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  Genes



Genes

    Basic, functional units of heredity, each occupying a specific place on a chromosome.

RELATED TERMS
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Heredity
Transmission of genetic traits from parents to children.

Chromosome
A structural unit within a eukaryotic nucleus that carries genes. A chromosome consists of a long, continuous strand of DNA and associated proteins.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Gene
1. A unit of DNA that carries information for the biosynthesis of a specific product in the cell. 2. Ultimate unit by which inheritable characteristics are transmitted to succeeding generations in all living organisms. Genes are contained by, and arranged along the length of, the chromosome. The gene is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Each chromosome of each species has a definite number and arrangement of genes, which govern both the structure and metabolic functions of the cells and thus of the entire organism.

Gene Action Regulation
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action at the level of transcription or translation. These processes include gene activation and genetic induction.

Gene Activation
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action at the level of transcription or translation. These processes include gene activation and genetic induction.

Gene Activator, Catabolic
A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.

Gene Activators, Catabolic
A transcriptional regulator in prokaryotes which, when activated by binding cyclic AMP, acts at several promoters. Cyclic AMP receptor protein was originally identified as a catabolite gene activator protein. It was subsequently shown to regulate several functions unrelated to catabolism, and to be both a negative and a positive regulator of transcription. Cell surface cyclic AMP receptors are not included (CYCLIC AMP RECEPTORS), nor are the eukaryotic cytoplasmic cyclic AMP receptor proteins, which are the regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES.

Gene amplification
Making multiple copies of a gene. Repeated copying of a gene. Gene amplification plays a role in cancer cells. A tumor cell amplifies, or copies, DNA segments as a result of cell signals and sometimes environmental events. Amplification can occur in vivo (in the living individual) or in vitro (literally "in glass", or in a plastic vessel in the laboratory).

Gene Amplification
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.

Gene Arrangement
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.

Gene Arrangements
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.

Gene array analysis
A way of analyzing the differential expression of thousands of species of mRNA (messenger RNA) at the same time in two different samples (as, for example, in normal vs. tumor tissue, or at different developmental stages). Gene array analysis involves synthesizing labeled cDNA (complementary DNA) from 2 or more sources, and hybridizing them to identical gene arrays. This procedure can be done in standard molecular biology laboratories with basic instrumentation.

Gene Chip
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of oligonucleotide probes, which are attached to a solid support, to determine sequence or to detect variations in a gene sequence or expression or for gene mapping.

Gene Chips
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of oligonucleotide probes, which are attached to a solid support, to determine sequence or to detect variations in a gene sequence or expression or for gene mapping.

Gene Cluster
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Gene Clusters
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Gene Conversion
The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.

Gene Conversions
The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.

Gene Copy Number
The number of copies of a given gene present in a cell or nucleus. An increase in gene dosage can result in the formation of higher levels of gene product, provided that the gene is not subject to autogenous regulation.

Gene Copy Numbers
The number of copies of a given gene present in a cell or nucleus. An increase in gene dosage can result in the formation of higher levels of gene product, provided that the gene is not subject to autogenous regulation.

Gene deletion
The total loss (or absence) of a gene. Gene deletion plays a role in birth defects and in the development of cancer.

Gene Deletion
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.

Gene Deletions
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.

Gene Dosage
The number of copies of a given gene present in a cell or nucleus. An increase in gene dosage can result in the formation of higher levels of gene product, provided that the gene is not subject to autogenous regulation.

Gene Dosages
The number of copies of a given gene present in a cell or nucleus. An increase in gene dosage can result in the formation of higher levels of gene product, provided that the gene is not subject to autogenous regulation.

Gene duplication
An extra copy of a gene. Gene duplication is a key mechanism in evolution. Once a gene is duplicated, the identical genes can undergo changes and diverge to create two different genes.

Gene Duplication
A chromosomal structural change resulting in the doubling of a section of the genome of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The size of the duplicated segment may vary considerably. Duplications may be interchromosomal, with the duplicate segment incorporated into another chromosome, or intrachromosomal, with the duplicate region present in the same chromosome. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Gene Duplications
A chromosomal structural change resulting in the doubling of a section of the genome of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The size of the duplicated segment may vary considerably. Duplications may be interchromosomal, with the duplicate segment incorporated into another chromosome, or intrachromosomal, with the duplicate region present in the same chromosome. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Gene expression
The process by which RNA and proteins are made from the instructions encoded in genes. Alterations in gene expression change the function of the cell, tissue, organ, or whole organism and sometimes result in observable characteristics associated with a particular gene.

Gene Expression
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of gene action.

Gene Expression Chip
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of oligonucleotide probes, which are attached to a solid support, to determine sequence or to detect variations in a gene sequence or expression or for gene mapping.

Gene Expression Chips
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of oligonucleotide probes, which are attached to a solid support, to determine sequence or to detect variations in a gene sequence or expression or for gene mapping.

Gene Expression Microarray Analysis
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of oligonucleotide probes, which are attached to a solid support, to determine sequence or to detect variations in a gene sequence or expression or for gene mapping.

Gene Expression Monitoring
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed i.e., transcribed, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.

Gene Expression Monitorings
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed i.e., transcribed, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.

Gene Expression Pattern Analysis
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed i.e., transcribed, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.

Gene Expression Profiling
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed i.e., transcribed, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.

Gene Expression Profilings
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed i.e., transcribed, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.

Gene Expression Regulation
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action at the level of transcription or translation. These processes include gene activation and genetic induction.

Gene Expression Regulation, Archaeal
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in archaea.

Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.

Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.

Gene Expression Regulation, Embryologic
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.

Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.

Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.

Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in leukemia.

Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.

Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.

Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.

Gene Expressions
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of gene action.

Gene family
A group of genes related in structure and often in function. The genes belonging to a gene family are descended from an ancestral gene. For example, the hemoglobin genes of critical importance to red blood cells belong to one gene family created by gene duplication (making extra copies of a gene) and divergence (divergent changes in the copies of the gene).

Gene Frequencies
The proportion of one particular allele in the total of all alleles for one genetic locus in a breeding population.

Gene Frequency
The proportion of one particular allele in the total of all alleles for one genetic locus in a breeding population.

Gene Fusion
Fusion of structural genes to analyze protein behavior or fusion of regulatory sequences with structural genes to determine mechanisms of regulation.

Gene Gun Technique
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.

Gene Inactivation
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.

Gene Libraries
A large collection of cloned DNA fragments from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.

Gene Library
A large collection of cloned DNA fragments from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.

Gene mapping
The process of determining the relative positions of genes on a chromosome (or another piece of DNA) and the distances between the genes in linkage units or in physical units.

Gene Mapping
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.

Gene Mappings
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.

Gene markers
Detectable genetic traits or distinctive segments of DNA that serve as landmarks for a target gene. Markers are on the same chromosome as the target gene. They must be near enough to the target gene to be genetically linked to it: to be inherited usually together with that gene, and so serve as signposts to it.

Gene Order
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.

Gene pool
The sum total of genes, with all their variations, possessed by a particular species at a particular time.

Gene Pool
The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a population of sexually reproducing organisms.

Gene Pools
The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a population of sexually reproducing organisms.

Gene Position
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.

Gene Positions
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.

Gene Probes, Conserved
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.

Gene Probes, DNA
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.

Gene Probes, RNA
RNA, usually prepared by transcription from cloned DNA, which complements a specific mRNA or DNA and is generally used for studies of virus genes, distribution of specific RNA in tissues and cells, integration of viral DNA into genomes, transcription, etc. Whereas DNA PROBES are preferred for use at a more macroscopic level for detection of the presence of DNA/RNA from specific species or subspecies, RNA probes are preferred for genetic studies. Conventional labels for the RNA probe include radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. RNA probes may be further divided by category into plus-sense RNA probes, minus-sense RNA probes, and antisense RNA probes.

Gene product
The RNA or protein that results from the expression of a gene. The amount of gene product is a measure of the degree of gene activity.

Gene Product, A
A 23 kDa regulatory protein important for virion infectivity in HIV. The protein is found in the cytoplasm of HIV-infected cells and is not absolutely required for virion formation.

Gene Product, Bacterial
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.

Gene Product, BRCA1
The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)

Gene Product, BRCA2
A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)

Gene Product, dsbA
An enzyme that catalyzes the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. It is a monomer identical to one of the subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE. (From Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.3.4.1.

Gene Product, dsbC
An enzyme that catalyzes the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. It is a monomer identical to one of the subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE. (From Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.3.4.1.

Gene Product, dsbD
An enzyme that catalyzes the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. It is a monomer identical to one of the subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE. (From Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.3.4.1.

Gene Product, gag
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.

Gene Product, INK4A
A gene product of the p16 tumor suppressor gene (GENES, P16). It is also called INK4 or INK4A because it is the prototype member the INK4 family - inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase CDK4. This protein is produced from the alpha mRNA transcript of the p16 gene. The other gene product, produced from the alternatively spliced beta transcript, is P14ARF PROTEIN. Both p16 gene products have tumor suppressor functions.

Gene Product, LRPAP1
A membrane protein found in the rough endoplasm reticulum (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH) that binds to LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEINS. It may function to prevent ligand binding of receptors during protein processing events within endosomal compartments.

Gene Product, NF2
A membrane protein homologous to the ERM (Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin) family of cytoskeleton-associated proteins which regulate physical properties of membranes. Alterations in neurofibromin 2 are the cause of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.

Gene Product, Ob
A 16-kD peptide hormone secreted from white adipocytes and implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. Leptin provides the key afferent signal from fat cells in the feedback system that controls body fat stores.

Gene Product, Obese
A 16-kD peptide hormone secreted from white adipocytes and implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. Leptin provides the key afferent signal from fat cells in the feedback system that controls body fat stores.

Gene Product, pcm
A PROTEIN O-METHYLTRANSFERASE that recognizes and catalyzes the methyl esterification of ISOASPARTIC ACID and D-ASPARTIC ACID residues in peptides and proteins. It initiates the repair of proteins damaged by the spontaneous decomposition of normal L-aspartic acid and L-asparagine residues.

Gene Product, PCMT1
A PROTEIN O-METHYLTRANSFERASE that recognizes and catalyzes the methyl esterification of ISOASPARTIC ACID and D-ASPARTIC ACID residues in peptides and proteins. It initiates the repair of proteins damaged by the spontaneous decomposition of normal L-aspartic acid and L-asparagine residues.

Gene Product, PIK1
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. EC 2.7.1.67.

Gene Product, pol
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.

Gene Product, PRKM1
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2. A proline-directed serine/threonine kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to translocation into the nucleus and phosphorylation of certain transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms. EC 2.7.10.-.

Gene Product, Q
A 23 kDa regulatory protein important for virion infectivity in HIV. The protein is found in the cytoplasm of HIV-infected cells and is not absolutely required for virion formation.

Gene Product, R
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate virus replication in HIV. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of HIV specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.

Gene Product, rap
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate virus replication in HIV. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of HIV specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.

Gene Product, Rb
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.

Gene Product, Rb1
Product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. It is a nuclear phosphoprotein hypothesized to normally act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. Rb protein is absent in retinoblastoma cell lines. It also has been shown to form complexes with the adenovirus E1A protein, the SV40 T antigen, and the human papilloma virus E7 protein.

Gene Product, rev
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for HIV viral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the HIV gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.

Gene Product, rex
Post-transcriptional regulatory proteins required for the accumulation of mRNAs that encode the gag and env gene products in HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The rex (regulator x; x is undefined) products act by binding to elements in the LTR.

Gene Product, sor
A 23 kDa regulatory protein important for virion infectivity in HIV. The protein is found in the cytoplasm of HIV-infected cells and is not absolutely required for virion formation.

Gene Product, tat
Trans-acting transcription factors. Nuclear proteins whose expression is required for HIV viral replication. The tat protein stimulates HIV-LTR-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.

Gene Product, tax
Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the LTR.

Gene Product, vif
A 23 kDa regulatory protein important for virion infectivity in HIV. The protein is found in the cytoplasm of HIV-infected cells and is not absolutely required for virion formation.

Gene Product, vpr
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate virus replication in HIV. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of HIV specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.

Gene Product, vpu
Non-glycosylated, membrane-associated, 16 kDa proteins which are expressed in large amounts in cells infected with HIV-1. The proteins are required for efficient virion maturation and release. They are not present in HIV-2 nor in SIV. vpu is short for viral protein U, with U undefined.

Gene Product, WT1
Isoforms encoded by the WT1 Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) and produced by alternative splicings. They are zinc finger-containing transcription factors involved in both transactivation and repression, and are critical for normal development and function of the urogenital tract.

Gene Product, xprA
An enzyme that catalyzes the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. It is a monomer identical to one of the subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE. (From Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.3.4.1.

Gene Products, Algal
Proteins found in any species of algae.

Gene Products, Archaeal
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.

Gene Products, Bacterial
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.

Gene Products, env
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.

Gene Products, Fungal
Proteins found in any species of fungus.

Gene Products, gag
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.

Gene Products, pol
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.

Gene Products, Protein
Polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape and function of the protein.

Gene Products, R
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate virus replication in HIV. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of HIV specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.

Gene Products, rap
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate virus replication in HIV. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of HIV specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.

Gene Products, ras
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). EC 3.6.1.-.

Gene Products, rev
Trans-acting nuclear proteins whose functional expression are required for HIV viral replication. Specifically, the rev gene products are required for processing and translation of the HIV gag and env mRNAs, and thus rev regulates the expression of the viral structural proteins. rev can also regulate viral regulatory proteins. A cis-acting antirepression sequence (CAR) in env, also known as the rev-responsive element (RRE), is responsive to the rev gene product. rev is short for regulator of virion.

