GLYCOPROTEINS
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  Glycoproteins



Glycoproteins

   Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.

RELATED TERMS
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Amyloid
A proteinaceous fibrillar material deposited at extracellular sites in various tissues and organs. The pattern of deposition varies according to whether it is the Primary or Secondary (to a chronic inflammatory disease) form.

Glycoproteins
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Glycan, Phosphatidylinositol
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They act to anchor proteins or polysaccharides to cell membranes.

Glycanhydrolase, N-Acetylmuramide
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.

Glycated Hemoglobins
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.

Glycation End Products, Advanced
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of glucose and proteins in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus.

Glycemia
A medical term that indicates the level of glucose in the blood.

Glycemic Index
A measure of the rate at which a carbohydrate will enter the bloodstream as glucose. Some simple sugars, such as table sugar, will enter the bloodstream slower than many complex carbohydrates, such as bread, rice, and potatoes. The faster a carbohydrate enters the bloodstream, the higher its glycemic index. The higher the glycemic index of a carbohydrate, the greater the increase in insulin levels. Fruits and vegetables tend to have a low glycemic index, whereas breads, pasta, grains, and starches tend to have a high glycemic index.

Glycemic Response
The effect of different foods on blood glucose (sugar) levels over a period of time. Researchers have discovered that some kinds of foods may raise blood glucose levels more quickly than other foods containing the same amount of carbohydrates.

Glyceraldehyde 3 Phosphate
An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.

Glyceraldehyde 3 Phosphate Dehydrogenase, NADP-Dependent, Phosphorylating
A phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the CHLOROPLASTS of higher plants. This enzyme exists as an A2B2 heterotetramer and transfers hydrogen to NADP. It plays an important role in catalyzing the reductive step of the Calvin cycle.

Glyceraldehyde 3 Phosphate-Dehydrogenase (NADP+)(Phosphorylating)
A phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the CHLOROPLASTS of higher plants. This enzyme exists as an A2B2 heterotetramer and transfers hydrogen to NADP. It plays an important role in catalyzing the reductive step of the Calvin cycle.

Glyceraldehyde 3 Phosphate-Dehydrogenase, NADP, Phosphorylating
A phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the CHLOROPLASTS of higher plants. This enzyme exists as an A2B2 heterotetramer and transfers hydrogen to NADP. It plays an important role in catalyzing the reductive step of the Calvin cycle.

Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate
An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.

Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (NADP+)
An NADP-dependent, non-phosphorylating aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phosphoglycerate. It is found in the cytosol of a wide variety of organisms.

Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, NADP
An NADP-dependent, non-phosphorylating aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phosphoglycerate. It is found in the cytosol of a wide variety of organisms.

Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate-Dehydrogenase, NADP-Dependent
An NADP-dependent, non-phosphorylating aldehyde dehydrogenase that catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phosphoglycerate. It is found in the cytosol of a wide variety of organisms.

Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.

Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate-Dehydrogenase (NAD+) (Phosphorylating)
An NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the cytosol of eucaryotes. It catalyses the dehydrogenation and phosphorylation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate, which is an important step in the GLYCOLYSIS pathway.

Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate-Dehydrogenase (Phosphorylating)
An NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the cytosol of eucaryotes. It catalyses the dehydrogenation and phosphorylation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate, which is an important step in the GLYCOLYSIS pathway.

Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate-Dehydrogenases (Phosphorylating)
An NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the cytosol of eucaryotes. It catalyses the dehydrogenation and phosphorylation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate, which is an important step in the GLYCOLYSIS pathway.

Glyceraldehydephosphate Dehydrogenase
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.

Glycerate (3-2)-Phosphomutase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 2-phospho-D-glycerate to 3-phospho-D-glycerate. EC 5.4.2.1.

Glycerate 2,3-Bisphosphate
A highly anionic organic phosphate which is present in human red blood cells at about the same molar ratio as hemoglobin. It binds to deoxyhemoglobin but not the oxygenated form, therefore diminishing the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. This is essential in enabling hemoglobin to unload oxygen in tissue capillaries. It is also an intermediate in the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate by phosphoglycerate mutase (EC 5.4.2.1). (From Stryer Biochemistry, 4th ed, p160; Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p508)

Glycerin
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.

Glycerine
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.

Glycerokinase
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.

Glycerol
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.

Glycerol 3 Phosphate O Acyltransferase
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.

Glycerol 3 Phosphocholine
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES (lecithins), in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.

Glycerol 3-Phosphocholine
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES (lecithins), in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.

