Fracture
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  Fracture



Fracture

   Broken, especially a broken bone.

RELATED TERMS
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Bone
Bone refers either to a hardened connective tissue or to one of the individual structures, or organs, into which it is formed, found in many animals. Bones support body structures, protect internal organs, and (in conjunction with muscles) facilitate movement; are also involved with cell formation, calcium metabolism, and mineral storage. The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeleton.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Fractal
Patterns (real or mathematical) which look similar at different scales, for example the network of airways in the lung which shows similar branching patterns at progressively higher magnifications. Natural fractals are self-similar across a finite range of scales while mathematical fractals are the same across an infinite range. Many natural, including biological, structures are fractal (or fractal-like). Fractals are related to ""chaos"" (see NONLINEAR DYNAMICS) in that chaotic processes can produce fractal structures in nature, and appropriate representations of chaotic processes usually reveal self-similarity over time.

Fractals
Patterns (real or mathematical) which look similar at different scales, for example the network of airways in the lung which shows similar branching patterns at progressively higher magnifications. Natural fractals are self-similar across a finite range of scales while mathematical fractals are the same across an infinite range. Many natural, including biological, structures are fractal (or fractal-like). Fractals are related to ""chaos"" (see NONLINEAR DYNAMICS) in that chaotic processes can produce fractal structures in nature, and appropriate representations of chaotic processes usually reveal self-similarity over time.

Fraction 1 Protein
A copper protein that catalyzes the formation of 2 moles of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate in the presence of carbon dioxide. It utilizes oxygen instead of carbon dioxide to form 2-phosphoglycollate and 3-phosphoglycerate. EC 4.1.1.39.

Fraction, ejection
The portion of blood that is pumped out of a filled ventricle as a result of a heartbeat. The heart does not eject all of the blood that is in the ventricle. Normally, about two-thirds of the blood is pumped out with each beat. That fraction is referred to the ejection fraction.

Fraction, Factor IX
Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).

Fraction, Subcellular
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)

Fraction, Ventricular Ejection
The amount of blood pumped out of the heart per beat not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time).

Fractional Urine
Urine that a person collects for a certain period of time during 24 hours; usually from breakfast to lunch, from lunch to supper, from supper to bedtime, and from bedtime to rising. Also called "block urine."

Fractionation
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, as by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Fractionation, Dose
Adminstration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.

Fractionation, Radiotherapy Dose
Adminstration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.

Fractionations
Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, as by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Fractionations, Dose
Adminstration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.

Fractionations, Radiotherapy Dose
Adminstration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.

Fractions, Subcellular
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)

Fractions, Ventricular Ejection
The amount of blood pumped out of the heart per beat not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time).

Fracture Fixation
The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.

Fracture Fixation, Internal
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.

Fracture Fixations
The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.

Fracture Fixations, Internal
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.

Fracture Healing
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.

Fracture Healings
The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.

Fracture Osteosyntheses
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.

Fracture Osteosynthesis
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.

Fracture, Abnormal Union
Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)

Fracture, basilar
A break in bone at the base of the skull. About a half of basilar fractures are caused by bicycle or motor vehicle accidents, about a quarter by falls, and a tenth by recreational activities, particularly by diving accidents. The balance are due to other causes. No matter what cause, the risk of death with a basilar fracture is appreciable. The term "basilar" means located at or near the base of a structure, especially the skull.

Fracture, Blow-Out
Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.

Fracture, Closed
Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.

Fracture, comminuted
A fracture in which bone is broken, splintered or crushed into a number of pieces.

Fracture, Comminuted
A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Fracture, compound
A fracture in which the bone is sticking through the skin. Also called an open fracture.

Fracture, Compound
Fractures in which there is an external wound communicating with the break of the bone.

Fracture, compression
A fracture caused by compression, the act of pressing together. Compression fractures of the vertebrae are especially common in the elderly.

Fracture, Crossunited
Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)

Fracture, Depressed Skull
A skull fracture characterized by inward depression of a fragment or section of cranial bone, often compressing the underlying dura mater and brain. Depressed cranial fractures which feature open skin wounds that communicate with skull fragments are referred to as compound depressed skull fractures.

Fracture, Fatigue
Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of muscle fatigue and bone failure, and occur in situations where bone remodeling predominates over repair. The classical stress fracture is the march fracture of military personnel, in which the metatarsal undergoes repeated stress during marching. The most common sites of stress fractures are the metatarsus, fibula, tibia, and femoral neck.

Fracture, Femoral
Fractures of the femur.

Fracture, greenstick
A fracture in which one side of a bone is broken while the other is bent (like a green stick).

Fracture, Jaw
Fractures of the upper or lower jaw.

Fracture, Malunited
Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)

Fracture, Mandibular
Fractures of the lower jaw.

Fracture, March
Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of muscle fatigue and bone failure, and occur in situations where bone remodeling predominates over repair. The classical stress fracture is the march fracture of military personnel, in which the metatarsal undergoes repeated stress during marching. The most common sites of stress fractures are the metatarsus, fibula, tibia, and femoral neck.

Fracture, Maxillary
Fractures of the upper jaw.

Fracture, Non-Depressed Skull
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).

Fracture, Occult
Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.

Fracture, open
A fracture in which the bone is sticking through the skin. Also called a compound fracture.

Fracture, Open
Fractures in which there is an external wound communicating with the break of the bone.

Fracture, Orbital
Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.

Fracture, Pathologic
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Fracture, Pathological
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Fracture, Proximal Humeral
Fractures of the proximal humerus, including the head, anatomic and surgical necks, and tuberosities.

Fracture, Salter-Harris
A traumatic fracture around or through the growth plate (the epiphyseal plate) of a bone in a child.

