Glucagon
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  Glucagon



Glucagon

    The hormone from the pancreas that causes the release of stored carbohydrate in the liver to restore blood glucose levels. Glucagon uses the second messenger cyclic AMP to exert its biological action.

RELATED TERMS
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Hormone
A chemical substance formed in the body that is carried in the bloodstream to affect another part of the body; an example is thyroid hormone, produced by the thyroid gland in the neck, which affects growth, temperature regulation, metabolic rate, and other body functions.

Pancreas
A large, elongated gland located behind the lower portion of the stomach that secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood. These hormones are essential in regulating blood sugar levels. The pancreas also secretes enzymes into the small intestine that help with digestion and neutralize acid from the stomach.

Carbohydrate
One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy. Carbohydrates are mainly sugars and starches that the body breaks down into glucose (a simple sugar that the body can use to feed its cells). The body also uses carbohydrates to make a substance called glycogen that is stored in the liver and muscles for future use. If the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it has, which are the basic problems in most forms of diabetes, then the body will not be able to use carbohydrates for energy the way it should.

Liver
The largest organ in the body. The liver carries out many important functions, such as making bile, changing food into energy, and cleaning alcohol and poisons from the blood.

Blood
The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.

Glucose
The only simple carbohydrate that circulates in the bloodstream. Glucose is the primary fuel used by the brain. It can also be stored in the liver and muscles in a polymer form known as glycogen.

Glucagon
The hormone from the pancreas that causes the release of stored carbohydrate in the liver to restore blood glucose levels. Glucagon uses the second messenger cyclic AMP to exert its biological action.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Glucagen
Glucagen is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): glucagon hydrochloride recombinant.

Glucagon 37
Glucagon-like polypeptide secreted in the intestinal tract. It does not share a common receptor site with pancreatic glucagon. The peptide has glycogenolytic activity.

Glucagon Receptor
Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.

Glucagon Receptors
Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.

Glucagon, Gut
Glucagon-like polypeptide secreted in the intestinal tract. It does not share a common receptor site with pancreatic glucagon. The peptide has glycogenolytic activity.

Glucagon-37
Glucagon-like polypeptide secreted in the intestinal tract. It does not share a common receptor site with pancreatic glucagon. The peptide has glycogenolytic activity.

Glucagonoma
Glucagon-secreting tumor of the pancreatic alpha cells characterized by a distinctive rash, weight loss, stomatitis, glossitis, diabetes, hypoaminoacidemia, and normochromic normocytic anemia.

Glucagonomas
Glucagon-secreting tumor of the pancreatic alpha cells characterized by a distinctive rash, weight loss, stomatitis, glossitis, diabetes, hypoaminoacidemia, and normochromic normocytic anemia.

Glucal
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.

Glucamide
Glucamide is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): chlorpropamide.

Glucan (BO)
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.

Glucan 1,4 alpha Glucosidase
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4. EC 3.2.1.3.

Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4. EC 3.2.1.3.

Glucan Endo 1,3 beta D Glucosidase
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman. EC 3.2.1.39.

Glucan Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman. EC 3.2.1.39.

Glucan Phosphorylase
A class of glucosyltransferases that catalyzes the degradation of storage polysacharides, such as glucose polymers, by phosphorolysis in animals (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE) and in plants (STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE).

Glucans
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.

Glucarate, Calcium
A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.

Glucaric Acid
A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.

Glucitol
A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.

Glucoamylase
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4. EC 3.2.1.3.

Glucoamylase G1
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4. EC 3.2.1.3.

Glucoamylase G2
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4. EC 3.2.1.3.

Glucobay
The first in a class of drugs for the treatment of type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes. Produced by Bayer.

Glucobiogen
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.

Glucocerebrosidase
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.

Glucocerebrosidase Deficiency Disease
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Glucocerebrosidase Deficiency Diseases
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Glucocerebroside beta Glucosidase
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.

Glucocerebroside beta-Glucosidase
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.

Glucochloral
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.

Glucochloralose
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.

Glucocorticoid Analogs
Synthetic chemical compounds which increase gluconeogenesis, raising the concentration of liver glycogen and blood sugar, but differ in structure from naturally occurring glucocorticoids.