Glycerol alpha Monochlorohydrin
A chlorinated propanediol compound that has shown anti-fertility activity in males and has been used as a chemosterilant in rodents.

Glycerol alpha-Monochlorohydrin
A chlorinated propanediol compound that has shown anti-fertility activity in males and has been used as a chemosterilant in rodents.

Glycerol Ethers
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.

Glycerol Guaiacolate
An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.

Glycerol Kinase
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.

Glycerol Monoester Hydrolases
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC 3.1.1.23.

Glycerol Phosphate Ethers
Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.

Glycerol Phosphoglycerides
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.

Glycerol Teichoic Acid
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.

Glycerol Teichoic Acids
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.

Glycerol Trioleate
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.

Glycerol, Phosphatidyl
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.

Glycerol, Trioleyl
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.

Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.

Glycerolphosphate Acyltransferase
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.

Glycerolphosphates
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.

Glycerophosphate Acyltransferase
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.

Glycerophosphate Ethers
Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.

Glycerophosphate Transstearylase, Stearyl-CoA
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.

Glycerophosphate, Calcium
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.

Glycerophosphate, Choline
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES (lecithins), in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.

Glycerophosphates
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.

Glycerophospholipids
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.

Glycerophospholipids, Choline
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.

Glycerophosphorylcholine
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES (lecithins), in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.

Glyceryl Ether, Guaiacol
An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.

Glyceryl Ethers
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.

Glyceryl Ethers, Alkyl
Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.

Glyceryl Trinitrate
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium.

Glycerylaminophenaquine
An anthranilic acid derivative with analgesic properties used for the relief of all types of pain.

Glycerylphosphorylcholine
A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES (lecithins), in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.

Glycine
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine 1.5 per cent in plastic container
Glycine 1.5 per cent in plastic container is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): glycine.

Glycine Agents
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.

Glycine Betaine
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)

Glycine Carbonate (1:1), Monosodium Salt
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine Carbonate (2:1), Monolithium Salt
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine Carbonate (2:1), Monopotassium Salt
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine Carbonate (2:1), Monosodium Salt
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine Chenodeoxycholate
A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.

Glycine Cholate
A bile salt that is usually used as the sodium salt. It is the glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.

Glycine Deoxycholate
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.

Glycine Hydrochloride
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine Hydrochloride (2:1)
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine Hydroxymethyltransferase
A pyridoxal phosphate enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of glycine and 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate to form serine. It also catalyzes the reaction of glycine with acetaldehyde to form L-threonine. EC 2.1.2.1.

Glycine max
An annual legume or the seeds of this plant.

Glycine Phosphate
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine Phosphate (1:1)
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine Receptor
Cell surface receptors that bind glycine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the central nervous system have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.

Glycine Receptors
Cell surface receptors that bind glycine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the central nervous system have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.

Glycine Specific tRNA
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.

Glycine Sulfate (3:1)
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine tRNA Ligase
An enzyme that activates glycine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.14.

Glycine, Calcium Salt
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine, Calcium Salt (2:1)
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine, Cobalt Salt
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine, Copper Salt
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine, Monoammonium Salt
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine, Monopotasssium Salt
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine, Monosodium Salt
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine, Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Glycine-Specific tRNA
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.

Glycine-tRNA Ligase
An enzyme that activates glycine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.14.

Glycinergic Agent
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.

Glycinergic Agents
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.

Glycinonitrile
Cyanomethylamine.

Glyciram
3-beta-Hydroxy-11-oxoolean-12-en-30-oic acid. A product from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Leguminosae with some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.

Glyclazide
An oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion.

Glycocalix
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)

Glycocalyx
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)

Glycochenodeoxycholate
A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.

Glycochenodeoxycholic Acid
A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.

Glycocholate
A bile salt that is usually used as the sodium salt. It is the glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.

Glycocholic Acid
A bile salt that is usually used as the sodium salt. It is the glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.

Glycoconjugates
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)

Glycoconnectin
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.

Glycodeoxycholate
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.

Glycodeoxycholic Acid
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.

Glycogen
The storage form of glucose. Only glycogen from the liver can be used to restore blood glucose levels.

Glycogen (Starch) Synthase
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.

Glycogen Branching Enzyme
In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC 2.4.1.18.

Glycogen Debranching Enzyme
1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.