Gene Products, rex
Post-transcriptional regulatory proteins required for the accumulation of mRNAs that encode the gag and env gene products in HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The rex (regulator x; x is undefined) products act by binding to elements in the LTR.

Gene Products, RNA
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Gene Products, sor
A 23 kDa regulatory protein important for virion infectivity in HIV. The protein is found in the cytoplasm of HIV-infected cells and is not absolutely required for virion formation.

Gene Products, tat
Trans-acting transcription factors. Nuclear proteins whose expression is required for HIV viral replication. The tat protein stimulates HIV-LTR-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.

Gene Products, tax
Transcriptional trans-acting proteins of the promoter elements found in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The tax (trans-activator x; x is undefined) proteins act by binding to enhancer elements in the LTR.

Gene Products, vif
A 23 kDa regulatory protein important for virion infectivity in HIV. The protein is found in the cytoplasm of HIV-infected cells and is not absolutely required for virion formation.

Gene Products, Viral
Proteins found in any species of virus.

Gene Products, vpr
Trans-acting proteins which accelerate virus replication in HIV. The vpr proteins act in trans to increase the levels of HIV specified proteins. vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.

Gene Products, vpu
Non-glycosylated, membrane-associated, 16 kDa proteins which are expressed in large amounts in cells infected with HIV-1. The proteins are required for efficient virion maturation and release. They are not present in HIV-2 nor in SIV. vpu is short for viral protein U, with U undefined.

Gene Protein, Bacterial
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.

Gene Proteins
Polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. The specific sequence of amino acids determines the shape and function of the protein.

Gene Proteins, Algal
Proteins found in any species of algae.

Gene Proteins, Archaeal
Proteins found in any species of archaeon.

Gene Proteins, Bacterial
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.

Gene Proteins, Fungal
Proteins found in any species of fungus.

Gene Rearrangement
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.

Gene Rearrangement, alpha Chain T Cell Antigen Receptor
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the alpha-chain of antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, alpha-Chain T Cell Antigen Receptor
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the alpha-chain of antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, alpha-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the alpha-chain of antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, B Cell
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the immunoglobulin chains, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the immature B-lymphocyte.

Gene Rearrangement, B Lymphocyte
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the immunoglobulin chains, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the immature B-lymphocyte.

Gene Rearrangement, B-Cell
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the immunoglobulin chains, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the immature B-lymphocyte.

Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the immunoglobulin chains, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the immature B-lymphocyte.

Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the immature B-lymphocyte.

Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Light Chain
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda light chains, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the immature B-lymphocyte.

Gene Rearrangement, beta Chain T Cell Antigen Receptor
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, beta-Chain T Cell Antigen Receptor
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, beta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, delta Chain T Cell Antigen Receptor
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the delta-chain of antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, delta-Chain T Cell Antigen Receptor
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the delta-chain of antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, delta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the delta-chain of antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, gamma Chain T Cell Antigen Receptor
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the gamma-chain of antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T Cell Antigen Receptor
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the gamma-chain of antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the gamma-chain of antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, T Cell
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, T Cell Antigen Receptor
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, T Lymphocyte
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, T-Cell
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, T-Cell Antigen Receptor
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangements
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.

Gene Rearrangements, B-Cell
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the immunoglobulin chains, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the immature B-lymphocyte.

Gene Rearrangements, B-Lymphocyte
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the immunoglobulin chains, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the immature B-lymphocyte.

Gene Rearrangements, T-Cell
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.

Gene Rearrangements, T-Lymphocyte
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.

Gene silencing
A mechanism by which cells shut down large sections of chromosomal DNA. Gene silencing is done by incorporating the DNA to be silenced into a form of DNA called heterochromatin that is already silent. The process of gene silencing is important for the differentiation of many different types of cells.

Gene Silencing
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.

Gene Targeting
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.

Gene Targetings
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.

Gene testing
Testing a sample of blood (or another fluid or tissue) for evidence of a gene. The evidence can be biochemical, chromosomal, or genetic. The aim is to learn whether a gene for a disease is present or absent.

Gene therapy
Using genes inserted into the patient's body or tumor to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer.

Gene Therapy
Gene therapy is correcting functional gene loss by delivering genes to human tissues. Often DNA viruses engineered to be safe or nonviral DNA are used to help deliver a healthy gene to the tissue cells.

Gene Therapy, Somatic
The introduction of new genes into cells for the purpose of treating disease by restoring or adding gene expression. Techniques include insertion of retroviral vectors, transfection, homologous recombination, and injection of new genes into the nuclei of single cell embryos. The entire gene therapy process may consist of multiple steps. The new genes may be introduced into proliferating cells in vivo (e.g., bone marrow) or in vitro (e.g., fibroblast cultures) and the modified cells transferred to the site where the gene expression is required. Gene therapy may be particularly useful for treating enzyme deficiency diseases, hemoglobinopathies, and leukemias and may also prove useful in restoring drug sensitivity, particularly for leukemia.

Gene transfer
The insertion of unrelated genetic information in the form of DNA into cells. There are different reasons to do gene transfer. Perhaps foremost among these reasons is the treatment of diseases using gene transfer to supply patients with therapeutic genes. There are also different ways to transfer genes. Some of these methods involve the use of a vector such as a virus that has been specifically modified so it can take the gene along with it when it enters the cell.

Gene Transfer Technique
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) genes into cells and organisms. A variety of techniques can be used for gene transfer: (1) cell hybridization; (2) microcell-mediated gene transfer; (3) chromosome-mediated gene transfer; (4) DNA-mediated gene transfer. Gene transfer results in genetically transformed cells and individuals and is a step in recombinant DNA technology when cloned genes are being used for transfer. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Gene Transfer Techniques
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) genes into cells and organisms. A variety of techniques can be used for gene transfer: (1) cell hybridization; (2) microcell-mediated gene transfer; (3) chromosome-mediated gene transfer; (4) DNA-mediated gene transfer. Gene transfer results in genetically transformed cells and individuals and is a step in recombinant DNA technology when cloned genes are being used for transfer. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Gene, A
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the vif (virion infectivity factor) protein that is important for the generation of infectious virions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The former name of this gene was sor (short open reading frame).

Gene, abl
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.

Gene, Amber Suppressor
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored.

Gene, AmpC
The genetic material of bacteria.

Gene, APC
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.

Gene, araC
Regulatory genes which encode a cyclic AMP receptor protein required for L-arabinose utilization in E. coli. It is an example of positive control or regulation of gene expression in the bacterial operon.

Gene, Archaeal
The genetic material of archaea.

Gene, art-trs
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.

Gene, Artificial
Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.

Gene, Bacterial
The genetic material of bacteria.

Gene, Bacterial Structural
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of bacterial cells.

Gene, bcl-1
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Gene, bcl-2
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Gene, BRCA1
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, SUPPRESSOR, TUMOR) located on human chromosome 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of familial breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.

Gene, BRCA2
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, SUPPRESSOR, TUMOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)

Gene, c-abl
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.

Gene, c-bcl-1
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Gene, c-bcl-2
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Gene, c-fms
Family of genes originally isolated from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE). The proto-oncogene fms (c-fms) codes for the MCSF receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR). The oncogene fms (v-fms) codes for ONCOGENE PROTEIN GP1409(V-FMS) which is a mutated form of the MCSF. The human c-fms gene is located between 5q33.2 and 5q33.3.

Gene, c-mos
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Gene, c-myb
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-myb) originally isolated from the avian myeloblastosis and E26 leukemia viruses. The proto-oncogene c-myb codes for a nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation and appears to be essential for hematopoietic cell proliferation. The human myb gene is located at 6q22-23 on the short arm of chromosome 6. This is the point of break in translocations involved in T-cell acute lymphatic leukemia and in some ovarian cancers and melanomas. (From Ibelgaufts, Dictionary of Cytokines, 1995).

Gene, c-myc
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Gene, c-rel
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-rel) originally isolated from an avian reticuloendotheliosis virus strain. The proto-oncogene rel (c-rel) codes for a subcellular (nuclear and cytoplasmic) transcription factor that has a role in lymphocyte differentiation. Translocation or overexpression of c-rel or competition from v-rel causes oncogenesis. The human rel gene is located at 2p12-13 on the short arm of chromosome 2.

Gene, c-sis
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-sis) originally isolated from the simian sarcoma virus (SSV). The proto-oncogene c-sis codes for a growth factor which is the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. v-sis or overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis. The human sis gene is located at 22q12.3-13.1 on the long arm of chromosome 22.

Gene, c-src
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.

Gene, Cancer
Genes which can potentially induce neoplastic transformation. They include genes for growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. When these genes are constitutively expressed after structural and/or regulatory changes, uncontrolled cell proliferation may result. Viral oncogenes have prefix ""v-"" before the gene symbol; cellular oncogenes (PROTO-ONCOGENES) have the prefix ""c-"" before the gene symbol.

Gene, Cancer Suppressor
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.

Gene, candidate
Any gene thought likely to cause a disease. The gene may be a candidate because it is located in a particular chromosome region suspected of being involved in the disease or its protein product may suggest that it could be the disease gene in question.

Gene, Class I
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.

Gene, Class II
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.

Gene, Cyclin D1
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Gene, DCC
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 18q21-qter region of human chromosome 18. The absence of these genes is associated with the formation of colorectal cancer (DCC stands for deleted in colorectal cancer). The products of these genes show significant homology to neural cell adhesion molecules and other related cell surface glycoproteins.

Gene, Developmental
Genes that code for proteins required for the enzymatic and structural functions of cells. They include developmental and differentiated genes.

Gene, Differentiated
Genes that code for proteins required for the enzymatic and structural functions of cells. They include developmental and differentiated genes.

Gene, Dominant
Genes that are reflected in the phenotype both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.

Gene, Duplicate
Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Gene, env
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).

Gene, Epistatic
A form of gene interaction whereby one gene interferes with the phenotypic expression of another nonallelic gene or genes. Genes whose expression is altered by nonallelic genes are said to be ""hypostatic"" or to exhibit ""hypostasis"".

Gene, erbB1
The proto-oncogene c-erbB-1 codes for the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral homolog v-erbB which was isolated from an avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV) where it was contained as a fragment of the chicken c-ErbB-1 gene lacking the amino-terminal ligand-binding domain. Overexpression of erbB-1 genes occurs in a wide range of tumors, commonly squamous carcinomas of various sites and less commonly adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-1 gene is located in the chromosomal region 7p14 and 7p12.

Gene, erbb2
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features simular to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythoblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.

Gene, Essential
Those genes found in an organism which are necessary for its viability and normal function.

Gene, evolutionarily conserved
A gene that has remained essentially unchanged throughout evolution. Conservation of a gene indicates that it is unique and essential. There is not an extra copy of that gene with which evolution can tinker. And changes in the gene are likely to be lethal.

Gene, fms
Family of genes originally isolated from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE). The proto-oncogene fms (c-fms) codes for the MCSF receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR). The oncogene fms (v-fms) codes for ONCOGENE PROTEIN GP1409(V-FMS) which is a mutated form of the MCSF. The human c-fms gene is located between 5q33.2 and 5q33.3.

Gene, Frameshift Suppressor
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored.

Gene, Fungal
The genetic material of fungi. It includes mating type genes of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE.

Gene, Fungal Structural
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of fungal cells.

Gene, gag
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.

Gene, Growth Suppressor
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.

Gene, Ha-ras
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.

Gene, Helminth
The hereditary material of helminths.

Gene, Helminth Structural
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of helminthic cells.

Gene, HER2
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features simular to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythoblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.

Gene, Homeo Box
Highly conserved DNA sequences which have been identified in specific gene transcripts ranging from those of Drosophila melanogaster to mouse and human. Homeobox genes function, in part, to generate DNA-binding proteins with an evolutionary conserved approximately 60-residue sequence (HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS).

Gene, Homeobox
Highly conserved DNA sequences which have been identified in specific gene transcripts ranging from those of Drosophila melanogaster to mouse and human. Homeobox genes function, in part, to generate DNA-binding proteins with an evolutionary conserved approximately 60-residue sequence (HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS).

Gene, Homeotic
Highly conserved DNA sequences which have been identified in specific gene transcripts ranging from those of Drosophila melanogaster to mouse and human. Homeobox genes function, in part, to generate DNA-binding proteins with an evolutionary conserved approximately 60-residue sequence (HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS).

Gene, HTLV-I rex
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Gene, HTLV-I tax
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Gene, HTLV-II rex
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Gene, HTLV-II tax
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Gene, Hypostatic
A form of gene interaction whereby one gene interferes with the phenotypic expression of another nonallelic gene or genes. Genes whose expression is altered by nonallelic genes are said to be ""hypostatic"" or to exhibit ""hypostasis"".

Gene, Ig
Genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins. Light chain gene segments are symbolized L-V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant); Ig heavy chain segments have, in addition, a diversity (D) gene. Each segment codes for certain amino acids, and each has a different nucleotide sequence; the genes are assembled by a remarkable shuffling of the segments during B lymphocyte maturation.

Gene, Immediate-Early
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.

Gene, Immune Response
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.

Gene, Immunoglobulin
Genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins. Light chain gene segments are symbolized L-V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant); Ig heavy chain segments have, in addition, a diversity (D) gene. Each segment codes for certain amino acids, and each has a different nucleotide sequence; the genes are assembled by a remarkable shuffling of the segments during B lymphocyte maturation.

