GA-1 Germ Cell Antigen
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  GA-1 Germ Cell Antigen

GA-1 Germ Cell Antigen

   A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.


Fundamental structural unit of all life. The cell consists primarily of an outer plasma membrane, which separates it from the environment; the genetic material (DNA), which encodes heritable information for the maintainance of life; and the cytoplasm, a heterogeneous assemblage of ions, molecules, and fluid.

A substance which, when present in animal tissue, stimulates the production of antibodies

1. A unit of DNA that carries information for the biosynthesis of a specific product in the cell. 2. Ultimate unit by which inheritable characteristics are transmitted to succeeding generations in all living organisms. Genes are contained by, and arranged along the length of, the chromosome. The gene is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Each chromosome of each species has a definite number and arrangement of genes, which govern both the structure and metabolic functions of the cells and thus of the entire organism.

A structural unit within a eukaryotic nucleus that carries genes. A chromosome consists of a long, continuous strand of DNA and associated proteins.

Literally, genetically identical.

Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Human adult females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.

Pertaining to the cells and structures of the body, and their function.

Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.

Not having developed into a specialized cell or tissue type.

A sex gland, either an ovary or a testis.



GABA Antagonists
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID or GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID agonists.

GABA Aminotransferase
An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC

GABA Agonists
Drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).

GABA Agents
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on GABAergic systems. GABAergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.

GA(2) Ganglioside
A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.

GA-1 Germ Cell Antigen

GABA, Chlorophenyl
A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist at GABA-B receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-B). It is used in the treatment of spasticity, especially that due to spinal cord damage. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.

GABA Receptors
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.

GABA Modulators
Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which benzodiazepines act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which barbiturates act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. General anesthetics probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.

Gag Gene
DNA sequences that form the coding region for proteins associated with the viral core in retroviruses. gag is short for group-specific antigen.

Gag Antigens
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.

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