Glycogen Debranching Enzyme Deficiency
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to deficient expression of amylo-1,6-glucosidase (one part of the glycogen debranching enzyme system). The clinical course of the disease is similar to that of glycogen storage disease type I, but milder. Massive hepatomegaly, which is present in young children, diminishes and occasionally disappears with age. Levels of glycogen with short outer branches are elevated in muscle, liver, and erythrocytes. Six subgroups have been identified, with subgroups Type IIIa and Type IIIb being the most prevalent.

Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System
1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.

Glycogen Phosphorylase
An enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in animals by releasing glucose-1-phosphate from the terminal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond. This enzyme exists in two forms: an active phosphorylated form ( PHOSPHORYLASE A) and an inactive un-phosphorylated form (PHOSPHORYLASE B). Both a and b forms of phosphorylase exist as homodimers. In mammals, the major isozymes of glycogen phosphorylase are found in muscle, liver and brain tissue.

Glycogen Phosphorylase a, Brain Form
An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in brain tissue.

Glycogen Phosphorylase a, Liver Form
An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in liver tissue. Mutation of the gene coding this enzyme on chromosome 14 is the cause of GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE VI.

Glycogen Phosphorylase a, Muscle Form
An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in muscle. Mutation of the gene coding this enzyme is the cause of McArdle disease (GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE V).

Glycogen Phosphorylase b, Brain Form
An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in brain tissue.

Glycogen Phosphorylase b, Liver Form
An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in liver tissue. Mutation of the gene coding this enzyme on chromosome 14 is the cause of GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE VI.

Glycogen Phosphorylase b, Muscle Form
An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in muscle. Mutation of the gene coding this enzyme is the cause of McArdle disease (GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE V).

Glycogen Phosphorylase Kinase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and phosphorylase b to ADP and phosphorylase a. EC 2.7.1.38.

Glycogen Phosphorylase Phosphatase
An enzyme that deactivates glycogen phosphorylase a by releasing inorganic phosphate and phosphorylase b, the inactive form. EC 3.1.3.17.

Glycogen Phosphorylase, Brain Form
An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in brain tissue.

Glycogen Phosphorylase, Liver Form
An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in liver tissue. Mutation of the gene coding this enzyme on chromosome 14 is the cause of GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE VI.

Glycogen Phosphorylase, Muscle Form
An isoenzyme of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE that catalyzes the degradation of GLYCOGEN in muscle. Mutation of the gene coding this enzyme is the cause of McArdle disease (GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE V).

Glycogen Storage Disease
A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.

Glycogen Storage Disease Type I
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.

Glycogen Storage Disease Type II
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE DEFICIENCY. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes,Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)

Glycogen Storage Disease Type II, Adult
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE DEFICIENCY. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes,Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)

Glycogen Storage Disease Type II, Infantile
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE DEFICIENCY. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes,Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)

Glycogen Storage Disease Type II, Juvenile
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE DEFICIENCY. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes,Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)

Glycogen Storage Disease Type III
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to deficient expression of amylo-1,6-glucosidase (one part of the glycogen debranching enzyme system). The clinical course of the disease is similar to that of glycogen storage disease type I, but milder. Massive hepatomegaly, which is present in young children, diminishes and occasionally disappears with age. Levels of glycogen with short outer branches are elevated in muscle, liver, and erythrocytes. Six subgroups have been identified, with subgroups Type IIIa and Type IIIb being the most prevalent.

Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to a deficiency in expression of branching enzyme (alpha-1,4-glucan-6-alpha-glucosyltransferase), resulting in an accumulation of abnormal glycogen with long outer branches. Clinical features are muscle hypotonia and cirrhosis. Death from liver disease usually occurs before age 2.

Glycogen Storage Disease Type V
Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise.

Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI
A hepatic GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE in which there is an apparent deficiency of hepatic phosphorylase (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE, LIVER FORM) activity.

Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII
An autosomal recessive glycogen storage disease in which there is deficient expression of 6-phosphofructose 1-kinase in muscle (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE) resulting in abnormal deposition of glycogen in muscle tissue. These patients have severe congenital muscular dystrophy and are exercise intolerant.

Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII
An x-linked recessive hepatic glycogen storage disease resulting from lack of expression of phosphorylase-b-kinase activity. Symptoms are relatively mild; hepatomegaly, increased liver glycogen, and decreased leukocyte phosphorylase are present. Liver shrinkage occurs in response to glucagon.

Glycogen storage diseases
A group of birth defects that change the way the liver breaks down glycogen. See also Glycogen.

Glycogen Storage Diseases
A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.

Glycogen Synthase
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.

Glycogen Synthase D Phosphatase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC 3.1.3.42.

Glycogen Synthase I
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.