Gene, Insect
The hereditary material of insects.

Gene, Insect Structural
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of insect cells.

Gene, Intracisternal A Particle
Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. (""Intracisternal"" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.

Gene, Intracisternal A-Particle
Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. (""Intracisternal"" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.

Gene, Ir
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.

Gene, Jumping
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as ""jumping genes"". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.

Gene, Ki-ras
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.

Gene, L-myc
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Gene, Lac
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.

Gene, LacZ
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.

Gene, Lethal
Genes which result in the premature death of the organism; dominant lethal genes kill heterozygotes, whereas recessive lethal genes kill only homozygotes.

Gene, lor
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Gene, marker
A detectable genetic trait or segment of DNA that can be identified and tracked. A marker gene can serve as a flag for another gene, sometimes called the target gene. A marker gene must be on the same chromosome as the target gene and near enough to it so that the two genes (the marker gene and the target gene) are genetically linked and are usually inherited together.

Gene, Mating Type
The genetic material of fungi. It includes mating type genes of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE.

Gene, Mating-Type
The genetic material of fungi. It includes mating type genes of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE.

Gene, MCC
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with the formation of colorectal cancer (MCC stands for mutated in colorectal cancer).

Gene, MDR
Genes responsible for multidrug resistance resulting from their overexpression in mammalian cells. Mammalian P-glycoproteins are encoded by small MDR gene familes. The human multidrug resistance 1; (MDR1); gene responds to environmental stress including various anticancer agents. It is a major determinant in the development of resistance to a large number of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;199(3):1428-35; Cancer Res 1994:54(6):1536-41)

Gene, MDR1
Genes responsible for multidrug resistance resulting from their overexpression in mammalian cells. Mammalian P-glycoproteins are encoded by small MDR gene familes. The human multidrug resistance 1; (MDR1); gene responds to environmental stress including various anticancer agents. It is a major determinant in the development of resistance to a large number of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;199(3):1428-35; Cancer Res 1994:54(6):1536-41)

Gene, Med1 DNA repair
A gene that codes for one of the key enzymes involved in repairing DNA. The DNA in genes is constantly mutating and being repaired. This repair process is controlled by special genes. A mutation in a DNA repair gene such as Med1 can cripple the repair process and cause a cascade of unrepaired mutations in the genome that lead to cancer.

Gene, Metastasis Suppressor
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.

Gene, mos
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Gene, Multidrug Resistance
Genes responsible for multidrug resistance resulting from their overexpression in mammalian cells. Mammalian P-glycoproteins are encoded by small MDR gene familes. The human multidrug resistance 1; (MDR1); gene responds to environmental stress including various anticancer agents. It is a major determinant in the development of resistance to a large number of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;199(3):1428-35; Cancer Res 1994:54(6):1536-41)

Gene, myb
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-myb) originally isolated from the avian myeloblastosis and E26 leukemia viruses. The proto-oncogene c-myb codes for a nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation and appears to be essential for hematopoietic cell proliferation. The human myb gene is located at 6q22-23 on the short arm of chromosome 6. This is the point of break in translocations involved in T-cell acute lymphatic leukemia and in some ovarian cancers and melanomas. (From Ibelgaufts, Dictionary of Cytokines, 1995).

Gene, myc
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Gene, N-myc
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Gene, nef
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.

Gene, Neoplasm Structural
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of neoplastic cells.

Gene, Neurofibromatosis 2
Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 22. Mutation or loss of these genes causes NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.

Gene, nf 1
Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 17 in the region 17q11.2. Mutation of these genes is thought to cause NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome.

Gene, nf 2
Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 22. Mutation or loss of these genes causes NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.

Gene, nf1
Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 17 in the region 17q11.2. Mutation of these genes is thought to cause NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome.

Gene, nf2
Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 22. Mutation or loss of these genes causes NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.

Gene, Nif
Regulatory and structural genes present in certain bacteria, algae and fungi that control the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into biologically usable compounds; include nif structural genes (e.g., nifD, nifH) for nitrogenase and nitrate reductase as well as regulator genes nifA, nifB, ntrA, ntrB, ntrC. Some are responsible for regulating transcription of genes involved in the assimilation of poor nitrogen sources in enteric bacteria.

Gene, Nitrogen Fixation
Regulatory and structural genes present in certain bacteria, algae and fungi that control the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into biologically usable compounds; include nif structural genes (e.g., nifD, nifH) for nitrogenase and nitrate reductase as well as regulator genes nifA, nifB, ntrA, ntrB, ntrC. Some are responsible for regulating transcription of genes involved in the assimilation of poor nitrogen sources in enteric bacteria.

Gene, Nitrogen Regulator
Regulatory and structural genes present in certain bacteria, algae and fungi that control the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into biologically usable compounds; include nif structural genes (e.g., nifD, nifH) for nitrogenase and nitrate reductase as well as regulator genes nifA, nifB, ntrA, ntrB, ntrC. Some are responsible for regulating transcription of genes involved in the assimilation of poor nitrogen sources in enteric bacteria.

Gene, Ntr
Regulatory and structural genes present in certain bacteria, algae and fungi that control the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into biologically usable compounds; include nif structural genes (e.g., nifD, nifH) for nitrogenase and nitrate reductase as well as regulator genes nifA, nifB, ntrA, ntrB, ntrC. Some are responsible for regulating transcription of genes involved in the assimilation of poor nitrogen sources in enteric bacteria.

Gene, Ochre Suppressor
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored.

Gene, Onco-Suppressor
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.

Gene, Overlapping
Genes whose nucleotide sequences overlap to some degree. The overlapped sequences may involve structural or regulatory genes of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells.

Gene, p53
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.

Gene, PDGFB
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-sis) originally isolated from the simian sarcoma virus (SSV). The proto-oncogene c-sis codes for a growth factor which is the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. v-sis or overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis. The human sis gene is located at 22q12.3-13.1 on the long arm of chromosome 22.

Gene, Plant
The hereditary material of plants.

Gene, Plant Structural
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of plant cells.

Gene, pol
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. ""pol"" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.

Gene, PRAD1
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Gene, Processed
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.

Gene, Protozoan
The genetic material of protozoa.

Gene, Protozoan Structural
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of protozoan cells.

Gene, pX
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Gene, Q
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the vif (virion infectivity factor) protein that is important for the generation of infectious virions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The former name of this gene was sor (short open reading frame).

Gene, R
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.

Gene, RAG-1
Genes involved in activating the enzyme VDJ recombinase. RAG-1 is located on chromosome 11 in humans (chromosome 2 in mice) and is expressed exclusively in maturing lymphocytes.

Gene, rap
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.

Gene, Rb
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.

Gene, Recessive
Genes that are reflected in the phenotype only in the homozygous state.

Gene, Regulator
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for proteins (repressors or activators) which regulate the genetic transcription of the structural genes and/or regulatory genes.

Gene, regulatory
A gene that regulates the expression of other genes. A regulatory gene is a nosy gene whose prime preoccupation is to horn in on other genes and control the rate at which they make products.

Gene, Reiterated
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Gene, rel
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-rel) originally isolated from an avian reticuloendotheliosis virus strain. The proto-oncogene rel (c-rel) codes for a subcellular (nuclear and cytoplasmic) transcription factor that has a role in lymphocyte differentiation. Translocation or overexpression of c-rel or competition from v-rel causes oncogenesis. The human rel gene is located at 2p12-13 on the short arm of chromosome 2.

Gene, Reporter
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.

Gene, Retinoblastoma
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.

Gene, rev
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.

Gene, rex
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Gene, Ribosomal RNA
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into ribosomes. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in operons dispersed throughout the genome, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.

Gene, rRNA
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into ribosomes. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in operons dispersed throughout the genome, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.

Gene, Second-Site Suppressor
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored.

Gene, Selfish
Nucleotide sequences present in multiple copies in the genome. There are several types of repeated sequences. Interspersed (or dispersed) DNA repeats (INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES) are copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome. Flanking (or terminal) repeats (TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES) are sequences that are repeated on both ends of a sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on retroviruses. Direct terminal repeats are in the same direction and inverted terminal repeats are opposite to each other in direction. Tandem repeats (TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES) are repeated copies which lie adjacent to each other. These can also be direct or inverted. The ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA genes belong to the class of middle repetitive DNA.

Gene, Sex Determining Region Y
The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the testes from the bipotential, embryonic gonads.

Gene, Sex-Determining Region Y
The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the testes from the bipotential, embryonic gonads.

Gene, Sex-Related Y
The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the testes from the bipotential, embryonic gonads.

Gene, sis
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-sis) originally isolated from the simian sarcoma virus (SSV). The proto-oncogene c-sis codes for a growth factor which is the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. v-sis or overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis. The human sis gene is located at 22q12.3-13.1 on the long arm of chromosome 22.

Gene, sor
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the vif (virion infectivity factor) protein that is important for the generation of infectious virions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The former name of this gene was sor (short open reading frame).

Gene, Split
Specific sequences of nucleotides along a molecule of DNA (or, in the case of some viruses, RNA) which represent the functional units of heredity. The majority of eukaryotic genes contain coding regions (codons) that are interrupted by non-coding regions (introns) and are therefore labeled split genes.

Gene, src
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.

Gene, sry
The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the testes from the bipotential, embryonic gonads.

Gene, Structural
Genes that code for proteins required for the enzymatic and structural functions of cells. They include developmental and differentiated genes.

Gene, Structural Bacterial
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of bacterial cells.

Gene, Structural Fungal
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of fungal cells.

Gene, Structural Helminth
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of helminthic cells.

Gene, Structural Insect
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of insect cells.

Gene, Structural Neoplasm
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of neoplastic cells.

Gene, Structural Plant
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of plant cells.

Gene, Structural Protozoan
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of protozoan cells.

Gene, Structural Viral
DNA or RNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of viral cells.

Gene, Structural, Bacterial
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of bacterial cells.

Gene, suicide
A gene whose expression in a cell is lethal for that cell. Suicide genes form the basis of a strategy for making cancer cells more vulnerable, more sensitive to chemotherapy. The approach has been to attach parts of genes expressed in cancer cells to other genes for enzymes not found in mammals that can convert a harmless substance into one that is toxic to the tumor.

Gene, Suppressor
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored.

Gene, Switch
Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.

Gene, Synthetic
Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.

Gene, T-Cell Receptor
DNA sequences, in cells of the T-lymphocyte lineage, that code for T-cell receptors. The TcR genes are formed by somatic rearrangement (see GENE REARRANGEMENT, T-LYMPHOCYTE and its children) of germline gene segments, and resemble Ig genes in their mechanisms of diversity generation and expression.

Gene, tat
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Gene, tax
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Gene, TcR
DNA sequences, in cells of the T-lymphocyte lineage, that code for T-cell receptors. The TcR genes are formed by somatic rearrangement (see GENE REARRANGEMENT, T-LYMPHOCYTE and its children) of germline gene segments, and resemble Ig genes in their mechanisms of diversity generation and expression.

Gene, TcR alpha
DNA sequences encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR alpha genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.

Gene, TcR beta
DNA sequences encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR beta genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.

Gene, TcR delta
DNA sequences encoding the delta chain of the T-cell receptor. The delta-chain locus is located entirely within the alpha-chain locus.

Gene, TcR gamma
DNA sequences encoding the gamma chain of the T-cell receptor. The human gamma-chain locus is organized similarly to the TcR beta-chain locus.

Gene, TP53
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.

Gene, Transforming
Genes which can potentially induce neoplastic transformation. They include genes for growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. When these genes are constitutively expressed after structural and/or regulatory changes, uncontrolled cell proliferation may result. Viral oncogenes have prefix ""v-"" before the gene symbol; cellular oncogenes (PROTO-ONCOGENES) have the prefix ""c-"" before the gene symbol.

Gene, transporter
A gene that allows drugs to enter cells or, in some cases, acts to keep them out. Transporter genes may account for discrepancies in the way drugs such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and chemotherapy agents work in different people. Also known as a drug-transporter gene.

Gene, trs-art
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.

Gene, Tumor Suppressing
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.

Gene, Tumor Suppressor
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.

Gene, v-abl
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.

Gene, v-fms
Family of genes originally isolated from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE). The proto-oncogene fms (c-fms) codes for the MCSF receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR). The oncogene fms (v-fms) codes for ONCOGENE PROTEIN GP1409(V-FMS) which is a mutated form of the MCSF. The human c-fms gene is located between 5q33.2 and 5q33.3.

Gene, v-Ha-ras
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.

Gene, v-Ki-ras
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.

Gene, v-mos
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Gene, v-myb
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-myb) originally isolated from the avian myeloblastosis and E26 leukemia viruses. The proto-oncogene c-myb codes for a nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation and appears to be essential for hematopoietic cell proliferation. The human myb gene is located at 6q22-23 on the short arm of chromosome 6. This is the point of break in translocations involved in T-cell acute lymphatic leukemia and in some ovarian cancers and melanomas. (From Ibelgaufts, Dictionary of Cytokines, 1995).

Gene, v-myc
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Gene, v-rel
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-rel) originally isolated from an avian reticuloendotheliosis virus strain. The proto-oncogene rel (c-rel) codes for a subcellular (nuclear and cytoplasmic) transcription factor that has a role in lymphocyte differentiation. Translocation or overexpression of c-rel or competition from v-rel causes oncogenesis. The human rel gene is located at 2p12-13 on the short arm of chromosome 2.

Gene, v-sis
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-sis) originally isolated from the simian sarcoma virus (SSV). The proto-oncogene c-sis codes for a growth factor which is the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. v-sis or overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis. The human sis gene is located at 22q12.3-13.1 on the long arm of chromosome 22.