Glucocorticoid Analogues
Synthetic chemical compounds which increase gluconeogenesis, raising the concentration of liver glycogen and blood sugar, but differ in structure from naturally occurring glucocorticoids.

Glucocorticoid Receptor
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.

Glucocorticoid Receptors
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.

Glucocorticoids
Generic name for hormones secreted by the adrenocortical glands that are not mineralocorticoids. The glucocorticoids are typified by cortisol or cortisone and are deficient in the syndrome of CVAH.

Glucocorticoids Receptors
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.

Glucocorticoids, Synthetic
Synthetic chemical compounds which increase gluconeogenesis, raising the concentration of liver glycogen and blood sugar, but differ in structure from naturally occurring glucocorticoids.

Glucocorticoids, Topical
A class of corticosteroids that produces suppression of inflammatory diseases when applied as ointments, lotions, or other topical dosage forms. Penetration of the preparations may be increased by means of occlusive dressings.

Glucocorticosteroids
Medications used to decrease swelling around tumors.

Glucokinase
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.

Gluconate, Antimony Sodium
Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.

Gluconate, Calcium
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.

Gluconates, Antimony Sodium
Antimony complex where the metal may exist in either the pentavalent or trivalent states. The pentavalent gluconate is used in leishmaniasis. The trivalent gluconate is most frequently used in schistosomiasis.

Gluconeogenesis
The process by which GLUCOSE is formed from a non-carbohydrate source.

Glucophage
Glucophage is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): metformin hydrochloride.

Glucophage xr
Glucophage xr is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): metformin hydrochloride.

Glucor
The first in a class of drugs for the treatment of type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes. Produced by Bayer.

Glucosaccharic Acid
A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.

Glucosamine 6 Phosphate Synthase
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus glutamine from glutamate plus glucosamine-6-phosphate. EC 2.6.1.16.

Glucosamine 6 Phosphate Synthetase
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus glutamine from glutamate plus glucosamine-6-phosphate. EC 2.6.1.16.

Glucosamine 6-Phosphate Synthetase
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus glutamine from glutamate plus glucosamine-6-phosphate. EC 2.6.1.16.

Glucosamine Synthetase
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus glutamine from glutamate plus glucosamine-6-phosphate. EC 2.6.1.16.

Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus glutamine from glutamate plus glucosamine-6-phosphate. EC 2.6.1.16.

Glucosaminephosphate Isomerase (Glutamine Forming)
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus glutamine from glutamate plus glucosamine-6-phosphate. EC 2.6.1.16.

Glucosaminephosphate Isomerase (Glutamine-Forming)
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus glutamine from glutamate plus glucosamine-6-phosphate. EC 2.6.1.16.

Glucoscan
Glucoscan is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): technetium tc-99m gluceptate kit.

Glucose
The only simple carbohydrate that circulates in the bloodstream. Glucose is the primary fuel used by the brain. It can also be stored in the liver and muscles in a polymer form known as glycogen.

Glucose 6 Phosphatase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.

Glucose 6 Phosphatase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.

Glucose 6 Phosphate
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)

Glucose 6 Phosphate Isomerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, and is a part of the glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, results in liver glycogenesis and hemolytic anemia. EC 5.3.1.9.

Glucose 6-Phosphatase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.

Glucose Binding Protein
Membrane transport proteins which bind glucose and sodium ions and enter the cell together. The sodium ions are then pumped out of the cell by a sodium potassium ATPase. The rate and extent of the sugar transport depends on the sodium ion concentration. Inhibitors of the monosaccharide transport system are phlorizin, cytochalasin B, and inhibitors of the sodium potassium ATPase system. Insulin increases the rate of monosaccharide transport across the membrane into the cell.

Glucose Clamp
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.

Glucose Clamp Technic
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.

Glucose Clamp Technics
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.

Glucose Clamp Technique
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.

Glucose Clamp Techniques
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.

Glucose Clamping
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.

Glucose Clamps
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.

Glucose Dehydrogenase, UDP
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.