Glycogen Synthase Kinases
A calmodulin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on calcium. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including vimentin, synapsin, glycogen synthase, myosin light chains, and the microtubule-associated proteins. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277) EC 2.7.10.-

Glycogen Synthetase
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of D-glucose from UDPglucose into 1,4-alpha-D-glucosyl chains. EC 2.4.1.11.

Glycogen Synthetase Phosphatase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC 3.1.3.42.

Glycogen, Hepatic
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Glycogen, Liver
Glycogen stored in the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Glycogen-Synthase-D Phosphatase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase D to active dephosphoglycogen synthase I. EC 3.1.3.42.

Glycogenesis (or glucogenesis)
The process by which glycogen is formed from glucose.

Glycogenoses
A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.

Glycogenosis
A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.

Glycogenosis 1
An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.

Glycogenosis 2
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE DEFICIENCY. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes,Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)

Glycogenosis 3
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to deficient expression of amylo-1,6-glucosidase (one part of the glycogen debranching enzyme system). The clinical course of the disease is similar to that of glycogen storage disease type I, but milder. Massive hepatomegaly, which is present in young children, diminishes and occasionally disappears with age. Levels of glycogen with short outer branches are elevated in muscle, liver, and erythrocytes. Six subgroups have been identified, with subgroups Type IIIa and Type IIIb being the most prevalent.

Glycogenosis 4
An autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to a deficiency in expression of branching enzyme (alpha-1,4-glucan-6-alpha-glucosyltransferase), resulting in an accumulation of abnormal glycogen with long outer branches. Clinical features are muscle hypotonia and cirrhosis. Death from liver disease usually occurs before age 2.

Glycogenosis 5
Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise.

Glycogenosis 5s
Glycogenosis due to muscle phosphorylase deficiency. Characterized by painful cramps following sustained exercise.

Glycogenosis 6
A hepatic GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE in which there is an apparent deficiency of hepatic phosphorylase (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE, LIVER FORM) activity.

Glycogenosis 7
An autosomal recessive glycogen storage disease in which there is deficient expression of 6-phosphofructose 1-kinase in muscle (PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE) resulting in abnormal deposition of glycogen in muscle tissue. These patients have severe congenital muscular dystrophy and are exercise intolerant.

Glycogenosis 8
An x-linked recessive hepatic glycogen storage disease resulting from lack of expression of phosphorylase-b-kinase activity. Symptoms are relatively mild; hepatomegaly, increased liver glycogen, and decreased leukocyte phosphorylase are present. Liver shrinkage occurs in response to glucagon.

Glycogenosis Type II
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE DEFICIENCY. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes,Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)

Glycogenosis Type IIs
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE DEFICIENCY. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes,Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)

Glycogenosis Type VI
A hepatic GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE in which there is an apparent deficiency of hepatic phosphorylase (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE, LIVER FORM) activity.

Glycogenosis VI
A hepatic GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE in which there is an apparent deficiency of hepatic phosphorylase (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE, LIVER FORM) activity.

Glycogenosis, Generalized
An autosomal recessively inherited glycogen storage disease caused by GLUCAN 1,4-ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE DEFICIENCY. Large amounts of GLYCOGEN accumulate in the LYSOSOMES of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL); HEART; LIVER; SPINAL CORD; and BRAIN. Three forms have been described: infantile, childhood, and adult. The infantile form is fatal in infancy and presents with hypotonia and a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHY, HYPERTROPHIC). The childhood form usually presents in the second year of life with proximal weakness and respiratory symptoms. The adult form consists of a slowly progressive proximal myopathy. (From Muscle Nerve 1995;3:S61-9; Menkes,Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp73-4)

Glycohemoglobin A
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.

Glycohydrolase, NAD+
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of NAD to nicotinamide and ADPribose. EC 3.2.2.5.

Glycohydrolases, N-Acylneuraminate
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.18.

Glycoinositol Phospholipid Membrane Anchor
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They act to anchor proteins or polysaccharides to cell membranes.

Glycol 2000, Polyethylene
Additional polymers of ethylene oxide and water and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid, depending on the molecular weight, indicated by a number following the name. Used as surfactants in industry, including foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutics; in biomedicine, as dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, tablet excipients. Some specific groups are lauromagrogols, nonoxynols, octoxynols and poloxamers.

Glycol 300, Polyethylene
Additional polymers of ethylene oxide and water and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid, depending on the molecular weight, indicated by a number following the name. Used as surfactants in industry, including foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutics; in biomedicine, as dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, tablet excipients. Some specific groups are lauromagrogols, nonoxynols, octoxynols and poloxamers.