Gene, v-src
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.

Gene, vif
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the vif (virion infectivity factor) protein that is important for the generation of infectious virions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The former name of this gene was sor (short open reading frame).

Gene, Viral
The hereditary material of viruses, consisting in all DNA and some RNA viruses of a single molecule of nucleic acid, and in some RNA viruses of several separate pieces of RNA.

Gene, Viral Structural
DNA or RNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of viral cells.

Gene, vpr
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.

Gene, vpu
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the HIV-1 regulatory protein vpu (viral protein U) that greatly increases the export of virus particles from infected cells. The vpu genes are not present in HIV-2 or SIV.

Gene, Wilms
Genes at several loci that are involved in the development of Wilms Tumor (NEPHROBLASTOMA). Included are WT1 at 11p13 and WT2 at 11p15.

Gene, Wilms Tumor
Genes at several loci that are involved in the development of Wilms Tumor (NEPHROBLASTOMA). Included are WT1 at 11p13 and WT2 at 11p15.

Gene, Y-linked
A gene on the Y chromosome. Y-linkage is analogous to X-linkage (the presence of a gene on the X chromosome) in that it says a gene is on one of the sex chromosomes.

Gene, zygotic lethal
A gene that is lethal (fatal) for the zygote, the cell formed by the union of a sperm (male sex cell) and an ovum (female sex cell). The zygote would normally develop into an embryo, as instructed by the genetic material within the unified cell. However, a zygotic lethal gene scotches prenatal development at its earliest point. A zygotic lethal gene is a mutated (changed) version of a normal gene essential to the survival of the zygote. The extent of the mutation can range from a change in a single base in the DNA to deletion (loss) of the entire gene.

Gene-1, Multidrug Resistance
Genes responsible for multidrug resistance resulting from their overexpression in mammalian cells. Mammalian P-glycoproteins are encoded by small MDR gene familes. The human multidrug resistance 1; (MDR1); gene responds to environmental stress including various anticancer agents. It is a major determinant in the development of resistance to a large number of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;199(3):1428-35; Cancer Res 1994:54(6):1536-41)

Gene-1s, Multidrug Resistance
Genes responsible for multidrug resistance resulting from their overexpression in mammalian cells. Mammalian P-glycoproteins are encoded by small MDR gene familes. The human multidrug resistance 1; (MDR1); gene responds to environmental stress including various anticancer agents. It is a major determinant in the development of resistance to a large number of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;199(3):1428-35; Cancer Res 1994:54(6):1536-41)

Gene-expression profiling
A genomic technique that based on the fact that only a fraction of the genes encoded in the genome of a cell are expressed by being transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA). The complement of mRNAs in a cell largely dictates its complement of proteins. Consequently, gene expression is a major determinant of the biology of both normal and malignant cells.

Gene-Gun Technique
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.

Gene-Gun Techniques
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.

Gene-Related Peptide, Calcitonin
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.

Genealogic Tree
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.

Genealogic Trees
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.

Genealogical Tree
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.

Genealogical Trees
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.

General Adaptation Syndrome
The sum of all nonspecific systemic reactions of the body to long-continued exposure to systemic stress.

General Adaptation Syndromes
The sum of all nonspecific systemic reactions of the body to long-continued exposure to systemic stress.

General anesthesia
Controlled state of unconsciousness, accompanied by a partial or complete loss of pain sensation, protective reflexes, and the ability to respond purposefully to physical stimulation or verbal command.

General Anesthetics
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)

General Hospital
General Hospital is a hospital in Portland, Oregon (USA).

General Hospital Kirchdorf
The General Hospital Kirchdorf is a hospital in Kirchdorf, Austria.

General Hospital Middelheim
The General Hospital Middelheim is a hospital in Antwerp, Belgium.

General Hospital Vienna
The General Hospital Vienna is a hospital in Vienna, Austria.

General Hospitals
Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.

General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital
The General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital is a hospital in Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, United States.

General Paralyses
Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)

General Paralysis
Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)

General Pareses
Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)

General paresis
Progressive dementia and generalized paralysis due to chronic inflammation of the covering and substance of the brain (meningoencephalitis). General paresis is a part of late (tertiary) syphilis, occurring a decade or more after the initial infection.

General Paresis
Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)

General Paresis of the Insane
Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)

General Peroxisomal Dysfunction
A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; infantile Refsum disease; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.

General Peroxisomal Dysfunctions
A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; infantile Refsum disease; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.

General Practice
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.

General Practice, Dental
Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.

General Practices
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.

General Practices, Dental
Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.

General practitioner
A physician who provides basic care. Unlike like a family physician, who must complete a three-year residency in obstetrics, pediatrics, internal medicine, and surgery, the general practitioner does not undergo specialized training after medical school.

General Practitioner
Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

General Practitioners
Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

General San Martin doctors
All doctors near General San Martin, Argentina. Doctors who can assist a patient in General San Martin.

General Santos doctors
All doctors near General Santos, the Philippines. Doctors who can assist a patient in General Santos.

General Security Hospital
The General Security Hospital is a hospital in Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

General Social Development and Population
A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.

General Systems Theories
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.

General Systems Theory
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.

General Ward
Rooms occupied by one or more individuals during a stay in a health facility. The concept includes aspects of environment, design, care, or economics.

General Wards
Rooms occupied by one or more individuals during a stay in a health facility. The concept includes aspects of environment, design, care, or economics.

Generalisability, generalisation
The extent to which the findings of a clinical trial can be reliably extrapolated from the subjects who participated in the trial to a broader patient population and a broader range of clinical settings.

Generalist
Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

Generalists
Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

Generalization, Response
The principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.

Generalization, Stimulus
The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.

Generalizations, Response
The principle that after an organism learns to respond in a particular manner to a stimulus, that stimulus is effective in eliciting similar responses.

Generalizations, Stimulus
The tendency to react to stimuli that are different from, but somewhat similar to, the stimulus used as a conditioned stimulus.

Generalized anxiety disorder
Abbreviated GAD. A condition characterized by 6 months or more of chronic, exaggerated worry and tension that is unfounded or much more severe than the normal anxiety most people experience. People with GAD usually expect the worst. They worry excessively about money, health, family, or work, even when there are no signs of trouble. They are unable to relax and often suffer from insomnia. Sometimes the source of the worry is hard to pinpoint. Simply the thought of getting through the day provokes anxiety. Many people with GAD also have physical symptoms, such as fatigue, trembling, muscle tension, headaches, irritability or hot flashes. People with GAD may feel lightheaded or out of breath. They also may feel nauseated or have to go to the bathroom frequently. Nearly 3% of the adult US population age 18 to 54 has GAD during the course of a given year. GAD most often strikes in childhood or adolescence, but can also begin in adulthood. It affects women more often than men, may run in families, and may also grow worse with stress. GAD often coexists with depression, substance abuse, and other anxiety disorders. Irritable bowel syndrome, often accompanies GAD. Treatment for GAD includes medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

Generalized Convulsive Epilepsies
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)

Generalized Convulsive Epilepsy
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)

Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)

Generalized Epilepsies
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)

Generalized Epilepsy
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)

Generalized Epilepsy, Symptomatic
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)

Generalized Gangliosidosis
A form of gangliosidosis characterized by accumulation of G(M1) GANGLIOSIDE and oligosaccharides in lysosomes caused by an absence or severe deficiency of the enzyme BETA-GALACTOSIDASE (type A1). The three phenotypes of this disorder are infantile (generalized), juvenile, and adult. The infantile form is characterized by skeletal abnormalities, hypotonia, poor psychomotor development, hirsutism, hepatosplenomegaly, and facial abnormalities. The juvenile form features hyperacusis, seizures, and psychomotor retardation. The adult form features progressive intellectual deterioration, involuntary movements, ataxia, and spasticity. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp96-7)

Generalized Glycogenosis
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE DEFICIENCY. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes,Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)

Generalized Headache
Pain in the cranial region that may occur as an isolated and benign symptom or as a manifestation of a wide variety of conditions including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; and other disorders. In general, recurrent headaches that are not associated with a primary disease process are referred to as HEADACHE DISORDERS (e.g., MIGRAINE).

Generalized Headaches
Pain in the cranial region that may occur as an isolated and benign symptom or as a manifestation of a wide variety of conditions including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; and other disorders. In general, recurrent headaches that are not associated with a primary disease process are referred to as HEADACHE DISORDERS (e.g., MIGRAINE).

Generalized Histiocytoses
Acute, disseminated, rapidly progressive form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis.

Generalized Histiocytosis
Acute, disseminated, rapidly progressive form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis.

Generalized Hyperkinesia
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.

Generalized Hyperkinesias
Excessive movement of muscles of the body as a whole, which may be associated with organic or psychological disorders.

Generalized Myasthenia Gravis
A disorder of neuromuscular transmission characterized by weakness of cranial and skeletal muscles. Autoantibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors damage the motor endplate portion of the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION, impairing the transmission of impulses to skeletal muscles. Clinical manifestations may include diplopia, ptosis, and weakness of facial, bulbar, respiratory, and proximal limb muscles. The disease may remain limited to the ocular muscles. THYMOMA is commonly associated with this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1459)

Generalized Myokymia
Successive and rapid contractions of motor units associated with chronic nerve injury. The discharges arise from the peripheral aspects of regenerating nerves, and clinically impart a nearly continuous undulation of the body surface overlying the muscle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)

Generalized Myokymias
Successive and rapid contractions of motor units associated with chronic nerve injury. The discharges arise from the peripheral aspects of regenerating nerves, and clinically impart a nearly continuous undulation of the body surface overlying the muscle. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1491)

Generalized Myotonia
A dominantly inherited muscle disease that begins in early childhood and is characterized by severe myotonia (delayed relaxation of a muscle) after forceful voluntary contractions. Muscular hypertrophy is common and myotonia may impair ambulation and other movements. Myotonia typically becomes less severe with repetitive voluntary contractions of the affected muscles. Generalized myotonia (of Becker) is an autosomal recessive variant of myotonia congenita that may feature more severe myotonia and muscle wasting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1476-7; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch53, p18)

Generalized Myotonia of Becker
A dominantly inherited muscle disease that begins in early childhood and is characterized by severe myotonia (delayed relaxation of a muscle) after forceful voluntary contractions. Muscular hypertrophy is common and myotonia may impair ambulation and other movements. Myotonia typically becomes less severe with repetitive voluntary contractions of the affected muscles. Generalized myotonia (of Becker) is an autosomal recessive variant of myotonia congenita that may feature more severe myotonia and muscle wasting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1476-7; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch53, p18)

Generalized Myotonia of Thomsen
A dominantly inherited muscle disease that begins in early childhood and is characterized by severe myotonia (delayed relaxation of a muscle) after forceful voluntary contractions. Muscular hypertrophy is common and myotonia may impair ambulation and other movements. Myotonia typically becomes less severe with repetitive voluntary contractions of the affected muscles. Generalized myotonia (of Becker) is an autosomal recessive variant of myotonia congenita that may feature more severe myotonia and muscle wasting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1476-7; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch53, p18)

Generalized Myotonia, Becker
A dominantly inherited muscle disease that begins in early childhood and is characterized by severe myotonia (delayed relaxation of a muscle) after forceful voluntary contractions. Muscular hypertrophy is common and myotonia may impair ambulation and other movements. Myotonia typically becomes less severe with repetitive voluntary contractions of the affected muscles. Generalized myotonia (of Becker) is an autosomal recessive variant of myotonia congenita that may feature more severe myotonia and muscle wasting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1476-7; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch53, p18)

Generalized Myotonias
A dominantly inherited muscle disease that begins in early childhood and is characterized by severe myotonia (delayed relaxation of a muscle) after forceful voluntary contractions. Muscular hypertrophy is common and myotonia may impair ambulation and other movements. Myotonia typically becomes less severe with repetitive voluntary contractions of the affected muscles. Generalized myotonia (of Becker) is an autosomal recessive variant of myotonia congenita that may feature more severe myotonia and muscle wasting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1476-7; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch53, p18)

Generalized Nonconvulsive Epilepsy
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)

Generalized Nonconvulsive Seizure Disorder
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)

Generalized Onset Seizure Disorder
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)

Generalized Seizure
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or ""seizure disorder.""

Generalized Seizure Disorder
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)

Generalized Seizure Disorder, Convulsive
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)

Generalized Seizure Disorder, Nonconvulsive
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)

Generalized Seizure Disorders
Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)

Generalized Seizures
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or ""seizure disorder.""

Generalized Spasm
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL) or smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH).

Generalized Spasms
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL) or smooth muscle (MUSCLE, SMOOTH).

Generalized Status Epilepticus
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)

Generalized vaccinia
Secondary lesions of the skin following vaccination which may occur in subjects with previously healthy skin but are more common in the case of traumatized skin, especially in the case of eczema (eczema vaccinatum). In the latter instance, generalized vaccinia may result from mere contact with a vaccinated person. Secondary vaccinial lesions may also occur following transfer of virus from the vaccination to another site by means of the fingers (autoinnoculation).

Generation Effect
Variation in health status arising from different causal factors to which each birth cohort in a population is exposed as environment and society change.

Generation Effects
Variation in health status arising from different causal factors to which each birth cohort in a population is exposed as environment and society change.

Generation Gap
The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.

Generation Gaps
The interactions between individuals of different generations. These interactions include communication, caring, accountability, loyalty, and even conflict between related or non-related individuals.

Generations
Size and composition of the family.