Glucose Dehydrogenases
D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.

Glucose Dependent Insulin Releasing Peptide
A gastrointestinal hormone consisting of a 43-amino acid polypeptide (molecular weight 5105). It inhibits gastric secretion and motility and stimulates release of insulin.

Glucose Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide
A gastrointestinal hormone consisting of a 43-amino acid polypeptide (molecular weight 5105). It inhibits gastric secretion and motility and stimulates release of insulin.

Glucose Epimerase, UDP
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.

Glucose Hypertonic Solution
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.

Glucose Hypertonic Solutions
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.

Glucose Intolerance
A pathological state in which the fasting plasma glucose level is less than 140 mg per deciliter and the 30-, 60-, or 90-minute plasma glucose concentration following a glucose tolerance test exceeds 200 mg per deciliter. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS but also occurs with other diseases.

Glucose Intolerances
A pathological state in which the fasting plasma glucose level is less than 140 mg per deciliter and the 30-, 60-, or 90-minute plasma glucose concentration following a glucose tolerance test exceeds 200 mg per deciliter. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS but also occurs with other diseases.

Glucose Metabolism Effects
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.

Glucose Monohydrate
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.

Glucose Oxidase
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.

Glucose Oxidoreductases
D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.

Glucose Phosphomutase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha D-glucose 1-phosphate to alpha D-glucose 6-phosphate. EC 5.4.2.2.

Glucose Polymer
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.

Glucose Self-Monitoring, Blood
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.

Glucose Self-Monitorings, Blood
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.

Glucose Sodium Transport System
Membrane transport proteins which bind glucose and sodium ions and enter the cell together. The sodium ions are then pumped out of the cell by a sodium potassium ATPase. The rate and extent of the sugar transport depends on the sodium ion concentration. Inhibitors of the monosaccharide transport system are phlorizin, cytochalasin B, and inhibitors of the sodium potassium ATPase system. Insulin increases the rate of monosaccharide transport across the membrane into the cell.

Glucose Solution, Hypertonic
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.

Glucose Solutions, Hypertonic
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.

Glucose Tolerance
The ability of muscle cells and the liver to remove glucose from the bloodstream. As you age, glucose tolerance decreases.

Glucose Tolerance Test
Determination of whole blood or plasma sugar in a fasting state before and at prescribed intervals (usually 1/2 hr, 1 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr) after taking a specified amount (usually 100 gm orally) of glucose.

Glucose Tolerance Tests
Determination of whole blood or plasma sugar in a fasting state before and at prescribed intervals (usually 1/2 hr, 1 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr) after taking a specified amount (usually 100 gm orally) of glucose.

Glucose Tolerance, Intravenous
Determination of whole blood or plasma sugar in a fasting state before and at prescribed intervals (usually 1/2 hr, 1 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr) after taking a specified amount (usually 100 gm orally) of glucose.

Glucose Tolerance, Oral
Determination of whole blood or plasma sugar in a fasting state before and at prescribed intervals (usually 1/2 hr, 1 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr) after taking a specified amount (usually 100 gm orally) of glucose.

Glucose Tolerances, Intravenous
Determination of whole blood or plasma sugar in a fasting state before and at prescribed intervals (usually 1/2 hr, 1 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr) after taking a specified amount (usually 100 gm orally) of glucose.

Glucose Tolerances, Oral
Determination of whole blood or plasma sugar in a fasting state before and at prescribed intervals (usually 1/2 hr, 1 hr, 3 hr, 4 hr) after taking a specified amount (usually 100 gm orally) of glucose.

Glucose Transport Inducing Protein
Membrane transport proteins which bind glucose and sodium ions and enter the cell together. The sodium ions are then pumped out of the cell by a sodium potassium ATPase. The rate and extent of the sugar transport depends on the sodium ion concentration. Inhibitors of the monosaccharide transport system are phlorizin, cytochalasin B, and inhibitors of the sodium potassium ATPase system. Insulin increases the rate of monosaccharide transport across the membrane into the cell.