Glycol 400, Polyethylene
Additional polymers of ethylene oxide and water and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid, depending on the molecular weight, indicated by a number following the name. Used as surfactants in industry, including foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutics; in biomedicine, as dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, tablet excipients. Some specific groups are lauromagrogols, nonoxynols, octoxynols and poloxamers.

Glycol 4000, Polyethylene
Additional polymers of ethylene oxide and water and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid, depending on the molecular weight, indicated by a number following the name. Used as surfactants in industry, including foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutics; in biomedicine, as dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, tablet excipients. Some specific groups are lauromagrogols, nonoxynols, octoxynols and poloxamers.

Glycol 6000, Polyethylene
Additional polymers of ethylene oxide and water and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid, depending on the molecular weight, indicated by a number following the name. Used as surfactants in industry, including foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutics; in biomedicine, as dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, tablet excipients. Some specific groups are lauromagrogols, nonoxynols, octoxynols and poloxamers.

Glycol Methacrylate Gel
A biocompatible, hydrophilic, inert gel that is permeable to tissue fluids. It is used as an embedding medium for microscopy, as a coating for implants and prostheses, for contact lenses, as microspheres in adsorption research, etc.

Glycol, Ethylene
A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.

Glycol, Monoethylene
A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.

Glycol, Polyethylene
Additional polymers of ethylene oxide and water and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid, depending on the molecular weight, indicated by a number following the name. Used as surfactants in industry, including foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutics; in biomedicine, as dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, tablet excipients. Some specific groups are lauromagrogols, nonoxynols, octoxynols and poloxamers.

Glycol, Propylene
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.

Glycolaldehydetransferase
An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes the conversion of sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to D-ribose 5-phosphate and D-xylulose 5-phosphate in the pentosephosphate pathway. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 2.2.1.1.

Glycolax
Glycolax is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): polyethylene glycol 3350.

Glycolic Lactic Acid Polyester
A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.

Glycolic-Lactic Acid Polyester
A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.

Glycols
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.

Glycols, Butylene
4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.

Glycols, Ethylene
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.

Glycols, Polyethylene
Additional polymers of ethylene oxide and water and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid, depending on the molecular weight, indicated by a number following the name. Used as surfactants in industry, including foods, cosmetics and pharmaceutics; in biomedicine, as dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, tablet excipients. Some specific groups are lauromagrogols, nonoxynols, octoxynols and poloxamers.

Glycols, Propylene
Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.

Glycolyses
The pathway by which GLUCOSE is catabolized into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID with the generation of ATP.

Glycolysis
The pathway by which GLUCOSE is catabolized into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID with the generation of ATP.

Glycopeptide Antibiotics
Antibiotics whose structure contains one or more cyclic peptides to which are attached to one or more deoxy sugars in glycosidic linkage. They are generally effective against gram-positive bacteria and act by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls.

Glycopeptides
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.

Glycopeptides, Antifreeze
Proteins that bind to ice and modify the growth of ice crystals. They perform a cryoprotective role in a variety of organisms.

Glycophorin
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.

Glycophorin A
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.

Glycophorin A(M)
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.

Glycophorin B
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.

Glycophorin C
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.

Glycophorin E
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.

Glycophorin HA
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.

Glycoprep
Glycoprep is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): polyethylene glycol 3350; potassium chloride; sodium bicarbonate; sodium chloride; sodium sulfate, anhydrous.

Glycoprotein
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.

Glycoprotein 330
A LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN found in the neuroepithelium and in proximal tubular cells of the kidney. It is considered a multiligand receptor in that it binds to a variety of ligands with relatively high affinity and may function in mediating the uptake and lysosomal degradation of macromolecules such as: LIPOPROTEINS, ENDOPEPTIDASES and PROTEASE INHIBITORS.

Glycoprotein beta Galactosyltransferase
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-galactose to a specific glycoprotein receptor, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucosyl-glycopeptide, during glycopeptide synthesis. EC 2.4.1.38.

Glycoprotein beta-Galactosyltransferase
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-galactose to a specific glycoprotein receptor, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucosyl-glycopeptide, during glycopeptide synthesis. EC 2.4.1.38.

Glycoprotein GP 2
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.

Glycoprotein GP-2
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.

Glycoprotein GP330, Renal
A LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN found in the neuroepithelium and in proximal tubular cells of the kidney. It is considered a multiligand receptor in that it binds to a variety of ligands with relatively high affinity and may function in mediating the uptake and lysosomal degradation of macromolecules such as: LIPOPROTEINS, ENDOPEPTIDASES and PROTEASE INHIBITORS.

