the anterior part of the hypothalamus.

Hypothalamic Nucleus, Ventromedial
A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.

Hypothalamic Overactivity Syndrome
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic Overactivity Syndromes
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus
Nucleus in the anterior part of the hypothalamus.

Hypothalamic Pituitary Neoplasms
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic Pseudopuberties
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic Pseudopuberty
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic Region, Intermediate
That middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, and ventromedial nuclei, and the tuber cinereum. The pituitary gland can also be considered part of the middle hypothalamic region.

Hypothalamic Region, Posterior
The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial mamillary nucleus, lateral mamillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.

Hypothalamic Regions, Intermediate
That middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, and ventromedial nuclei, and the tuber cinereum. The pituitary gland can also be considered part of the middle hypothalamic region.

Hypothalamic Regions, Posterior
The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial mamillary nucleus, lateral mamillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.

Hypothalamic Release Inhibiting Hormone Receptors
Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.

Hypothalamic Release-Inhibiting Hormone Receptors
Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.

Hypothalamic Releasing Factor
Hormones released by one structure (e.g., the hypothalamus or the thyroid gland) that effect the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland.

Hypothalamic Releasing Hormone Receptors
Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.

Hypothalamic Substance P
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of pain, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.

Hypothalamic Teratoma
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic Teratomas
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic Tumor
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic Tumors
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic-Adenohypophyseal Disorder
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic-Adenohypophyseal Disorders
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic-Chiasmatic Neoplasm
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic-Chiasmatic Neoplasms
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic-Neurohypophyseal Disorder
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic-Neurohypophyseal Disorders
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.

Hypothalamic-Pituitary Neoplasm
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamic-Pituitary Neoplasms
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamo Hypophyseal System
A neuroendocrine system of neurons, fiber tracts, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels which produces and releases pituitary hormones into the systemic circulation.

Hypothalamo Neurohypophysial Region Neoplasms
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System
A neuroendocrine system of neurons, fiber tracts, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels which produces and releases pituitary hormones into the systemic circulation.

Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal Systems
A neuroendocrine system of neurons, fiber tracts, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels which produces and releases pituitary hormones into the systemic circulation.

Hypothalamo-Neurohypophysial Region Neoplasm
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamo-Neurohypophysial Region Neoplasms
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamus
The portion of the brain's limbic system that integrates incoming information, and either increases or decreases the release of certain hormones that instruct the pituitary gland to release hormones.

Hypothalamus Neoplasm
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamus Neoplasms
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamus Tumor
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamus Tumors
Benign and malignant tumors of the HYPOTHALAMUS. Pilocytic astrocytomas and hamartomas are relatively frequent histologic types. Neoplasms of the hypothalamus frequently originate from adjacent structures, including the OPTIC CHIASM, optic nerve (see OPTIC NERVE NEOPLASMS), and pituitary gland (see PITUITARY NEOPLASMS). Relatively frequent clinical manifestions include visual loss, developmental delay, macrocephaly, and precocious puberty. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2051)

Hypothalamus, Anterior
The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular gray matter of the rostral portion of the third ventricle and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.

Hypothalamus, Infundibular
The neural or post-neural lobe of the pituitary gland. The infundibulum is considered part of the posterior pituitary by most authors.

Hypothalamus, Medial
That middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, and ventromedial nuclei, and the tuber cinereum. The pituitary gland can also be considered part of the middle hypothalamic region.

Hypothalamus, Middle
That middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, and ventromedial nuclei, and the tuber cinereum. The pituitary gland can also be considered part of the middle hypothalamic region.

Hypothalamus, Posterior
The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial mamillary nucleus, lateral mamillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.

Hypothalamus, Supraoptic
The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular gray matter of the rostral portion of the third ventricle and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.

Hypothermia
Low body temperature.

Hypothermia, Gastric
Abnormally low body temperature intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means.

Hypothermia, Induced
Abnormally low body temperature intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means.

Hypothermias
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals; in man usually accidental or unintentional.

Hypothesis, Easterlin
The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.

Hypothiazide
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It has been used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.

Hypothyroidism
Deficiency of thyroid hormone; the opposite of hyperthyroidism. The thyroid gland is in the throat, near the larynx or Adam's apple.

Hypothyroidisms
The clinical syndrome that results from decreased secretion of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland. It leads to a slowing of metabolic processes and in its most severe form to the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in the skin, causing a nonpitting edema termed myxedema. Cretinism is the congenital form leading to abnormalities of intellectual and physical development. (Bennett, et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 20th ed)

Hypotonia
Abnormally decreased tonicity, tension or strength; ocular hypotony refers to low intraocular pressure.

Hypotonia, Muscle
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.