Generator, Radioisotope
Separation systems containing a relatively long-lived parent radionuclide which produces a short-lived daughter in its decay scheme. The daughter can be periodically extracted (milked) by means of an appropriate eluting agent.

Generator, Radionuclide
Separation systems containing a relatively long-lived parent radionuclide which produces a short-lived daughter in its decay scheme. The daughter can be periodically extracted (milked) by means of an appropriate eluting agent.

Generators, Radioisotope
Separation systems containing a relatively long-lived parent radionuclide which produces a short-lived daughter in its decay scheme. The daughter can be periodically extracted (milked) by means of an appropriate eluting agent.

Generators, Radionuclide
Separation systems containing a relatively long-lived parent radionuclide which produces a short-lived daughter in its decay scheme. The daughter can be periodically extracted (milked) by means of an appropriate eluting agent.

Generic
A drug not protected by a trademark. Also, the scientific name as opposed to the proprietary, brand name.

Generic drug
The term "generic" has several meanings as regards drugs: The chemical name of a drug. A term referring to the chemical makeup of a drug rather than to the advertised brand name under which the drug is sold. A term referring to any drug marketed under its chemical name without advertising.

Generic Drugs
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.

Generic Equivalencies
The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.

Generic Equivalency
The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.

Generic name, drug
The term "generic name" has several meanings as regards drugs: The chemical name of a drug. A term referring to the chemical makeup of a drug rather than to the advertised brand name under which the drug is sold. A term referring to any drug marketed under its chemical name without advertising.

Generic view
A view of an object that is not special. In other words, the view won't change drastically with small perturbations in lighting or viewing direction.

Generlac
Generlac is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): lactulose.

Genes, A
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the vif (virion infectivity factor) protein that is important for the generation of infectious virions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The former name of this gene was sor (short open reading frame).

Genes, abl
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.

Genes, Adenomatous Polyposis Coli
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.

Genes, Amber Suppressor
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored.

Genes, AmpC
The genetic material of bacteria.

Genes, APC
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.

Genes, araC
Regulatory genes which encode a cyclic AMP receptor protein required for L-arabinose utilization in E. coli. It is an example of positive control or regulation of gene expression in the bacterial operon.

Genes, Archaeal
The genetic material of archaea.

Genes, art-trs
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.

Genes, Artificial
Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.

Genes, Bacterial
The genetic material of bacteria.

Genes, Bacterial Structural
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of bacterial cells.

Genes, bcl 1
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Genes, bcl 2
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Genes, bcl-1
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Genes, bcl-2
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Genes, BRCA1
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, SUPPRESSOR, TUMOR) located on human chromosome 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of familial breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.

Genes, BRCA2
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, SUPPRESSOR, TUMOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)

Genes, breast cancer susceptibility
Inherited factors that predispose to breast cancer. Put otherwise, these genes make one more susceptible to the disease and so increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Two of these genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been identified (and prominently publicized). Several other genes (those for the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden disease, Muir-Torre syndrome, and ataxia-telangiectasia) are also known to predispose to breast cancer. However, since all of these known breast cancer susceptibility genes together do not account for more than a minor fraction (1/5th at most) of breast cancer that clusters in families, it is clear that more breast cancer genes remain to be discovered.

Genes, c-abl
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.

Genes, c-bcl-1
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Genes, c-bcl-2
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Genes, c-erbB-3
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (erbB) originally isolated from, or related to, the avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV). These genes code for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptors which is important in the control of normal cell proliferation and in the pathogenesis of human cancer. The genes include erbB-1 (GENES, ERBB-1), erbB-2 (GENES, ERBB-2), and erbB-3, all of which show abnormalities of expression in various human neoplasms.

Genes, c-fms
Family of genes originally isolated from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE). The proto-oncogene fms (c-fms) codes for the MCSF receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR). The oncogene fms (v-fms) codes for ONCOGENE PROTEIN GP1409(V-FMS) which is a mutated form of the MCSF. The human c-fms gene is located between 5q33.2 and 5q33.3.

Genes, c-mos
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Genes, c-myb
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-myb) originally isolated from the avian myeloblastosis and E26 leukemia viruses. The proto-oncogene c-myb codes for a nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation and appears to be essential for hematopoietic cell proliferation. The human myb gene is located at 6q22-23 on the short arm of chromosome 6. This is the point of break in translocations involved in T-cell acute lymphatic leukemia and in some ovarian cancers and melanomas. (From Ibelgaufts, Dictionary of Cytokines, 1995).

Genes, c-myc
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Genes, c-rel
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-rel) originally isolated from an avian reticuloendotheliosis virus strain. The proto-oncogene rel (c-rel) codes for a subcellular (nuclear and cytoplasmic) transcription factor that has a role in lymphocyte differentiation. Translocation or overexpression of c-rel or competition from v-rel causes oncogenesis. The human rel gene is located at 2p12-13 on the short arm of chromosome 2.

Genes, c-sis
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-sis) originally isolated from the simian sarcoma virus (SSV). The proto-oncogene c-sis codes for a growth factor which is the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. v-sis or overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis. The human sis gene is located at 22q12.3-13.1 on the long arm of chromosome 22.

Genes, c-src
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.

Genes, Cancer
Genes which can potentially induce neoplastic transformation. They include genes for growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. When these genes are constitutively expressed after structural and/or regulatory changes, uncontrolled cell proliferation may result. Viral oncogenes have prefix ""v-"" before the gene symbol; cellular oncogenes (PROTO-ONCOGENES) have the prefix ""c-"" before the gene symbol.

Genes, Cancer Suppressor
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.

Genes, cdc
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the cell division cycle. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of mitosis by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).

Genes, CDKN2
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: PROTEIN P16 and p14ARF PROTEIN.

Genes, CDKN2A
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: PROTEIN P16 and p14ARF PROTEIN.

Genes, Cell Division Cycle
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the cell division cycle. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of mitosis by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).

Genes, Class I
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.

Genes, Class II
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.

Genes, Cyclin D1
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Genes, DCC
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 18q21-qter region of human chromosome 18. The absence of these genes is associated with the formation of colorectal cancer (DCC stands for deleted in colorectal cancer). The products of these genes show significant homology to neural cell adhesion molecules and other related cell surface glycoproteins.

Genes, Developmental
Genes that code for proteins required for the enzymatic and structural functions of cells. They include developmental and differentiated genes.

Genes, Differentiated
Genes that code for proteins required for the enzymatic and structural functions of cells. They include developmental and differentiated genes.

Genes, Dominant
Genes that are reflected in the phenotype both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.

Genes, Duplicate
Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Genes, EGFR
The proto-oncogene c-erbB-1 codes for the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral homolog v-erbB which was isolated from an avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV) where it was contained as a fragment of the chicken c-ErbB-1 gene lacking the amino-terminal ligand-binding domain. Overexpression of erbB-1 genes occurs in a wide range of tumors, commonly squamous carcinomas of various sites and less commonly adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-1 gene is located in the chromosomal region 7p14 and 7p12.

Genes, env
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).

Genes, Epistatic
A form of gene interaction whereby one gene interferes with the phenotypic expression of another nonallelic gene or genes. Genes whose expression is altered by nonallelic genes are said to be ""hypostatic"" or to exhibit ""hypostasis"".

Genes, erbA
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS, AVIAN, hence erbA) originally isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The c-erbA proto-oncogene encodes the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE). Two distinct c-erbA proto-oncogenes have been identified, erbA-alpha and erbA-beta, each giving rise to at least two proteins. erbA-alpha is located at 17q21 on the long arm of chromosome 17. erbA-beta is located at 3p24 on the short arm of chromosome 3. The v-erbA oncogene potentiates cell transformation through inhibition of spontaneous differentiation of cells already transformed by the v-erbB gene and eliminates growth requirements of transformed erythroblasts.

Genes, erbA alpha
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS, AVIAN, hence erbA) originally isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The c-erbA proto-oncogene encodes the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE). Two distinct c-erbA proto-oncogenes have been identified, erbA-alpha and erbA-beta, each giving rise to at least two proteins. erbA-alpha is located at 17q21 on the long arm of chromosome 17. erbA-beta is located at 3p24 on the short arm of chromosome 3. The v-erbA oncogene potentiates cell transformation through inhibition of spontaneous differentiation of cells already transformed by the v-erbB gene and eliminates growth requirements of transformed erythroblasts.

Genes, erbA beta
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS, AVIAN, hence erbA) originally isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The c-erbA proto-oncogene encodes the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE). Two distinct c-erbA proto-oncogenes have been identified, erbA-alpha and erbA-beta, each giving rise to at least two proteins. erbA-alpha is located at 17q21 on the long arm of chromosome 17. erbA-beta is located at 3p24 on the short arm of chromosome 3. The v-erbA oncogene potentiates cell transformation through inhibition of spontaneous differentiation of cells already transformed by the v-erbB gene and eliminates growth requirements of transformed erythroblasts.

Genes, erbA-alpha
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS, AVIAN, hence erbA) originally isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The c-erbA proto-oncogene encodes the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE). Two distinct c-erbA proto-oncogenes have been identified, erbA-alpha and erbA-beta, each giving rise to at least two proteins. erbA-alpha is located at 17q21 on the long arm of chromosome 17. erbA-beta is located at 3p24 on the short arm of chromosome 3. The v-erbA oncogene potentiates cell transformation through inhibition of spontaneous differentiation of cells already transformed by the v-erbB gene and eliminates growth requirements of transformed erythroblasts.

Genes, erbA-beta
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS, AVIAN, hence erbA) originally isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The c-erbA proto-oncogene encodes the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE). Two distinct c-erbA proto-oncogenes have been identified, erbA-alpha and erbA-beta, each giving rise to at least two proteins. erbA-alpha is located at 17q21 on the long arm of chromosome 17. erbA-beta is located at 3p24 on the short arm of chromosome 3. The v-erbA oncogene potentiates cell transformation through inhibition of spontaneous differentiation of cells already transformed by the v-erbB gene and eliminates growth requirements of transformed erythroblasts.

Genes, erbB
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (erbB) originally isolated from, or related to, the avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV). These genes code for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptors which is important in the control of normal cell proliferation and in the pathogenesis of human cancer. The genes include erbB-1 (GENES, ERBB-1), erbB-2 (GENES, ERBB-2), and erbB-3, all of which show abnormalities of expression in various human neoplasms.

Genes, erbB-1
The proto-oncogene c-erbB-1 codes for the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral homolog v-erbB which was isolated from an avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV) where it was contained as a fragment of the chicken c-ErbB-1 gene lacking the amino-terminal ligand-binding domain. Overexpression of erbB-1 genes occurs in a wide range of tumors, commonly squamous carcinomas of various sites and less commonly adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-1 gene is located in the chromosomal region 7p14 and 7p12.

Genes, erbB-2
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features simular to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythoblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.

Genes, erbB1
The proto-oncogene c-erbB-1 codes for the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral homolog v-erbB which was isolated from an avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV) where it was contained as a fragment of the chicken c-ErbB-1 gene lacking the amino-terminal ligand-binding domain. Overexpression of erbB-1 genes occurs in a wide range of tumors, commonly squamous carcinomas of various sites and less commonly adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-1 gene is located in the chromosomal region 7p14 and 7p12.

Genes, erbb2
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features simular to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythoblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.

Genes, Essential
Those genes found in an organism which are necessary for its viability and normal function.

Genes, fms
Family of genes originally isolated from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE). The proto-oncogene fms (c-fms) codes for the MCSF receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR). The oncogene fms (v-fms) codes for ONCOGENE PROTEIN GP1409(V-FMS) which is a mutated form of the MCSF. The human c-fms gene is located between 5q33.2 and 5q33.3.

Genes, fos
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.

Genes, Frameshift Suppressor
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored.

Genes, Fungal
The genetic material of fungi. It includes mating type genes of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE.

Genes, Fungal Structural
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of fungal cells.

Genes, gag
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.

Genes, Growth Suppressor
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.

Genes, H 2 Class I
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.

Genes, H-2 Class I
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.

Genes, Ha-ras
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.

Genes, Helminth
The hereditary material of helminths.

Genes, Helminth Structural
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of helminthic cells.

Genes, HER-2
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features simular to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythoblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.

Genes, HER2
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features simular to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythoblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.

Genes, HLA Class I
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.

Genes, HLA Class II
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.

Genes, Homeo Box
Highly conserved DNA sequences which have been identified in specific gene transcripts ranging from those of Drosophila melanogaster to mouse and human. Homeobox genes function, in part, to generate DNA-binding proteins with an evolutionary conserved approximately 60-residue sequence (HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS).

Genes, Homeobox
Highly conserved DNA sequences which have been identified in specific gene transcripts ranging from those of Drosophila melanogaster to mouse and human. Homeobox genes function, in part, to generate DNA-binding proteins with an evolutionary conserved approximately 60-residue sequence (HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS).

Genes, Homeotic
Highly conserved DNA sequences which have been identified in specific gene transcripts ranging from those of Drosophila melanogaster to mouse and human. Homeobox genes function, in part, to generate DNA-binding proteins with an evolutionary conserved approximately 60-residue sequence (HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS).

Genes, HTLV-I rex
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Genes, HTLV-I tax
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Genes, HTLV-II rex
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Genes, HTLV-II tax
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Genes, Hypostatic
A form of gene interaction whereby one gene interferes with the phenotypic expression of another nonallelic gene or genes. Genes whose expression is altered by nonallelic genes are said to be ""hypostatic"" or to exhibit ""hypostasis"".