Glycoprotein gp68
Glycoprotein found in alpha(1)-globulin region in human serum. It inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteinases in vivo and has cytotoxic killer-cell activity in vitro. The protein also has a role as an acute-phase protein and is active in the control of immunologic and inflammatory processes, and as a tumor marker. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.

Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit
A non-covalently bound subunit of the glycoprotein hormones TSH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LH; and HCG which originates in the anterior pituitary gland and placenta. This subunit is virtually identical in structure and indistinguishable by radioimmunoassay in all of the above glycoproteins. It is present in both men and women, but is elevated in postmenopausal women and in patients with hypothyroidism, uremia and malignant tumors. The alpha subunit may be involved directly in recognition of certain receptors.

Glycoprotein Ib
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.

Glycoprotein Ib alpha
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.

Glycoprotein Ib beta
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.

Glycoprotein Ib IX Complex
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.

Glycoprotein Ib-IX Complex
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.

Glycoprotein IIIb, Platelet
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on monocytes, endothelial cells, platelets, mammary epithelial cells, and a variety of cultured cell lines. They play major roles in adhesion phenomena, signal transduction, and hematopathology. CD36 is also the receptor for thrombospondin and malaria-infected erythrocytes.

Glycoprotein IV, Platelet
Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on monocytes, endothelial cells, platelets, mammary epithelial cells, and a variety of cultured cell lines. They play major roles in adhesion phenomena, signal transduction, and hematopathology. CD36 is also the receptor for thrombospondin and malaria-infected erythrocytes.

Glycoprotein Receptor, Mo1
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b antigen and the beta subunit of the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18). The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.

Glycoprotein Sialyltransferase
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.

Glycoprotein Sialyltransferases
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.

Glycoprotein Syndrome, Carbohydrate Deficient
An inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism manifesting as a genetic multisystem disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. A predominant feature is severe central and peripheral nervous system involvement resulting in psychomotor retardation, seizures, cerebellar ataxia, and other symptoms which include growth retardation, retinitis pigmentosa, hypothyroidism, and fatty liver. The notable biochemical feature is the deficiency of a large number of blood glycoproteins and decreased activities of various blood coagulation factors.

Glycoprotein Syndrome, Carbohydrate-Deficient
An inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism manifesting as a genetic multisystem disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. A predominant feature is severe central and peripheral nervous system involvement resulting in psychomotor retardation, seizures, cerebellar ataxia, and other symptoms which include growth retardation, retinitis pigmentosa, hypothyroidism, and fatty liver. The notable biochemical feature is the deficiency of a large number of blood glycoproteins and decreased activities of various blood coagulation factors.

Glycoprotein Syndromes, Carbohydrate-Deficient
An inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism manifesting as a genetic multisystem disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. A predominant feature is severe central and peripheral nervous system involvement resulting in psychomotor retardation, seizures, cerebellar ataxia, and other symptoms which include growth retardation, retinitis pigmentosa, hypothyroidism, and fatty liver. The notable biochemical feature is the deficiency of a large number of blood glycoproteins and decreased activities of various blood coagulation factors.

Glycoprotein, Cell Surface
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.

Glycoprotein, HANA
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.

Glycoprotein, Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase
Glycoprotein from Sendai, para-influenza, Newcastle Disease, and other viruses that participates in binding the virus to cell-surface receptors. The HN protein possesses both hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activity.

Glycoprotein, Membrane
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.

Glycoprotein, Mo1
An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b antigen and the beta subunit of the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18). The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.

Glycoprotein, Myelin-Associated
A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It has a structure that is similar to members of the Ig superfamily that participate in cell adhesion. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 5th ed, p132)

Glycoprotein, Opsonic
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.

Glycoprotein, P0
A protein that accounts for more than half of the peripheral nervous system myelin protein. The extracellular domain of this protein is believed to engage in adhesive interactions and thus hold the myelin membrane compact. It can behave as a homophilic adhesion molecule through interactions with its extracellular domains. (From J Cell Biol 1994;126(4):1089-97)

Glycoprotein, p150,95
A major adhesion-associated heterodimer molecule expressed by human monocytes, granulocytes, NK cells, and some lymphocytes. The alpha subunit is the CD11c antigen (also called Leu-M5), a surface antigen expressed on some myeloid cells. The beta subunit is the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18). The complement 4-binding protein has been shown to play an important role in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.