Hypotonia, Muscular
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.

Hypotonia, Neonatal
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.

Hypotonia, Unilateral
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.

Hypotonias, Neonatal
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.

Hypotonias, Unilateral
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.

Hypotonic Cerebral Palsies
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)

Hypotonic Cerebral Palsy
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)

Hypotonic Paraparesis
Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.

Hypotonic Solutions
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.

Hypotonicity
Diminished muscle tone; limp muscles.

Hypotony, Muscle
A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.

Hypotony, Ocular
Abnormally low intraocular pressure often related to chronic inflammation (uveitis).

Hypotrichida
An order of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include a dorsoventrally flattened, highly mobile body with a unique cursorial type of locomotion.

Hypotrichoses
Presence of less than the normal amount of hair. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypotrichosis
Presence of less than the normal amount of hair. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Hypoventilation
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.

Hypoventilation, Central Alveolar
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)

Hypoventilations
A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.

Hypoventilations, Central Alveolar
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)

Hypovolemia
A decreased amount of blood in the body.

Hypovolemias
An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).

Hypovolemic
An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).

Hypovolemic Shock
A pathological condition that can suddenly affect the hemodynamic equilibrium, usually manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.

Hypovolemics
An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).

Hypoxanthine
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.

Hypoxanthine Dehydrogenase
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria. EC 1.1.3.22.

Hypoxanthine Oxidase
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria. EC 1.1.3.22.

Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Deficiency Disease
An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)

Hypoxanthine Xanthine Oxidase
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria. EC 1.1.3.22.

Hypoxanthine-Phosphoribosyl-Transferase Deficiency Disease
An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)

Hypoxanthine-Phosphoribosyl-Transferase Deficiency Diseases
An inherited disorder transmitted as a sex-linked trait and caused by a deficiency of an enzyme of purine metabolism; HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE. Affected individuals are normal in the first year of life and then develop psychomotor retardation, extrapyramidal movement disorders, progressive spasticity, and seizures. Self-destructive behaviors such as biting of fingers and lips are seen frequently. Intellectual impairment may also occur but is typically not severe. Elevation of uric acid in the serum leads to the development of renal calculi and gouty arthritis. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp127)

Hypoxanthine-Xanthine Oxidase
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria. EC 1.1.3.22.

Hypoxanthines
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.

Hypoxemia
Subnormal oxygenation of arterial blood, short of anoxia.

Hypoxemias
Clinical manifestation of respiratory distress consisting of relatively complete absence of oxygen in arterial blood.

Hypoxia
Abnormal oxygen content in the organs and tissues of the body.

Hypoxia Ischemia, Brain
A disorder characterized by a reduction in oxygen supply (HYPOXIA) combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain. This condition may result from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

Hypoxia Ischemia, Cerebral
A disorder characterized by a reduction in oxygen supply (HYPOXIA) combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain. This condition may result from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

Hypoxia, Brain
A reduction in brain oxygen supply. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1109-11)

Hypoxia, Cell
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.

Hypoxia, Cellular
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.

Hypoxia, Cerebral
A reduction in brain oxygen supply. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1109-11)

Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain
A disorder characterized by a reduction in oxygen supply (HYPOXIA) combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain. This condition may result from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

Hypoxia-Ischemia, Cerebral
A disorder characterized by a reduction in oxygen supply (HYPOXIA) combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain. This condition may result from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

Hypoxia-Ischemias, Brain
A disorder characterized by a reduction in oxygen supply (HYPOXIA) combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain. This condition may result from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

Hypoxia-Ischemias, Cerebral
A disorder characterized by a reduction in oxygen supply (HYPOXIA) combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain. This condition may result from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

Hypoxias
Clinical manifestation of respiratory distress consisting of a relatively complete absence of oxygen.

Hypoxias, Cell
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.

Hypoxias, Cellular
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.

Hypoxic Brain Damage
A reduction in brain oxygen supply. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1109-11)

Hypoxic Brain Injuries
A reduction in brain oxygen supply. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1109-11)

Hypoxic Brain Injury
A reduction in brain oxygen supply. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1109-11)

Hypoxic Encephalopathies
A reduction in brain oxygen supply. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1109-11)

Hypoxic Encephalopathy
A reduction in brain oxygen supply. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1109-11)

Hypoxic Injuries, Brain
A reduction in brain oxygen supply. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1109-11)

Hypoxic Injury, Brain
A reduction in brain oxygen supply. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1109-11)

Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury
A disorder characterized by a reduction in oxygen supply (HYPOXIA) combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain. This condition may result from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy
A disorder characterized by a reduction in oxygen supply (HYPOXIA) combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain. This condition may result from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injuries
A disorder characterized by a reduction in oxygen supply (HYPOXIA) combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain. This condition may result from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury
A disorder characterized by a reduction in oxygen supply (HYPOXIA) combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain. This condition may result from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathies
A disorder characterized by a reduction in oxygen supply (HYPOXIA) combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain. This condition may result from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy
A disorder characterized by a reduction in oxygen supply (HYPOXIA) combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain. This condition may result from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.

