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  Foods



Foods

   Anything which, when taken into the body, serves to nourish or build up the tissues or to supply body heat. (Dorland, 27th ed)

RELATED TERMS
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Heat
The form of energy and the sensation of an increase in temperature. Its interest in medicine is largely with reference to its physiological effects, its therapeutic use, and its use in procedures in physics and physical chemistry.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Food
Any substance eaten to provide nutritional support for the body.

Food Additive
Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.

Food Additives
Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.

Food Adulteration
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.

Food Adulterations
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.

Food Allergies
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.

Food Allergy
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.

Food and Agricultural Organization, United Nations
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.

Food and Beverages
Edible or potable substances.

Food and Drug Administration
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.

Food and Drug Administration (U.S.)
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.

Food and Drug Administration Device Approval
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.

Food and Drug Administration Device Approval Process
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.

Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.

Food and Drug Administration Drug Approval Process
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.

Food Browning
One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.

Food Brownings
One of a group of nonenzymatic reactions in which aldehydes, ketones, or reducing sugars react with amino acids, peptides, or proteins. Food browning reactions, such as those that occur with cooking of meats, and also food deterioration reactions, resulting in decreased nutritional value and color changes, are attributed to this reaction type. The Maillard reaction is studied by scientists in the agriculture, food, nutrition, and carbohydrate chemistry fields.

Food Chain
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of food. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. Plants, which convert solar energy to food by photosynthesis, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.

Food Chains
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of food. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. Plants, which convert solar energy to food by photosynthesis, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.

Food Colorants
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.

Food Coloring Agents
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.

Food Container
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.

Food Containers
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.

Food Contamination
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.

Food Contaminations
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.

Food Deprivation
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.

Food Deprivations
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.

Food Diaries
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.

Food Diary
Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.

Food Dispenser, Automatic
Mechanical food dispensing machines.

Food Dispensers, Automatic
Mechanical food dispensing machines.

Food Drug Interactions
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Food Fad
Diets which become fashionable, but which are not necessarily nutritious.(Lehninger 1982, page 484)

Food Fads
Diets which become fashionable, but which are not necessarily nutritious.(Lehninger 1982, page 484)

Food Habit
Acquired or learned food preferences.

Food Habits
Acquired or learned food preferences.

Food Handling
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.

Food Hypersensitivities
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.

Food Hypersensitivity
Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.

Food Industries
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.

Food Industry
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.

Food insecure
When people must live with hunger and fear starvation.

Food Inspection
Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.

Food Inspections
Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.

Food Intake Regulation
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.

Food Intake Regulations
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.

Food Interaction
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Food Interactions
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Food intolerance
An adverse food-induced reaction that does not involve the immune system. Lactose intolerance is an example.

Food irradiation
A food safety technology designed to eliminate disease-causing germs from foods. Treating food with ionizing radiation can kill bacteria and parasites that would otherwise cause foodborne disease. Similar technology is used to sterilize medical devices so they can be used in surgery or implanted without risk of infection. The effects of irradiation on the food and on animals and people eating irradiated food have been studied extensively. These studies show clearly that when irradiation is used as approved on foods, disease-causing germs are reduced or eliminated, the food does not become radioactive, dangerous substances do not appear in the foods, and the nutritional value of the food is essentially unchanged.

Food Labeling
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, nutritional value, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.

Food Labelling
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, nutritional value, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.

Food Law
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.

Food Laws
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.

Food Legislation
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.

Food Legislations
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.

Food Microbiology
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.

Food Orange 8
A trans-carotenoid pigment widely distributed in nature. The compound is used as an oral suntanning agent and as a food and drug coloring agent. Oral ingestion of the compound causes canthaxanthin retinopathy.

Food Packaging
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.

Food Parasitology
The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.

Food Plants
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.

Food poisoning
A common flu-like illness typically characterized by nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, due to something the victim ate or drank that contained noxious bacteria, viruses, parasites, metals or toxins.