Glycoprotein, Surface
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.

Glycoprotein, Trophoblast-Specific beta-1
A glycoprotein with the electrophoretic mobility of a beta-1 globulin. It is produced by the placental trophoblast and secreted into the maternal bloodstream during pregnancy. It can be detected 18 days after ovulation and its concentration in plasma rises steadily until, at the end of gestation, it reaches 200 mg/ml. It has been proposed as a measure of placental function for fertility control and is a candidate for an early pregnancy test.

Glycoprotein, Viral Fusion
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.

Glycoproteins, Acute-Phase
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.

Glycoproteins, Antifreeze
Proteins that bind to ice and modify the growth of ice crystals. They perform a cryoprotective role in a variety of organisms.

Glycoproteins, Cell Surface
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.

Glycoproteins, Desialylated
Endogenous glycoproteins from which sialic acid has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to their cell surface receptor which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive endocytosis they are delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with hepatic cirrhosis or hepatitis.

Glycoproteins, env
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.

Glycoproteins, Membrane
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.

Glycoproteins, Platelet
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.

Glycoproteins, Platelet Membrane
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.

Glycoproteins, Pleural
A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It has a structure that is similar to members of the Ig superfamily that participate in cell adhesion. (From Siegel et al., Basic Neurochemistry, 5th ed, p132)

Glycoproteins, Surface
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.

Glycoproteins, Viral Fusion
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.

Glycopyrrolate
Glycopyrrolate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): glycopyrrolate.

Glycopyrronium Bromide
A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.

Glycort
Glycort is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): hydrocortisone.

Glycosaminoglycans
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.

Glycoside Antibiotics
Antibiotics whose structure contains amino sugars attached to an aminocyclitol ring (hexose nucleus) by glycosidic bonds. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are derived from various species of Streptomyces and Micromonospora or are produced synthetically. They act by inhibiting protein synthesis.

Glycoside Transferases
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.

Glycosides, Cardiac
Substances obtained from species of Digitalis, Strophanthus, and other plants that contain specific steroid glycosides or their semisynthetic derivatives and used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+)-exchanging ATPase and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.

Glycosides, Digitalis
Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.

Glycosome
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES, GLYOXYSOMES, and glycosomes.

Glycosomes
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES, GLYOXYSOMES, and glycosomes.

Glycosphingolipids, Acidic
A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing large polar heads made up of several sugar units. One or more of their terminal sugar units are bound to a negatively charged molecule at pH 7. Members of this class include: GANGLIOSIDES, uronoglycosphingolipids, SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS, phosphoglycosphingolipids, and phosphonoglycosphingolipids.

Glycosphingolipids, Neutral
A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing one or more sugars within their head group connected directly to a ceramide moiety. They consist of monoglycosyl-, and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides.

Glycosuria
The presence of glucose in the urine, especially the excretion of an abnormally large amount of sugar (glucose) in the urine. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Glycosuria, Glucosuria
Having glucose (sugar) in the urine.

Glycosuria, Renal
Glycosuria occurring when there is only the normal amount of sugar in the blood, due to inherited inability of the renal tubules to reabsorb glucose completely. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Glycosyl Ceramidase
The enzyme hydrolyzing glycosyl-N-acylsphingosine to a sugar and N-acylsphingosine. It also catalyzes the hydrolysis of phlorizin to phloretin and glucose. It is found in the intestinal brush border membrane often in conjunction with lactase. EC 3.2.1.62.

Glycosyl Phosphatidylinositol
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They act to anchor proteins or polysaccharides to cell membranes.

Glycosyl Phosphatidylinositol Membrane Protein Anchors
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They act to anchor proteins or polysaccharides to cell membranes.

Glycosyl-Phosphatidylinositol
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They act to anchor proteins or polysaccharides to cell membranes.

Glycosyl-Phosphatidylinositol Membrane Protein Anchors
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They act to anchor proteins or polysaccharides to cell membranes.

Glycosylasparaginase
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of N(4)-(beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl)-L-asparagine and water to N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylamine and L-aspartate. It acts only on asparagine oligosaccharides containing one amino acid, i.e. the asparagine has free alpha-amino and alpha-carboxyl groups. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.5.1.26.

Glycosylated A1a-1 Hemoglobin
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.

Glycosylated A1b Hemoglobin
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin
A measure of the long-term control of blood glucose determined by the amount of carbohydrate-modified hemoglobin in the red blood cells. The higher the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin, the worse the control of blood glucose levels.

Glycosylated Hemoglobin A
Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.