Hypoxis
Hypoxis is a plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypoxidaceae).

Hypoxis rooperi
Hypoxis is a plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypoxidaceae).

Hypoxyphilia
Asphyxiophilia [from Latin, hypoxia, oxygen deprivation + -philia].



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Hypopharyngeal Neoplasm
Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.

Hypophysial Dwarf
A form of dwarfism due to deficient release of SOMATOTROPIN which may result from dysfunction of the hypothalamus or anterior pituitary gland.

Hypophysial Dwarfs
A form of dwarfism due to deficient release of SOMATOTROPIN which may result from dysfunction of the hypothalamus or anterior pituitary gland.

Hypophyses
A small, unpaired gland situated in the sella turcica tissue. It is connected to the hypothalamus by a short stalk.

Hypophysectomy, Chemical
Total or subtotal destruction of the pituitary gland by chemical injection. It is usually achieved by injection of ethyl alcohol via trans-sphenoidal cannulation under stereotaxic control. It is usually performed for the treatment of intractable pain.

Hypopigmentation

Hypophysial Stalks
A small, unpaired gland situated in the sella turcica tissue. It is connected to the hypothalamus by a short stalk.

Hypophysial Stalk
A small, unpaired gland situated in the sella turcica tissue. It is connected to the hypothalamus by a short stalk.

Hypophysectomy
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Hypophysectomies, Chemical
Total or subtotal destruction of the pituitary gland by chemical injection. It is usually achieved by injection of ethyl alcohol via trans-sphenoidal cannulation under stereotaxic control. It is usually performed for the treatment of intractable pain.

Hypophysectomies
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)

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   ypopigmentation / hpopigmentation / hyopigmentation / hyppigmentation / hypoigmentation / hypopgmentation / hypopimentation / hypopigentation / hypopigmntation / hypopigmetation / hypopigmenation / hypopigmenttion / hypopigmentaion / hypopigmentaton / hypopigmentatin / hypopigmentatio / hhypopigmentation / hyypopigmentation / hyppopigmentation / hypoopigmentation / hypoppigmentation / hypopiigmentation / hypopiggmentation / hypopigmmentation / hypopigmeentation / hypopigmenntation / hypopigmenttation / hypopigmentaation / hypopigmentattion / hypopigmentatiion / hypopigmentatioon / hypopigmentationn / yypopigmentation / uypopigmentation / jypopigmentation / nypopigmentation / bypopigmentation / gypopigmentation / typopigmentation / h6popigmentation / h7popigmentation / hupopigmentation / hjpopigmentation / hhpopigmentation / hgpopigmentation / htpopigmentation / h5popigmentation / hy0opigmentation / hy-opigmentation / hy[opigmentation / hy;opigmentation / hylopigmentation / hyoopigmentation / hy9opigmentation / hyp9pigmentation / hyp0pigmentation / hypppigmentation / hyplpigmentation / hypkpigmentation / hypipigmentation / hyp8pigmentation / hypo0igmentation / hypo-igmentation / hypo[igmentation / hypo;igmentation / hypoligmentation / hypooigmentation / hypo9igmentation / hypopgmentation / hypopitmentation / hypopignentation / hypopigjentation / hypopigkentation / hypopig,entation / hypopig entation / hypopigm3ntation / hypopigm4ntation / hypopigmrntation / hypopigmfntation / hypopigmdntation / hypopigmsntation / hypopigmwntation / hypopigmebtation / hypopigmehtation / hypopigmejtation / hypopigmemtation / hypopigme tation / hypopigmen5ation / hypopigmen6ation / hypopigmenyation / hypopigmenhation / hypopigmengation / hypopigmenfation / hypopigmenration / hypopigmen4ation / hypopigmentqtion / hypopigmentwtion / hypopigmentstion / hypopigmentxtion / hypopigmentztion / hypopigmenta5ion / hypopigmenta6ion / hypopigmentayion / hypopigmentahion / hypopigmentagion / hypopigmentafion / hypopigmentarion / hypopigmenta4ion / hypopigmentaton / hypopigmentati9n / hypopigmentati0n / hypopigmentatipn / hypopigmentatiln / hypopigmentatikn / hypopigmentatiin / hypopigmentati8n / hypopigmentatiob / hypopigmentatioh / hypopigmentatioj / hypopigmentatiom / hypopigmentatio /