Genes, Ig
Genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins. Light chain gene segments are symbolized L-V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant); Ig heavy chain segments have, in addition, a diversity (D) gene. Each segment codes for certain amino acids, and each has a different nucleotide sequence; the genes are assembled by a remarkable shuffling of the segments during B lymphocyte maturation.

Genes, Immediate Early
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.

Genes, Immediate-Early
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.

Genes, Immune Response
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.

Genes, Immunoglobulin
Genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins. Light chain gene segments are symbolized L-V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant); Ig heavy chain segments have, in addition, a diversity (D) gene. Each segment codes for certain amino acids, and each has a different nucleotide sequence; the genes are assembled by a remarkable shuffling of the segments during B lymphocyte maturation.

Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain
Genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins. Light chain gene segments are symbolized L-V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant); Ig heavy chain segments have, in addition, a diversity (D) gene. Each segment codes for certain amino acids, and each has a different nucleotide sequence; the genes are assembled by a remarkable shuffling of the segments during B lymphocyte maturation.

Genes, Immunoglobulin Light Chain
Genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins. Light chain gene segments are symbolized L-V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant); Ig heavy chain segments have, in addition, a diversity (D) gene. Each segment codes for certain amino acids, and each has a different nucleotide sequence; the genes are assembled by a remarkable shuffling of the segments during B lymphocyte maturation.

Genes, Immunoglobulin VH Germ Line
Genes encoding the light and heavy chain segments of immunoglobulins. Light chain gene segments are symbolized L-V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant); Ig heavy chain segments have, in addition, a diversity (D) gene. Each segment codes for certain amino acids, and each has a different nucleotide sequence; the genes are assembled by a remarkable shuffling of the segments during B lymphocyte maturation.

Genes, Insect
The hereditary material of insects.

Genes, Insect Structural
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of insect cells.

Genes, Intracisternal A Particle
Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. (""Intracisternal"" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.

Genes, Intracisternal A-Particle
Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. (""Intracisternal"" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.

Genes, Ir
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.

Genes, Jumping
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as ""jumping genes"". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.

Genes, jun
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (jun) originally isolated from the avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV 17). The proto-oncogene jun (c-jun) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. Insertion of c-jun into ASV-17 or the constitutive expression of the c-jun protein produces tumorgenicity. The human c-jun gene is located at 1p31-32 on the short arm of chromosome 1.

Genes, Ki-ras
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.

Genes, L-myc
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Genes, Lac
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.

Genes, LacZ
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.

Genes, Lethal
Genes which result in the premature death of the organism; dominant lethal genes kill heterozygotes, whereas recessive lethal genes kill only homozygotes.

Genes, lor
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Genes, Mating Type
The genetic material of fungi. It includes mating type genes of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE.

Genes, Mating-Type
The genetic material of fungi. It includes mating type genes of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE.

Genes, MCC
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with the formation of colorectal cancer (MCC stands for mutated in colorectal cancer).

Genes, MDR
Genes responsible for multidrug resistance resulting from their overexpression in mammalian cells. Mammalian P-glycoproteins are encoded by small MDR gene familes. The human multidrug resistance 1; (MDR1); gene responds to environmental stress including various anticancer agents. It is a major determinant in the development of resistance to a large number of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;199(3):1428-35; Cancer Res 1994:54(6):1536-41)

Genes, MDR1
Genes responsible for multidrug resistance resulting from their overexpression in mammalian cells. Mammalian P-glycoproteins are encoded by small MDR gene familes. The human multidrug resistance 1; (MDR1); gene responds to environmental stress including various anticancer agents. It is a major determinant in the development of resistance to a large number of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;199(3):1428-35; Cancer Res 1994:54(6):1536-41)

Genes, Metastasis Suppressor
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.

Genes, MHC Class I
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.

Genes, MHC Class II
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.

Genes, mos
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Genes, MTS1
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: PROTEIN P16 and p14ARF PROTEIN.

Genes, Multidrug Resistance
Genes responsible for multidrug resistance resulting from their overexpression in mammalian cells. Mammalian P-glycoproteins are encoded by small MDR gene familes. The human multidrug resistance 1; (MDR1); gene responds to environmental stress including various anticancer agents. It is a major determinant in the development of resistance to a large number of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;199(3):1428-35; Cancer Res 1994:54(6):1536-41)

Genes, myb
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-myb) originally isolated from the avian myeloblastosis and E26 leukemia viruses. The proto-oncogene c-myb codes for a nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation and appears to be essential for hematopoietic cell proliferation. The human myb gene is located at 6q22-23 on the short arm of chromosome 6. This is the point of break in translocations involved in T-cell acute lymphatic leukemia and in some ovarian cancers and melanomas. (From Ibelgaufts, Dictionary of Cytokines, 1995).

Genes, myc
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Genes, N-myc
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Genes, N-ras
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.

Genes, nef
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.

Genes, Neoplasm Structural
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of neoplastic cells.

Genes, neu
The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features simular to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythoblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.

Genes, Neurofibromatosis 1
Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 17 in the region 17q11.2. Mutation of these genes is thought to cause NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome.

Genes, Neurofibromatosis 2
Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 22. Mutation or loss of these genes causes NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.

Genes, nf 1
Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 17 in the region 17q11.2. Mutation of these genes is thought to cause NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome.

Genes, nf 2
Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 22. Mutation or loss of these genes causes NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.

Genes, nf1
Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 17 in the region 17q11.2. Mutation of these genes is thought to cause NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1, Watson syndrome, and LEOPARD syndrome.

Genes, nf2
Tumor suppressor genes located on the long arm of human chromosome 22. Mutation or loss of these genes causes NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2.

Genes, Nif
Regulatory and structural genes present in certain bacteria, algae and fungi that control the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into biologically usable compounds; include nif structural genes (e.g., nifD, nifH) for nitrogenase and nitrate reductase as well as regulator genes nifA, nifB, ntrA, ntrB, ntrC. Some are responsible for regulating transcription of genes involved in the assimilation of poor nitrogen sources in enteric bacteria.

Genes, Nitrogen Fixation
Regulatory and structural genes present in certain bacteria, algae and fungi that control the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into biologically usable compounds; include nif structural genes (e.g., nifD, nifH) for nitrogenase and nitrate reductase as well as regulator genes nifA, nifB, ntrA, ntrB, ntrC. Some are responsible for regulating transcription of genes involved in the assimilation of poor nitrogen sources in enteric bacteria.

Genes, Nitrogen Regulator
Regulatory and structural genes present in certain bacteria, algae and fungi that control the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into biologically usable compounds; include nif structural genes (e.g., nifD, nifH) for nitrogenase and nitrate reductase as well as regulator genes nifA, nifB, ntrA, ntrB, ntrC. Some are responsible for regulating transcription of genes involved in the assimilation of poor nitrogen sources in enteric bacteria.

Genes, Nonsense Mutation Suppressor
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored.

Genes, Ntr
Regulatory and structural genes present in certain bacteria, algae and fungi that control the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into biologically usable compounds; include nif structural genes (e.g., nifD, nifH) for nitrogenase and nitrate reductase as well as regulator genes nifA, nifB, ntrA, ntrB, ntrC. Some are responsible for regulating transcription of genes involved in the assimilation of poor nitrogen sources in enteric bacteria.

Genes, Ochre Suppressor
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored.

Genes, Onco Suppressor
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.

Genes, Onco-Suppressor
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.

Genes, Overlapping
Genes whose nucleotide sequences overlap to some degree. The overlapped sequences may involve structural or regulatory genes of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells.

Genes, p16
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: PROTEIN P16 and p14ARF PROTEIN.

Genes, p16INK4
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: PROTEIN P16 and p14ARF PROTEIN.

Genes, p16INK4A
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 9 in the region 9p21. This gene is either deleted or mutated in a wide range of malignancies. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995) Two alternatively spliced gene products are encoded by p16: PROTEIN P16 and p14ARF PROTEIN.

Genes, p53
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.

Genes, PDGFB
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-sis) originally isolated from the simian sarcoma virus (SSV). The proto-oncogene c-sis codes for a growth factor which is the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. v-sis or overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis. The human sis gene is located at 22q12.3-13.1 on the long arm of chromosome 22.

Genes, Plant
The hereditary material of plants.

Genes, Plant Structural
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of plant cells.

Genes, pol
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. ""pol"" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.

Genes, PRAD1
The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-1 genes, associated with various neoplasms when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(11;14) translocation, which is characteristic of mantle zone-derived B-cell lymphomas. The human c-bcl-1 gene is located at 11q13 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Genes, Processed
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.

Genes, Protozoan
The genetic material of protozoa.

Genes, pX
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Genes, Q
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the vif (virion infectivity factor) protein that is important for the generation of infectious virions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The former name of this gene was sor (short open reading frame).

Genes, R
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.

Genes, RAG 1
Genes involved in activating the enzyme VDJ recombinase. RAG-1 is located on chromosome 11 in humans (chromosome 2 in mice) and is expressed exclusively in maturing lymphocytes.

Genes, RAG-1
Genes involved in activating the enzyme VDJ recombinase. RAG-1 is located on chromosome 11 in humans (chromosome 2 in mice) and is expressed exclusively in maturing lymphocytes.

Genes, rap
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.

Genes, ras
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.

Genes, Rb
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.

Genes, Recessive
Genes that are reflected in the phenotype only in the homozygous state.

Genes, Regulator
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for proteins (repressors or activators) which regulate the genetic transcription of the structural genes and/or regulatory genes.

Genes, Reiterated
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Genes, rel
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-rel) originally isolated from an avian reticuloendotheliosis virus strain. The proto-oncogene rel (c-rel) codes for a subcellular (nuclear and cytoplasmic) transcription factor that has a role in lymphocyte differentiation. Translocation or overexpression of c-rel or competition from v-rel causes oncogenesis. The human rel gene is located at 2p12-13 on the short arm of chromosome 2.

Genes, Reporter
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.

Genes, Retinoblastoma
Tumor suppressor genes located on human chromosome 13 in the region 13q14 and coding for a family of phosphoproteins with molecular weights ranging from 104 kDa to 115 kDa. One copy of the wild-type Rb gene is necessary for normal retinal development. Loss or inactivation of both alleles at this locus results in retinoblastoma.

Genes, rev
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.

Genes, rex
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Genes, Ribosomal RNA
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into ribosomes. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in operons dispersed throughout the genome, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.

Genes, rRNA
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into ribosomes. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in operons dispersed throughout the genome, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.

Genes, Second Site Suppressor
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored.

Genes, Second-Site Suppressor
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored.

Genes, Selfish
Nucleotide sequences present in multiple copies in the genome. There are several types of repeated sequences. Interspersed (or dispersed) DNA repeats (INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES) are copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome. Flanking (or terminal) repeats (TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES) are sequences that are repeated on both ends of a sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on retroviruses. Direct terminal repeats are in the same direction and inverted terminal repeats are opposite to each other in direction. Tandem repeats (TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES) are repeated copies which lie adjacent to each other. These can also be direct or inverted. The ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA genes belong to the class of middle repetitive DNA.

Genes, Sex Related Y
The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the testes from the bipotential, embryonic gonads.

Genes, Sex-Related Y
The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the testes from the bipotential, embryonic gonads.

Genes, sis
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-sis) originally isolated from the simian sarcoma virus (SSV). The proto-oncogene c-sis codes for a growth factor which is the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. v-sis or overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis. The human sis gene is located at 22q12.3-13.1 on the long arm of chromosome 22.

Genes, sor
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the vif (virion infectivity factor) protein that is important for the generation of infectious virions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The former name of this gene was sor (short open reading frame).

Genes, Spliced
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.

Genes, Split
Specific sequences of nucleotides along a molecule of DNA (or, in the case of some viruses, RNA) which represent the functional units of heredity. The majority of eukaryotic genes contain coding regions (codons) that are interrupted by non-coding regions (introns) and are therefore labeled split genes.

Genes, src
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.

Genes, sry
The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the testes from the bipotential, embryonic gonads.

Genes, Structural
Genes that code for proteins required for the enzymatic and structural functions of cells. They include developmental and differentiated genes.

Genes, Structural Bacterial
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of bacterial cells.

Genes, Structural Fungal
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of fungal cells.

Genes, Structural Helminth
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of helminthic cells.

Genes, Structural Insect
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of insect cells.

Genes, Structural Neoplasm
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of neoplastic cells.

Genes, Structural Plant
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of plant cells.

Genes, Structural Protozoan
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of protozoan cells.

Genes, Structural Viral
DNA or RNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of viral cells.

Genes, Structural, Bacterial
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of bacterial cells.

Genes, Structural, Fungal
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of fungal cells.

Genes, Structural, Helminth
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of helminthic cells.

Genes, Structural, Insect
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of insect cells.

Genes, Structural, Neoplasm
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of neoplastic cells.

Genes, Structural, Plant
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of plant cells.

Genes, Structural, Protozoan
DNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of protozoan cells.

Genes, Structural, Viral
DNA or RNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of viral cells.

Genes, Suppressor
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored.

Genes, Switch
Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.

Genes, Synthetic
Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.

Genes, T Cell Receptor
DNA sequences, in cells of the T-lymphocyte lineage, that code for T-cell receptors. The TcR genes are formed by somatic rearrangement (see GENE REARRANGEMENT, T-LYMPHOCYTE and its children) of germline gene segments, and resemble Ig genes in their mechanisms of diversity generation and expression.

Genes, T Cell Receptor alpha
DNA sequences encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR alpha genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.

Genes, T Cell Receptor beta
DNA sequences encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR beta genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.