Glucose Transport Protein
Membrane transport proteins which bind glucose and sodium ions and enter the cell together. The sodium ions are then pumped out of the cell by a sodium potassium ATPase. The rate and extent of the sugar transport depends on the sodium ion concentration. Inhibitors of the monosaccharide transport system are phlorizin, cytochalasin B, and inhibitors of the sodium potassium ATPase system. Insulin increases the rate of monosaccharide transport across the membrane into the cell.

Glucose Transport-Inducing Protein
Membrane transport proteins which bind glucose and sodium ions and enter the cell together. The sodium ions are then pumped out of the cell by a sodium potassium ATPase. The rate and extent of the sugar transport depends on the sodium ion concentration. Inhibitors of the monosaccharide transport system are phlorizin, cytochalasin B, and inhibitors of the sodium potassium ATPase system. Insulin increases the rate of monosaccharide transport across the membrane into the cell.

Glucose Transporter
Membrane transport proteins which bind glucose and sodium ions and enter the cell together. The sodium ions are then pumped out of the cell by a sodium potassium ATPase. The rate and extent of the sugar transport depends on the sodium ion concentration. Inhibitors of the monosaccharide transport system are phlorizin, cytochalasin B, and inhibitors of the sodium potassium ATPase system. Insulin increases the rate of monosaccharide transport across the membrane into the cell.

Glucose, (alpha-D)-Isomer
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.

Glucose, (beta-D)-Isomer
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.

Glucose, (DL)-Isomer
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.

Glucose, (L)-Isomer
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.

Glucose, Adenosine Diphosphate
Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.

Glucose, ADP
Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.

Glucose, Blood
Glucose in blood.

Glucose, Blood, Self Monitoring
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.

Glucose, Blood, Self-Monitoring
Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.

Glucose, UDP
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.

Glucose, Uridine Diphosphate
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.

Glucose-6-Phosphatase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.

Glucose-6-Phosphatase Deficiencies
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.

Glucose-6-Phosphatase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.

Glucose-6-Phosphate
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)

Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, and is a part of the glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, results in liver glycogenesis and hemolytic anemia. EC 5.3.1.9.

Glucose-6-Phosphate Phosphohydrolase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.

Glucose-Dependent Insulin-Releasing Peptide
A gastrointestinal hormone consisting of a 43-amino acid polypeptide (molecular weight 5105). It inhibits gastric secretion and motility and stimulates release of insulin.

Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide
A gastrointestinal hormone consisting of a 43-amino acid polypeptide (molecular weight 5105). It inhibits gastric secretion and motility and stimulates release of insulin.

Glucose-Sodium Transport System
Membrane transport proteins which bind glucose and sodium ions and enter the cell together. The sodium ions are then pumped out of the cell by a sodium potassium ATPase. The rate and extent of the sugar transport depends on the sodium ion concentration. Inhibitors of the monosaccharide transport system are phlorizin, cytochalasin B, and inhibitors of the sodium potassium ATPase system. Insulin increases the rate of monosaccharide transport across the membrane into the cell.

Glucosephosphatase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.

Glucosephosphatase Deficiencies
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.

Glucosephosphatase Deficiency
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.

Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiencies
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of enzyme activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.

Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of enzyme activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.

Glucosephosphate Isomerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate, and is a part of the glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, results in liver glycogenesis and hemolytic anemia. EC 5.3.1.9.

Glucosephosphate Uridylyltransferase
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of UDPglucose from UTP plus glucose 1-phosphate. EC 2.7.7.9.

Glucosidase
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.

Glucosidases
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.

Glucosiduronates
Salts and esters of GLUCURONIC ACID.

Glucosinolates
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.

Glucosyl Ceramidase
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.

Glucosyl Hydrolase, Glucosylsphingosine
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.

Glucosylceramidase
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.

Glucosylceramide beta Glucosidase
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.

Glucosylceramide Beta Glucosidase Deficiency Disease
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Glucosylceramide beta-Glucosidase
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.