Glycosylated Phosphatidylinositols
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They act to anchor proteins or polysaccharides to cell membranes.

Glycosylation
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.

Glycosylation End Products, Advanced
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of glucose and proteins in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus.

Glycosylation Site Binding Protein
An enzyme that catalyzes the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. It is a monomer identical to one of the subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE. (From Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.3.4.1.

Glycosylation Site-Binding Protein
An enzyme that catalyzes the rearrangement of disulfide bonds within proteins during folding. It is a monomer identical to one of the subunits of PROCOLLAGEN-PROLINE DIOXYGENASE. (From Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.3.4.1.

Glycosylation, Protein
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.

Glycosylations
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.

Glycosylations, Protein
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.

Glycosylceramidase
The enzyme hydrolyzing glycosyl-N-acylsphingosine to a sugar and N-acylsphingosine. It also catalyzes the hydrolysis of phlorizin to phloretin and glucose. It is found in the intestinal brush border membrane often in conjunction with lactase. EC 3.2.1.62.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They act to anchor proteins or polysaccharides to cell membranes.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchors
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They act to anchor proteins or polysaccharides to cell membranes.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Linkage
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They act to anchor proteins or polysaccharides to cell membranes.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositols
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They act to anchor proteins or polysaccharides to cell membranes.

Glycosyltransferase, Branching
In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC 2.4.1.18.

Glycosyltransferases
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.

Glycyl Glycine
The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.

Glycyl T RNA Synthetase
An enzyme that activates glycine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.14.

Glycyl tRNA Synthetase
An enzyme that activates glycine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.14.

Glycyl-Glycine
The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.

Glycyl-tRNA Synthetase
An enzyme that activates glycine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.14.

Glycylglycine
The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.

Glycylglycine Hydrochloride
The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.

Glycylglycine Monohydrochloride
The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.

Glycyram
3-beta-Hydroxy-11-oxoolean-12-en-30-oic acid. A product from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Leguminosae with some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.

Glycyrrhetic Acid
3-beta-Hydroxy-11-oxoolean-12-en-30-oic acid. A product from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Leguminosae with some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.

Glycyrrhetinic Acid
3-beta-Hydroxy-11-oxoolean-12-en-30-oic acid. A product from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Leguminosae with some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.

Glycyrrhiza
A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivatives, CARBENOXOLONE for example. Licorice toxicity is manifested as hypokalemia, low blood potassium. Licorice is used as flavoring and aromatic in pharmaceuticals and as candy.

Glycyrrhiza uralensis
A plant species of the family FABACEAE.

Glycyrrhizate, Zinc
A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to glycyrrhetic acid, which inhibits 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Glycyrrhizic Acid
A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to glycyrrhetic acid, which inhibits 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Glycyrrhizin
A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to glycyrrhetic acid, which inhibits 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Glycyrrhizinate, Dipotassium
A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to glycyrrhetic acid, which inhibits 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Glycyrrhizinic Acid
A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to glycyrrhetic acid, which inhibits 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.



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Glycoprotein Syndromes, Carbohydrate-Deficient
An inborn error of carbohydrate metabolism manifesting as a genetic multisystem disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. A predominant feature is severe central and peripheral nervous system involvement resulting in psychomotor retardation, seizures, cerebellar ataxia, and other symptoms which include growth retardation, retinitis pigmentosa, hypothyroidism, and fatty liver. The notable biochemical feature is the deficiency of a large number of blood glycoproteins and decreased activities of various blood coagulation factors.

Glycoproteins, env
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.

Glycoproteins, Desialylated
Endogenous glycoproteins from which sialic acid has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to their cell surface receptor which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive endocytosis they are delivered to lysosomes for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with hepatic cirrhosis or hepatitis.

Glycoproteins, Cell Surface
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.

Glycoproteins, Antifreeze
Proteins that bind to ice and modify the growth of ice crystals. They perform a cryoprotective role in a variety of organisms.

Glycoproteins

Glycoprotein, Viral Fusion
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.

Glycoprotein, Trophoblast-Specific beta-1
A glycoprotein with the electrophoretic mobility of a beta-1 globulin. It is produced by the placental trophoblast and secreted into the maternal bloodstream during pregnancy. It can be detected 18 days after ovulation and its concentration in plasma rises steadily until, at the end of gestation, it reaches 200 mg/ml. It has been proposed as a measure of placental function for fertility control and is a candidate for an early pregnancy test.

Glycoprotein, Surface
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.

Glycoproteins, Viral Fusion
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.

Glycoproteins, Surface
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.

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