Genes, T Cell Receptor delta
DNA sequences encoding the delta chain of the T-cell receptor. The delta-chain locus is located entirely within the alpha-chain locus.

Genes, T Cell Receptor gamma
DNA sequences encoding the gamma chain of the T-cell receptor. The human gamma-chain locus is organized similarly to the TcR beta-chain locus.

Genes, T-Cell Receptor
DNA sequences, in cells of the T-lymphocyte lineage, that code for T-cell receptors. The TcR genes are formed by somatic rearrangement (see GENE REARRANGEMENT, T-LYMPHOCYTE and its children) of germline gene segments, and resemble Ig genes in their mechanisms of diversity generation and expression.

Genes, T-Cell Receptor alpha
DNA sequences encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR alpha genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.

Genes, T-Cell Receptor beta
DNA sequences encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR beta genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.

Genes, T-Cell Receptor delta
DNA sequences encoding the delta chain of the T-cell receptor. The delta-chain locus is located entirely within the alpha-chain locus.

Genes, T-Cell Receptor gamma
DNA sequences encoding the gamma chain of the T-cell receptor. The human gamma-chain locus is organized similarly to the TcR beta-chain locus.

Genes, tat
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the protein responsible for trans-activation of transcription (tat) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Genes, tax
DNA sequences that form the coding region for at least three proteins which regulate the expression of HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 and HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2. The proteins are p21(x), p27(rex), and p40(tax). The tax (trans-activator x) and rex (regulator x) genes are part of pX but are in overlapping reading frames. X was the original designation for the sequences or region (at that time of unknown function) in the long open reading frame (lor) which is now called pX.

Genes, TcR
DNA sequences, in cells of the T-lymphocyte lineage, that code for T-cell receptors. The TcR genes are formed by somatic rearrangement (see GENE REARRANGEMENT, T-LYMPHOCYTE and its children) of germline gene segments, and resemble Ig genes in their mechanisms of diversity generation and expression.

Genes, TcR alpha
DNA sequences encoding the alpha chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR alpha genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.

Genes, TcR beta
DNA sequences encoding the beta chain of the T-cell receptor. The genomic organization of the TcR beta genes is essentially the same in all species and is similar to the organization of Ig genes.

Genes, TcR delta
DNA sequences encoding the delta chain of the T-cell receptor. The delta-chain locus is located entirely within the alpha-chain locus.

Genes, TcR gamma
DNA sequences encoding the gamma chain of the T-cell receptor. The human gamma-chain locus is organized similarly to the TcR beta-chain locus.

Genes, TP53
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.

Genes, TR alpha
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS, AVIAN, hence erbA) originally isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The c-erbA proto-oncogene encodes the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE). Two distinct c-erbA proto-oncogenes have been identified, erbA-alpha and erbA-beta, each giving rise to at least two proteins. erbA-alpha is located at 17q21 on the long arm of chromosome 17. erbA-beta is located at 3p24 on the short arm of chromosome 3. The v-erbA oncogene potentiates cell transformation through inhibition of spontaneous differentiation of cells already transformed by the v-erbB gene and eliminates growth requirements of transformed erythroblasts.

Genes, TR beta
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS, AVIAN, hence erbA) originally isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The c-erbA proto-oncogene encodes the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE). Two distinct c-erbA proto-oncogenes have been identified, erbA-alpha and erbA-beta, each giving rise to at least two proteins. erbA-alpha is located at 17q21 on the long arm of chromosome 17. erbA-beta is located at 3p24 on the short arm of chromosome 3. The v-erbA oncogene potentiates cell transformation through inhibition of spontaneous differentiation of cells already transformed by the v-erbB gene and eliminates growth requirements of transformed erythroblasts.

Genes, TR-alpha
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS, AVIAN, hence erbA) originally isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The c-erbA proto-oncogene encodes the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE). Two distinct c-erbA proto-oncogenes have been identified, erbA-alpha and erbA-beta, each giving rise to at least two proteins. erbA-alpha is located at 17q21 on the long arm of chromosome 17. erbA-beta is located at 3p24 on the short arm of chromosome 3. The v-erbA oncogene potentiates cell transformation through inhibition of spontaneous differentiation of cells already transformed by the v-erbB gene and eliminates growth requirements of transformed erythroblasts.

Genes, TR-beta
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS, AVIAN, hence erbA) originally isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus. The c-erbA proto-oncogene encodes the thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE). Two distinct c-erbA proto-oncogenes have been identified, erbA-alpha and erbA-beta, each giving rise to at least two proteins. erbA-alpha is located at 17q21 on the long arm of chromosome 17. erbA-beta is located at 3p24 on the short arm of chromosome 3. The v-erbA oncogene potentiates cell transformation through inhibition of spontaneous differentiation of cells already transformed by the v-erbB gene and eliminates growth requirements of transformed erythroblasts.

Genes, Transforming
Genes which can potentially induce neoplastic transformation. They include genes for growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. When these genes are constitutively expressed after structural and/or regulatory changes, uncontrolled cell proliferation may result. Viral oncogenes have prefix ""v-"" before the gene symbol; cellular oncogenes (PROTO-ONCOGENES) have the prefix ""c-"" before the gene symbol.

Genes, trs-art
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that regulates the expression of the viral structural and regulatory proteins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). rev is short for regulator of virion.

Genes, Tumor Suppressing
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.

Genes, Tumor Suppressor
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.

Genes, v-abl
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (abl) originally isolated from the Abelson murine leukemia virus (Ab-MuLV). The proto-oncogene abl (c-abl) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family. The human c-abl gene is located at 9q34.1 on the long arm of chromosome 9. It is activated by translocation to bcr on chromosome 22 in chronic myelogenous leukemia.

Genes, v-fms
Family of genes originally isolated from the Susan McDonough strain of feline sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE). The proto-oncogene fms (c-fms) codes for the MCSF receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR). The oncogene fms (v-fms) codes for ONCOGENE PROTEIN GP1409(V-FMS) which is a mutated form of the MCSF. The human c-fms gene is located between 5q33.2 and 5q33.3.

Genes, v-Ha-ras
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.

Genes, v-Ki-ras
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.

Genes, v-mos
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (mos) originally isolated from the Moloney murine sarcoma virus (Mo-MSV). The proto-oncogene mos (c-mos) codes for a protein which is a member of the serine kinase family. There is no evidence as yet that human c-mos can become transformed or has a role in human cancer. However, in mice, activation can occur when the retrovirus-like intracisternal A-particle inserts itself near the c-mos sequence. The human c-mos gene is located at 8q22 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Genes, v-myb
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-myb) originally isolated from the avian myeloblastosis and E26 leukemia viruses. The proto-oncogene c-myb codes for a nuclear protein involved in transcriptional regulation and appears to be essential for hematopoietic cell proliferation. The human myb gene is located at 6q22-23 on the short arm of chromosome 6. This is the point of break in translocations involved in T-cell acute lymphatic leukemia and in some ovarian cancers and melanomas. (From Ibelgaufts, Dictionary of Cytokines, 1995).

Genes, v-myc
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.

Genes, v-rel
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-rel) originally isolated from an avian reticuloendotheliosis virus strain. The proto-oncogene rel (c-rel) codes for a subcellular (nuclear and cytoplasmic) transcription factor that has a role in lymphocyte differentiation. Translocation or overexpression of c-rel or competition from v-rel causes oncogenesis. The human rel gene is located at 2p12-13 on the short arm of chromosome 2.

Genes, v-sis
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (v-sis) originally isolated from the simian sarcoma virus (SSV). The proto-oncogene c-sis codes for a growth factor which is the B chain of PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR. v-sis or overexpression of c-sis causes tumorigenesis. The human sis gene is located at 22q12.3-13.1 on the long arm of chromosome 22.

Genes, v-src
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.

Genes, vif
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the vif (virion infectivity factor) protein that is important for the generation of infectious virions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The former name of this gene was sor (short open reading frame).

Genes, Viral
The hereditary material of viruses, consisting in all DNA and some RNA viruses of a single molecule of nucleic acid, and in some RNA viruses of several separate pieces of RNA.

Genes, Viral Structural
DNA or RNA sequences that code for RNA and for the proteins required for the enzymatic and structural function of viral cells.

Genes, vpr
DNA sequences that form the coding region for a trans-activator protein that specifies rapid growth in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). vpr is short for viral protein R, where R is undefined.

Genes, vpu
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the HIV-1 regulatory protein vpu (viral protein U) that greatly increases the export of virus particles from infected cells. The vpu genes are not present in HIV-2 or SIV.

Genes, Wilm
Genes at several loci that are involved in the development of Wilms Tumor (NEPHROBLASTOMA). Included are WT1 at 11p13 and WT2 at 11p15.

Genes, Wilms
Genes at several loci that are involved in the development of Wilms Tumor (NEPHROBLASTOMA). Included are WT1 at 11p13 and WT2 at 11p15.

Genes, Wilms Tumor
Genes at several loci that are involved in the development of Wilms Tumor (NEPHROBLASTOMA). Included are WT1 at 11p13 and WT2 at 11p15.

Genes, WT1 Wilms Tumor
Genes at several loci that are involved in the development of Wilms Tumor (NEPHROBLASTOMA). Included are WT1 at 11p13 and WT2 at 11p15.

Genes, WT2 Wilms Tumor
Genes at several loci that are involved in the development of Wilms Tumor (NEPHROBLASTOMA). Included are WT1 at 11p13 and WT2 at 11p15.

Genesa
Genesa is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): arbutamine hydrochloride.

Genesis
The beginning of a process.

Genesis Medical Center
Genesis Medical Center is a hospital in Davenport, Iowa (USA).

Genestein
An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 phase arrest in human and murine cell lines.

Genesys Regional Regional Medical Center
Genesys Regional Regional Medical Center is a hospital in Grand Blanc, Michigan (USA).

Genetic
Hereditary. Having to do with the genes.

Genetic anticipation
A remarkable phenomenon in which a genetic disease appears earlier appearance and with increased from with each succeeding generation. Anticipation was once thought not to exist in genetics. It was chalked off as a meaningless statistical artifact. However, anticipation has now been proven to occur in a large number of important genetic disorders, including Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy. In molecular terms, anticipation is due to the expansion of a trinucleotide repeat sequence in the DNA. This phenomenon also occurs in the fragile X syndrome, the most common inherited form of mental retardation.

Genetic Anticipation
The apparent tendency of certain diseases to appear at earlier AGE OF ONSET and with increasing severity in successive generations. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Genetic Anticipations
The apparent tendency of certain diseases to appear at earlier AGE OF ONSET and with increasing severity in successive generations. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)

Genetic Carrier
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci in homologous chromosome segments.

Genetic Carrier Detection
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.

Genetic Carrier Detections
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.

Genetic Carrier, Detection
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.

Genetic Carriers
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci in homologous chromosome segments.

Genetic Carriers, Detection
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.

Genetic Code
The specifications for how information, stored in nucleic acid sequence (BASE SEQUENCE), is translated into protein sequence (AMINO ACID SEQUENCE). The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).

Genetic Codes
The specifications for how information, stored in nucleic acid sequence (BASE SEQUENCE), is translated into protein sequence (AMINO ACID SEQUENCE). The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).

Genetic Complementation Test
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.

Genetic Complementation Tests
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.

Genetic Condition, Dominant
Genes that are reflected in the phenotype both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.

Genetic Condition, Recessive
Genes that are reflected in the phenotype only in the homozygous state.

Genetic Conditions, Dominant
Genes that are reflected in the phenotype both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.

Genetic Conditions, Recessive
Genes that are reflected in the phenotype only in the homozygous state.

Genetic Conjugation
A parasexual mechanism in bacteria for achieving unidirectional transfer of all or part of the chromosome from an F+ or Hfr donor (""male"") to an F- (""female"") recipient.

Genetic counseling
Providing information, advice, and testing to prospective parents at risk of having a child with a birth defect or genetic disorder.

Genetic Counseling
Advising families of the risks involved pertaining to birth defects, in order that they may make an informed decision on current or future pregnancies.

Genetic counselor
A health professional with a specialized graduate degree and experience in the areas of medical genetics and counseling. Genetic counselors enter the field from a variety of disciplines, including biology, genetics, nursing, psychology, public health and social work.

Genetic Data Bank
DATABASES devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

Genetic Data Banks
DATABASES devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

Genetic Data Base
DATABASES devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

Genetic Data Bases
DATABASES devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

Genetic Databank
DATABASES devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

Genetic Databanks
DATABASES devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

Genetic Database
DATABASES devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

Genetic Databases
DATABASES devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

Genetic Determinism
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.

Genetic Diagnoses, Preimplantation
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the ovum, zygote, or blastocyst prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.

Genetic Diagnosis, Preimplantation
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the ovum, zygote, or blastocyst prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.

Genetic discrimination
The potential use of genetic information to discriminate against people in the workplace, in health insurance, or in any other arena.

Genetic disorder
A disease or condition caused by an abnormality in a person's genetic blueprint. Such conditions include chromosomal disorders involving too much or too little chromosomal material, mutations of genes on the chromosomes, and mutations in conjunction with environmental factors such as exposure to drugs or radiation.

Genetic Diversity
The phenotypic differences among individuals in a population.

Genetic Drift
The proportion of one particular allele in the total of all alleles for one genetic locus in a breeding population.

Genetic Element, Mobile
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as ""jumping genes"". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.

Genetic Elements, Mobile
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as ""jumping genes"". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.

Genetic Engineering
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.