Glucosylceramide Beta-Glucosidase Deficiency Disease
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (see GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) featuring the pathological storage of glycosylceramide in mononuclear PHAGOCYTES (Gaucher Cells). The most common subtype is the non-neuronopathic form, a slowly progressive condition characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and skeletal deformities. The neuronopathic forms are divided into infantile and juvenile forms. The infantile form presents at 4-5 months of age with anemia, loss of cognitive gains, neck retraction, dysphagia, and hepatosplenomegaly. The juvenile form features a slowly progressive loss of intellect, hepatosplenomegaly, ATAXIA, myoclonic SEIZURES, and spasticity. The neuronopathic forms are characterized by neuronal loss with neuronophagia, and accumulation of glucocerebroside in neurons. (From Baillieres Clin Haematol 1997 Dec;10(4):711-23; Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p97)

Glucosylsphingosine Glucosyl Hydrolase
A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.

Glucosyltransferases
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.

Glucotrol
Glucotrol is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): glipizide.

Glucotrol xl
Glucotrol xl is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): glipizide.

Glucovance
Glucovance is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): glyburide; metformin hydrochloride.

Glucuronate
Salts and esters of GLUCURONIC ACID.

Glucuronate, Methylazoxymethanol
Carcinogenic and neurotoxic glycoside occurring in a number of plant species, including Cycas revoluta.

Glucuronates
Salts and esters of GLUCURONIC ACID.

Glucuronic Acid
Derivatives of uronic acid found throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. They detoxify drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES in the liver which are more water-soluble metabolites that can be easily eliminated from the body.

Glucuronic Acid, UDP
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which serves as a source of glucuronic acid for polysaccharide biosynthesis. It may also be epimerized to UDP iduronic acid, which donates iduronic acid to polysaccharides. In animals, UDP glucuronic acid is used for formation of many glucosiduronides with various aglycones.

Glucuronic Acids
Derivatives of uronic acid that are distributed widely throughout the plant and animal kingdoms.

Glucuronic Transferase
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.

Glucuronides
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.

Glucuronosyltransferase
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.

Glucuronosyltransferase, UDP
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.

Glucuronyl Transferase, UDP
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.

Glucuronyltransferase
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.

Glucuronyltransferase, 7-Hydroxycoumarin UDP
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.

Glucuronyltransferase, Estrone
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.

Glucuronyltransferase, Morphine
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.



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Gynandromorph
An individual that is a mosaic of male and female structures. The underlying cause is frequently sex chromosome mosaicism, such that some cells are chromosomal females while others are chromosomal males. Mosaic individuals having simultaneous aspects of both the male and the female phenotype.

Genotype
Genotype is the genetic makeup of an individual organism.

Gene
1. A unit of DNA that carries information for the biosynthesis of a specific product in the cell. 2. Ultimate unit by which inheritable characteristics are transmitted to succeeding generations in all living organisms. Genes are contained by, and arranged along the length of, the chromosome. The gene is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Each chromosome of each species has a definite number and arrangement of genes, which govern both the structure and metabolic functions of the cells and thus of the entire organism.

Guanine
(guanine triphosphate) One of the 4 types of nucleotides that make up DNA. Base pairs with cytosine by 3 hydrogen bonds.

Glucagon

Glucose
The only simple carbohydrate that circulates in the bloodstream. Glucose is the primary fuel used by the brain. It can also be stored in the liver and muscles in a polymer form known as glycogen.

Glucose Tolerance
The ability of muscle cells and the liver to remove glucose from the bloodstream. As you age, glucose tolerance decreases.

Glycemic Index
A measure of the rate at which a carbohydrate will enter the bloodstream as glucose. Some simple sugars, such as table sugar, will enter the bloodstream slower than many complex carbohydrates, such as bread, rice, and potatoes. The faster a carbohydrate enters the bloodstream, the higher its glycemic index. The higher the glycemic index of a carbohydrate, the greater the increase in insulin levels. Fruits and vegetables tend to have a low glycemic index, whereas breads, pasta, grains, and starches tend to have a high glycemic index.

Glycogen
The storage form of glucose. Only glycogen from the liver can be used to restore blood glucose levels.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin
A measure of the long-term control of blood glucose determined by the amount of carbohydrate-modified hemoglobin in the red blood cells. The higher the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin, the worse the control of blood glucose levels.

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