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    The distal portion of the leg, upon which an individual stands and walks. It consists, in man, of the tarsus, metatarsus, and phalanges and the tissues encompassing them.


A location farther from a point of reference. For example, the foot is distal to the knee, relative to the center of the body.

The portion of the lower extremity between the knee and ankle.

Upper ankle region, or parts corresponding to it.

The metatarsus consists of the five long bones of the foot, which are numbered from the medial side (ossa metatarsalia I.-V.); each presents for examination a body and two extremities. These are analogous to the metacarpals of the hand.

The name Phalanges is commonly given to the bones that form fingers and toes. In primates such as humans and monkeys, the thumb and big toe have two phalanges, while the other fingers and toes consist of three.



Fibromyalgia is a debilitating chronic syndrome (constellation of signs and symptoms) characterized by diffuse pain, fatigue, and a wide range of other symptoms. It is not contagious, and recent studies suggest that people with fibromyalgia may be genetically predispose. It affects more women than men, with a ratio globally of 3-5:1. Fibromyalgia is seen in 3-10% of the general population, and is mostly found between the ages 20 and 50.

Hyperopia occurs when the eyeball is too short from front to back, or the eye's focusing mechanism is too weak, causing light rays to be focused behind, rather than on the retina. People with hyperopia have difficulty seeing objects close up.

Fanconi anemia
A rare inherited type of aplastic anemia that is often but not always associated with skeletal abnormalities. Fanconi anemia carries an increased risk to the patient of developing acute myelogenous leukemia. The disorder may be treated by stem cell transplantation.

Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. For example, forensic pathology is the study of the human body to determine cause and manner of death. Criminalistics is the application of various sciences to answer questions relating to examination and comparison of biological evidence, trace evidence, impression evidence, drugs and firearms. Forensic odontology is the study of the uniqueness of dentition. Etcetera.

Smaller of the two bones in the lower leg; runs from the knee to the ankle along the outside of the lower leg.


Inflammation of fibrous connective tissues in muscles. It often affects the muscles of the trunk and back. It may be a symptom of another disease, such as Sciatica, but in most cases the cause is unknown. Pain and stiffness.

Fifth disease
Slapped cheek disease (erythema infectiosum) is also known as fifth disease because it was the last of five "red rash" childhood diseases to be defined after scarlet fever, measles, rubella, and roseola. It is characterised by fever and red cheeks.

Foot and Mouth disease
Foot-and-mouth disease is a severe, highly communicable viral disease of cattle and swine. It also affects sheep, goats, deer and other cloven-hooved ruminants. The disease is characterized by fever and blister-like lesions followed by erosions on the tongue and lips, in the mouth, on the teats and between the hooves. Many affected animals recover, but the disease leaves them debilitated. It causes severe losses in the production of meat and milk. The disease is caused by a virus. There are at least seven separate types and many subtypes of the FMD virus.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
A pattern of retarded growth and development, both mental and physical, with cranial, facial, 1imb, and cardiovascular defects, found in some children of mothers whose alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be classed as hazardous. The commonest abnormalities are: prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, developmental delay or mental retardation, short palpebral fissures, a short upturned nose with sunken nasal bridge and a thin upper lip, abnormal palmar creases, and cardiac (especially septal) defects. Many other more subtle abnormalities have also been attributed to the effects of alcohol on the fetus.

Fragile X Syndrome
Fragile X Syndrome is the most common inherited cause of mental impairment, and the most common known cause of autism. Fragile X syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation of the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome, a mutation found in 1 out of every 2000 males and 1 out of every 4000 females. Typically the FMR1 gene contains between 6 and 53 repeats of the CGG codon. In people with the disorder, the FMR1 allele has over 230 repeats.

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