Genetic Engineering of Proteins
Procedures by which nonrandom single-site changes are introduced into structural genes (site-specific mutagenesis) in order to produce mutant genes which can be coupled to promoters that direct the synthesis of a specifically altered protein, which is then analyzed for structural and functional properties and then compared with the predicted and sought-after properties. The design of the protein may be assisted by computer graphic technology and other advanced molecular modeling techniques.

Genetic Engineering, Protein
Procedures by which nonrandom single-site changes are introduced into structural genes (site-specific mutagenesis) in order to produce mutant genes which can be coupled to promoters that direct the synthesis of a specifically altered protein, which is then analyzed for structural and functional properties and then compared with the predicted and sought-after properties. The design of the protein may be assisted by computer graphic technology and other advanced molecular modeling techniques.

Genetic Enhancement
The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.

Genetic Enhancements
The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.

Genetic Epistases
A form of gene interaction whereby one gene interferes with the phenotypic expression of another nonallelic gene or genes. Genes whose expression is altered by nonallelic genes are said to be ""hypostatic"" or to exhibit ""hypostasis"".

Genetic Epistasis
A form of gene interaction whereby one gene interferes with the phenotypic expression of another nonallelic gene or genes. Genes whose expression is altered by nonallelic genes are said to be ""hypostatic"" or to exhibit ""hypostasis"".

Genetic Equilibrium
The study of the genetic composition of populations and of the effects of factors such as selection, population size, mutation, migration, and genetic drift on the frequencies of various genotypes and phenotypes.

Genetic Fingerprinting
A procedure in which multilocus band patterns of a DNA sample are generated by digestion of the DNA with restriction enzymes followed by electrophoresis and visualization by hybridization with probes specific for repetitive sequences. In forensic medicine the probes used are ""core"" sequences specific for simple tandem-repetitive sequences (MINISATELLITE REPEATS or VNTRs). The multilocus band patterns, known as DNA fingerprints, are evaluated for similarities with DNA from an individual.

Genetic Fingerprintings
A procedure in which multilocus band patterns of a DNA sample are generated by digestion of the DNA with restriction enzymes followed by electrophoresis and visualization by hybridization with probes specific for repetitive sequences. In forensic medicine the probes used are ""core"" sequences specific for simple tandem-repetitive sequences (MINISATELLITE REPEATS or VNTRs). The multilocus band patterns, known as DNA fingerprints, are evaluated for similarities with DNA from an individual.

Genetic Hypostases
A form of gene interaction whereby one gene interferes with the phenotypic expression of another nonallelic gene or genes. Genes whose expression is altered by nonallelic genes are said to be ""hypostatic"" or to exhibit ""hypostasis"".

Genetic Hypostasis
A form of gene interaction whereby one gene interferes with the phenotypic expression of another nonallelic gene or genes. Genes whose expression is altered by nonallelic genes are said to be ""hypostatic"" or to exhibit ""hypostasis"".

Genetic Identities
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.

Genetic Identity
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.

Genetic Imprinting
The variable phenotypic expression of a gene depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the methylation pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Genetic Induction
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action at the level of transcription or translation. These processes include gene activation and genetic induction.

Genetic infantile agranulocytosis
Children born with this condition lack neutrophils (a type of white blood cell that is important in fighting infection). These children suffer frequent infections from bacteria which in the past led to death in three-quarters of cases before 3 years of age. This disease is also known as severe congenital neutropenia (SCN).

Genetic information
A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine), and typically these are printed abutting one another without gaps, as in the sequence AAAGTCTGAC. This coded sequence is sometimes referred to as genetic information.

Genetic Information Database
DATABASES devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

Genetic Information Databases
DATABASES devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

Genetic Information, Personal
The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.

Genetic inheritance
DNA that is passed from parents to children.

Genetic Intervention
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.

Genetic Interventions
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.

Genetic Linkage
The association in inheritance of two or more non-allelic genes due to their being located more or less closely on the same chromosome.

Genetic Load
The study of the genetic composition of populations and of the effects of factors such as selection, population size, mutation, migration, and genetic drift on the frequencies of various genotypes and phenotypes.

Genetic Marker
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.

Genetic Markers
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.

Genetic Material
Specific sequences of nucleotides along a molecule of DNA (or, in the case of some viruses, RNA) which represent the functional units of heredity. The majority of eukaryotic genes contain coding regions (codons) that are interrupted by non-coding regions (introns) and are therefore labeled split genes.

Genetic Materials
Specific sequences of nucleotides along a molecule of DNA (or, in the case of some viruses, RNA) which represent the functional units of heredity. The majority of eukaryotic genes contain coding regions (codons) that are interrupted by non-coding regions (introns) and are therefore labeled split genes.

Genetic meltdown
A genomic crisis due to an extraordinarily high rate of mutation, a phenomenon known to occur in viruses and perhaps in other organisms. For example, the antiviral agent Ribavirin acts by inducing genomic meltdown. The drug accelerates the already-high mutation rate of RNA viruses, creates a genomic crisis, and destroys the infectivity of the virus. There is a limit to how much variation a genome can tolerate without irretrievably degrading its genetic information. If a population of viruses is replicating at the brink, just a bit of extra pressure from a mutagen, such as ribavirin, can nudge it into the abyss of genetic meltdown, resulting in an inability for it to replicate and survive.

Genetic Model
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Genetic Models
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Genetic Non Disjunction
The failure of homologous chromosomes or chromatids to segregate during mitotic or meiotic cell division with the result that one daughter cell has two chromosomes or two chromatids and the other has none.

Genetic Non-Disjunction
The failure of homologous chromosomes or chromatids to segregate during mitotic or meiotic cell division with the result that one daughter cell has two chromosomes or two chromatids and the other has none.

Genetic Non-Disjunctions
The failure of homologous chromosomes or chromatids to segregate during mitotic or meiotic cell division with the result that one daughter cell has two chromosomes or two chromatids and the other has none.

Genetic Nondisjunction
The failure of homologous chromosomes or chromatids to segregate during mitotic or meiotic cell division with the result that one daughter cell has two chromosomes or two chromatids and the other has none.

Genetic Nondisjunctions
The failure of homologous chromosomes or chromatids to segregate during mitotic or meiotic cell division with the result that one daughter cell has two chromosomes or two chromatids and the other has none.

Genetic Predisposition
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.

Genetic Predisposition Testing
Searching a population or individuals for persons possessing certain genotypes or karyotypes that: (1) are already associated with disease or predispose to disease; (2) may lead to disease in their descendants; or (3) produce other variations not known to be associated with disease. Genetic screening may be directed toward identifying phenotypic expression of genetic traits. It includes prenatal genetic screening.

Genetic Predisposition to Disease
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.

Genetic Predispositions
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.

Genetic Privacy
The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.

Genetic Recombination
Production of new arrangements of genes by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, crossing over, gene conversion, transformation, conjugation, transduction, F-duction, or mixed infection of viruses.

Genetic Recombinations
Production of new arrangements of genes by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, crossing over, gene conversion, transformation, conjugation, transduction, F-duction, or mixed infection of viruses.

Genetic Research
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)

Genetic screening
Any test used to find genetic abnormalities.

Genetic Screening
Searching a population or individuals for persons possessing certain genotypes or karyotypes that: (1) are already associated with disease or predispose to disease; (2) may lead to disease in their descendants; or (3) produce other variations not known to be associated with disease. Genetic screening may be directed toward identifying phenotypic expression of genetic traits. It includes prenatal genetic screening.

Genetic Screenings
Searching a population or individuals for persons possessing certain genotypes or karyotypes that: (1) are already associated with disease or predispose to disease; (2) may lead to disease in their descendants; or (3) produce other variations not known to be associated with disease. Genetic screening may be directed toward identifying phenotypic expression of genetic traits. It includes prenatal genetic screening.

Genetic Sequence Database
DATABASES devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

Genetic Sequence Databases
DATABASES devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

Genetic Services
Advising families of the risks involved pertaining to birth defects, in order that they may make an informed decision on current or future pregnancies.

Genetic Skin Disease
Diseases of the skin with a genetic component, usually the result of various inborn errors of metabolism.

Genetic Skin Diseases
Diseases of the skin with a genetic component, usually the result of various inborn errors of metabolism.

Genetic Suppression
The restoration of the wild-type phenotype in an organism possessing a mutationally altered genotype. The effects of the mutation may be suppressed by a second ""suppressor"" mutation on a different gene, by a suppressor mutation on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or by the presence of a cytoplasmic suppressor due to a change in non-chromosomal DNA.

Genetic Suppressions
The restoration of the wild-type phenotype in an organism possessing a mutationally altered genotype. The effects of the mutation may be suppressed by a second ""suppressor"" mutation on a different gene, by a suppressor mutation on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or by the presence of a cytoplasmic suppressor due to a change in non-chromosomal DNA.

Genetic Susceptibilities
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.

Genetic Susceptibility
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.

Genetic Technic
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.

Genetic Technics
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.

Genetic Technique
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.

Genetic Techniques
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.

Genetic testing
Tests done for clinical genetic purposes. Genetic tests may be done for diverse purposes pertaining to clinical genetics, including the diagnosis of genetic disease in children and adults; the identification of future disease risks; the prediction of drug responses; and the detection of risks of disease to future children.

Genetic Toxicity Test
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.

Genetic Toxicity Tests
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.

Genetic Transduction
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium in which the DNA originates to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses.

Genetic Transductions
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium in which the DNA originates to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses.

Genetic transformation
A process by which the genetic material carried by an individual cell is altered by the incorporation of foreign (exogenous) DNA into its genome.

Genetic Translation
Formation of peptides on ribosomes, directed by messenger RNA.

Genetic Translations
Formation of peptides on ribosomes, directed by messenger RNA.

Genetic transport defect
Within the body, many molecules are able to pass across the membranes that surround cells. These molecules can accomplish this feat due to specific transport systems. These systems include special receptors on the membrane of the cell and special carrier proteins. The receptor recognizes the molecule and receives it on the cell membrane. Then the molecule hitches a ride through the cell membrane on the back of a carrier protein.

Genetic transposition
The ability of genes to change position on chromosomes, a process in which a transposable element is removed from one site and inserted into a second site in the DNA. Genetic transposition was the first type of genetic instability to be discovered.

Genetic Variation
The phenotypic differences among individuals in a population.

Genetic Vector
Any DNA molecule capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from plasmids, bacteriophages or viruses. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain genetic markers to facilitate their selective recognition.

Genetic Vectors
Any DNA molecule capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from plasmids, bacteriophages or viruses. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain genetic markers to facilitate their selective recognition.

Genetic, Biochemical
A branch of genetics which deals with the chemical structure of the genes and with the mechanisms by which the genes control and regulate the structure and synthesis of proteins.

Genetic, Microbial
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.

Genetic, Molecular
A branch of genetics which deals with the chemical structure of the genes and with the mechanisms by which the genes control and regulate the structure and synthesis of proteins.

Genetically Modified Animal
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.

Genetically Modified Animals
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.

Genetically Modified Food
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).

Genetically Modified Foods
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).

Genetically Modified Organism
Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.

Genetically Modified Organisms
Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.

Genetically Modified Plants
PLANTS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their progeny.

Genetics
The scientific study of heredity. Genetics pertains to humans and all other organisms. So, for example, there is human genetics, mouse genetics, fruitfly genetics, etc.

Genetics, Behavioral
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.

Genetics, Biochemical
A branch of genetics which deals with the chemical structure of the genes and with the mechanisms by which the genes control and regulate the structure and synthesis of proteins.

Genetics, Human
A field of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.

Genetics, Medical
A field of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.

Genetics, Microbial
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.

Genetics, Molecular
A branch of genetics which deals with the chemical structure of the genes and with the mechanisms by which the genes control and regulate the structure and synthesis of proteins.

Genetics, Population
The study of the genetic composition of populations and of the effects of factors such as selection, population size, mutation, migration, and genetic drift on the frequencies of various genotypes and phenotypes.

Genetics, transplantation
The field of biology and medicine relating to the genes that govern the acceptance or rejection of a transplant.

Geneve doctors
All doctors near Geneve, Switzerland. Doctors who can assist a patient in Geneve.



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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Flow of the stomach's contents back up into the esophagus, which happens when the muscle between the esophagus and the stomach (the lower esophageal sphincter) is weak or relaxes when it shouldn't. May cause esophagitis. Also called esophageal reflux or reflux esophagitis.

Gastrointestinal tract (GIT)
The large, muscular tube that extends from the mouth to the anus, where the movement of muscles and release of hormones and enzymes digest food. Also called the alimentary canal or digestive tract.

Gastroparesis
Nerve or muscle damage in the stomach. Causes slow digestion and emptying, vomiting, nausea, or bloating. Also called delayed gastric emptying.

Gastrostomy
An artificial opening from the stomach to a hole (stoma) in the abdomen where a feeding tube is inserted. See also enteral nutrition.

Gated blood pool scan
A nuclear scan to see how the heart wall moves and how much blood is expelled with each heart beat, just after the patient has walked on a treadmill or ridden on a stationary bike.

Genes

Genetic counseling
Providing information, advice, and testing to prospective parents at risk of having a child with a birth defect or genetic disorder.

GERD
Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Flow of the stomach's contents back up into the esophagus, which happens when the muscle between the esophagus and the stomach (the lower esophageal sphincter) is weak or relaxes when it shouldn't. May cause esophagitis. Also called esophageal reflux or reflux esophagitis.

Geriatric
Of or relating to the aged or to characteristics of the aging process.

Geriatricacetylcholine
A chemical in the brain that acts as a neurotransmitter.

Gerontological research
The study and research that deals with diseases and problems specific to old people.

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