Fracture, Shoulder
Fractures of the proximal humerus, including the head, anatomic and surgical necks, and tuberosities.

Fracture, Skull
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).

Fracture, Spinal
Broken bones in the vertebral column.

Fracture, spiral
A fracture, sometimes called a torsion fracture, in which a bone has been twisted apart.

Fracture, Spontaneous
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Fracture, stress
A fracture caused by repetitive stress, as may occur in sports, strenuous exercise, or heavy physical labor. Stress fractures are especially common in the metatarsal bones of foot, particularly in runners. Osteoporosis increases the possibility of stress fractures. Treatment is by rest, disuse, and sometimes splinting or casting to prevent reinjury during healing.

Fracture, Stress
Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of muscle fatigue and bone failure, and occur in situations where bone remodeling predominates over repair. The classical stress fracture is the march fracture of military personnel, in which the metatarsal undergoes repeated stress during marching. The most common sites of stress fractures are the metatarsus, fibula, tibia, and femoral neck.

Fracture, Tooth
Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.

Fracture, torsion
A fracture, also called a spiral fracture, in which a bone has been twisted apart.

Fracture, torus
A fracture in which one side of the bone bends, but does not actually break. Torus fractures normally heal on their own within a month with rest and disuse, although they can cause soreness and discomfort.

Fracture, transverse
A fracture in which the break is across the bone, at a right angle to the long axis of the bone.

Fracture, Ulna
Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.

Fracture, Ununited
A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Fracture, Zygomatic
Fractures of the zygoma.

Fractured hip
Broken bone in the hip, a key health problem among the elderly, usually due to a fall or other kind of trauma involving direct impact to the hip bone which has been weakened by osteoporosis. The part of the hip most often broken is the greater trochanter of the femur.

Fractures
Breaks in bones or cartilage. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Fractures, Abnormal Union
Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)

Fractures, Blow Out
Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.

Fractures, Blow-Out
Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.

Fractures, Closed
Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.

Fractures, Comminuted
A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Fractures, Compound
Fractures in which there is an external wound communicating with the break of the bone.

Fractures, Crossunited
Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)

Fractures, Depressed Skull
A skull fracture characterized by inward depression of a fragment or section of cranial bone, often compressing the underlying dura mater and brain. Depressed cranial fractures which feature open skin wounds that communicate with skull fragments are referred to as compound depressed skull fractures.

Fractures, Fatigue
Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of muscle fatigue and bone failure, and occur in situations where bone remodeling predominates over repair. The classical stress fracture is the march fracture of military personnel, in which the metatarsal undergoes repeated stress during marching. The most common sites of stress fractures are the metatarsus, fibula, tibia, and femoral neck.

Fractures, Femoral
Fractures of the femur.

Fractures, Hip
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD, the FEMUR NECK (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES), the trochanters, or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).

Fractures, Intertrochanteric
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD, the FEMUR NECK (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES), the trochanters, or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).

Fractures, Jaw
Fractures of the upper or lower jaw.

Fractures, Linear Skull
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).

Fractures, Malunited
Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)

Fractures, Mandibular
Fractures of the lower jaw.

Fractures, March
Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of muscle fatigue and bone failure, and occur in situations where bone remodeling predominates over repair. The classical stress fracture is the march fracture of military personnel, in which the metatarsal undergoes repeated stress during marching. The most common sites of stress fractures are the metatarsus, fibula, tibia, and femoral neck.

Fractures, Maxillary
Fractures of the upper jaw.

Fractures, Non-Depressed Skull
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).

Fractures, Occult
Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.

Fractures, Open
Fractures in which there is an external wound communicating with the break of the bone.

Fractures, Orbital
Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.

Fractures, Pathologic
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Fractures, Pathological
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Fractures, Proximal Humeral
Fractures of the proximal humerus, including the head, anatomic and surgical necks, and tuberosities.

Fractures, Shoulder
Fractures of the proximal humerus, including the head, anatomic and surgical necks, and tuberosities.

Fractures, Skull
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).

Fractures, Spinal
Broken bones in the vertebral column.

Fractures, Spontaneous
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Fractures, Stress
Fractures due to the strain caused by repetitive exercise. They are thought to arise from a combination of muscle fatigue and bone failure, and occur in situations where bone remodeling predominates over repair. The classical stress fracture is the march fracture of military personnel, in which the metatarsal undergoes repeated stress during marching. The most common sites of stress fractures are the metatarsus, fibula, tibia, and femoral neck.

Fractures, Subtrochanteric
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD, the FEMUR NECK (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES), the trochanters, or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).

Fractures, Tooth
Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.

Fractures, Trochanteric
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD, the FEMUR NECK (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES), the trochanters, or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).

Fractures, Ulna
Fractures of the larger bone of the forearm.

Fractures, Ununited
A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Fractures, Zygomatic
Fractures of the zygoma.

Fracturing, Freeze
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.

Fracturings, Freeze
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Flaccid
Soft and flabby. Often used to describe complete paralysis (loss of movement) without muscle spasm.

Flatfoot
A condition in which the normal arch of the foot is absent.

Fluorescein
A compound used as a diagnostic aid to show injuries of the cornea or retina of the eye.

Folliculitis
Inflammation of the hair follicles.

Fontanelle
A soft spot in the skull of an infant formed by the normal separation between the bony plates of the skull.

Fracture

Frenulum
A fold of skin or mucous membrane that limits the movement of a body part. For example, the frenulum linguae is the midline fold under the tongue that attaches it to the floor of the mouth.

Frostbite
Damage to tissue as a result of exposure to freezing temperatures.

Fructose
Fruit sugar.

Fungus
A group of organisms that includes yeasts, molds and mushrooms.

Fluorescein angiograms


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