Genome
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  Genome



Genome

    The complete genetic material of an organism.

RELATED TERMS
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Genetic
Hereditary. Having to do with the genes.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Genoa Community Hospital
Genoa Community Hospital is a hospital in Genoa, Nebraska (USA).

Genocide
The killing of one person by another.

Genocides
The killing of one person by another.

Genome annotation
The process of identifying the locations of genes and all of the coding regions in a genome and determining what those genes do. An annotation (irrespective of the context) is a note added by way of explanation or commentary. Once a genome is sequenced, it needs to be annotated to make sense of it.

Genome Libraries
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).

Genome Library
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).

Genome Mapping
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.

Genome Mappings
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.

Genome Project, Human
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human genome.

Genome Projects, Human
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human genome.

Genome, Archaeal
The genetic material contained in the DNA of an archaeal organism.

Genome, Bacterial
The complete gene complement contained in a single chromosome in a bacterium.

Genome, chromosomal
All of the genetic information in the chromosomes of an organism. For humans, that is all of the DNA contained in our normal complement of 46 rod-like chromosomes in virtually every cell in the body. (Mature red blood cells, for one exception, have no nucleus and therefore no chromosomes). The chromosomal genome is synonymous with the nuclear genome. Together with the mitochondrial genome, it constitutes the genome of the human being.

Genome, Fungal
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.

Genome, Human
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a human, either haploid (the set derived from one parent) or diploid (the double set, derived from both parents). The haploid set contains 50,000 to 100,000 genes and about 3 billion base pairs.

Genome, mitochondrial
All of the genetic information contained in the chromosome of the mitochondrion, a structure located in the cytoplasm outside the nucleus of the cell. The nucleus houses the better known chromosomal genome, our complement of chromosomes.

Genome, mouse
All of the genetic information contained in the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus). The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as the mouse have been studied for a number of reasons including the need to improve sequencing and analysis techniques. These nonhuman genomes also provide powerful sets of data against which to compare the human genome. Almost every human gene has a counterpart in the mouse, with similar DNA sequences and basic functions. If the 23 pairs of human chromosomes were broken into smaller blocks, those pieces could be reassembled to produce a serviceable model of the mouse genome.

Genome, Mus musculus
All of the genetic information contained in Mus musculus, the laboratory mouse. The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as the mouse have been studied for a number of reasons including the need to improve sequencing and analysis techniques. These nonhuman genomes also provide powerful sets of data against which to compare the human genome. Almost every human gene has a counterpart in the mouse, with similar DNA sequences and basic functions. If the 23 pairs of human chromosomes were broken into smaller blocks, those pieces could be reassembled to produce a serviceable model of the mouse genome.

Genome, Plant
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a plant.

Genome, Protozoan
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a protozoan.

Genome, rice
The first commercially important plant to have its genome sequenced. This feat, completed early in 2001, is particularly important because rice is a staple food for a large portion of the population of the world. With the rice sequence, genes can be located to improve yields and make rice more nutritious.

Genome, Vibrio cholerae
The genome of the bacterium that causes cholera. This genome contains over 4 million bases in its DNA including the sequences for nearly 4,000 genes. The Vibrio cholerae genome is remarkable in that it is arranged in two circular chromosomes. The larger of the two chromosomes has the usual housekeeping genes, similar to those, for example, of E. coli, the common colon bacillus. The smaller chromosome contains many of the genetic elements that make Vibrio cholerae pathogenic (capable of causing disease).

Genome, Viral
The complete gene complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.

Genomes, Archaeal
The genetic material contained in the DNA of an archaeal organism.

Genomes, Bacterial
The complete gene complement contained in a single chromosome in a bacterium.

Genomes, Fungal
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.

Genomes, Human
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a human, either haploid (the set derived from one parent) or diploid (the double set, derived from both parents). The haploid set contains 50,000 to 100,000 genes and about 3 billion base pairs.

Genomes, Plant
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a plant.

Genomes, Protozoan
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a protozoan.

Genomes, Viral
The complete gene complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.

Genomic
Pertaining to the genome, all of the genetic information possessed by any organism.

Genomic Hybridization
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503; Dorlands, 28th ed, p781)

Genomic Hybridizations
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503; Dorlands, 28th ed, p781)

Genomic imprinting
See imprinting.

Genomic Imprinting
The variable phenotypic expression of a gene depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the methylation pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Genomic Libraries
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).

Genomic Library
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).

Genomic segment
A region of the genome; it encompasses objects described as loci or probes. Genomic segments can range in size from points to regions as large as an entire chromosome. There are many types of genomic regions. On a technical level, they include genes, gene elements, amplimers (PCR markers), breakpoints in chromosomes, clones, cytogenetic markers, fragile sites on chromosomes, expressed sequence tags (ESTs), syndromic regions, contigs and DNA repeats.

Genomics
The study of genes and their function. Genomics aims to understand the structure of the genome, including the mapping genes and sequencing the DNA. Genomics examines the molecular mechanisms and the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in disease.

Genomics, structural
The study of the proteome, the three-dimensional structures of all of the proteins produced by a species. In the Human Genome Project, the sequence of all the DNA in our genome was largely deciphered. Structural genomics aims to achieve a comparable degree of understanding of the proteome.

Genoplasty
A technology that uses the repair mechanisms normally present in cells to repair gene defects. In genoplasty, a short oligonucleotide fragment is introduced into the cell to simulate a normal DNA sequence and this deceives the cell into repairing itself. The sequence of the gene itself is thus changed permanently. Genoplasty is different from gene therapy in which a normal gene is inserted into the cell.

Genoptic
Genoptic is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): gentamicin sulfate.

Genotoxicity Test
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.

Genotoxicity Tests
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.

Genotoxin
A poisonous substance which damages DNA. A genotoxin can cause mutations in DNA (and so be a mutagen), it can trigger cancer (and so be a carcinogen), or it can cause a birth defect (and so be a teratogen).

Genotoxins
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.

Genotropin
Genotropin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): somatropin recombinant.

Genotropin preservative free
Genotropin preservative free is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): somatropin recombinant.

Genotype
Genotype is the genetic makeup of an individual organism.

Genotypes
The genetic constitution of the individual; the characterization of the genes.

Genova doctors
All doctors near Genova, Italy. Doctors who can assist a patient in Genova.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Granuloma
A mass of red, irritated tissue in the GI tract found in Crohn's disease.

Granulomatous colitis
Another name for Crohn's disease of the colon.

Granulomatous enteritis
Another name for Crohn's disease of the small intestine.

Gynecology
The branch of medicine dealing with health care for women, especially the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the female reproductive organs.

Gene expression
The process by which RNA and proteins are made from the instructions encoded in genes. Alterations in gene expression change the function of the cell, tissue, organ, or whole organism and sometimes result in observable characteristics associated with a particular gene.

Genome

Germ cell
Or germline cell. A sperm or egg, or a cell that can develop into a sperm or egg; all other body cells are called somatic cells.

Germline cell
Or germ cell. A sperm or egg, or a cell that can develop into a sperm or egg; all other body cells are called somatic cells.

Genomic imprinting
See imprinting.

Graft-versus-host disease
A condition that occurs after tissue transplantation in which the donor-derived T cells attack the host's tissues.

Germinal vesicle transfer
Or oocyte nuclear transfer. An assisted reproductive technique involving transfer of an egg nucleus (usually from a woman with age-related infertility or mitochondrial disease) into a healthy donor egg whose nucleus has been removed. This reconstituted egg can then be fertilized by a sperm in vitro. This technique may restore fertility to older women or to prevent the passing of mitochondrial disease to offspring.

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