Food poisoning, Campylobacter
Now the leading cause of bacterial food poisoning, caused by an Campylobacter jejuni, most often spread by contact with raw or undercooked poultry. A single drop of juice from a contaminated chicken is enough to make someone sick with Campylobacteriosis (disease due to Campylobacter bacteria).

Food Poisoning, Salmonella
Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.

Food Poisoning, Staphylococcal
Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.

Food Poisonings, Salmonella
Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.

Food Poisonings, Staphylococcal
Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.

Food Policies
Governmental guidelines and objectives pertaining to public food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet and changes in food habits to ensure healthy diet.

Food Policy
Governmental guidelines and objectives pertaining to public food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet and changes in food habits to ensure healthy diet.

Food Preference
The selection of one food over another.

Food Preferences
The selection of one food over another.

Food Preservatives
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.

Food Processing
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.

Food Processing Industry
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.

Food Product Labeling
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, nutritional value, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.

Food security
When people do not need to live with hunger or fear starvation.

Food Selection
The selection of one food over another.

Food Selections
The selection of one food over another.

Food Service
Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.

Food Services
Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.

Food Supplement
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide essential nutrients, such as a vitamin, an essential mineral, a protein, an herb, or similar nutritional substance. (FDA Backgrounder, June 15, 1993, p2)

Food Supplementation
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide essential nutrients, such as a vitamin, an essential mineral, a protein, an herb, or similar nutritional substance. (FDA Backgrounder, June 15, 1993, p2)

Food Supplements
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide essential nutrients, such as a vitamin, an essential mineral, a protein, an herb, or similar nutritional substance. (FDA Backgrounder, June 15, 1993, p2)

Food Technology
The application of knowledge to the food industry.

Food Vending Machine
Mechanical food dispensing machines.

Food Vending Machines
Mechanical food dispensing machines.

Food Web
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of food. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. Plants, which convert solar energy to food by photosynthesis, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.

Food Webs
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of food. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. Plants, which convert solar energy to food by photosynthesis, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.

Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.

Food, Enriched
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the fortified food. The supplementation of cereals with iron and vitamins is an example of fortified food. Fortified food includes also enriched food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those essential nutrients removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Food, Formulated
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.

Food, Fortified
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the fortified food. The supplementation of cereals with iron and vitamins is an example of fortified food. Fortified food includes also enriched food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those essential nutrients removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Food, functional
Functional foods are "those foods that encompass potentially healthful products including any modified food or ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains," as defined by the Institute of Medicine. Functional foods can include foods like cereals, breads and beverages which are fortified with vitamins, herbs and nutraceuticals.

Food, Genetically Modified
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).

Food, GMO
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).

Food, Health
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. Health foods have been attributed with the ability to prevent the development of diseases, slow the aging process, and prolong life. (from Segan, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Food, Infant
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.

Food, Organic
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. Health foods have been attributed with the ability to prevent the development of diseases, slow the aging process, and prolong life. (from Segan, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Food, Specialized
Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.

Food, super
Foods with alleged healing or health-promoting capabilities. The healing power of foods is a popular concept. Medicinal or nutritionally high- powered foods have been part and parcel of the natural products industry for a long time and, through emerging scientific research and particularly through growing public interest, they have reached the mainstream. Not all items advertised as "super" foods or healing foods have been proven to promote health, however, and some may be contraindicated for people with certain health conditions. Before making drastic changes to your diet, always consult with your physician or a professional nutritionist.

Food, Supplemented
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide essential nutrients, such as a vitamin, an essential mineral, a protein, an herb, or similar nutritional substance. (FDA Backgrounder, June 15, 1993, p2)

Food-Drug Interaction
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Food-Drug Interactions
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Food-insecure
Referring to the situation when people need to live with hunger and fear starvation.

Food-Processing Industries
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.

Food-Processing Industry
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.

Food-secure
Referring to the situation when people do not need to live with hunger or fear starvation.

Foodborne disease
A disease caused by consuming contaminated food or drink. Myriad microbes and toxic substances can contaminate foods. There are more then 250 known foodborne diseases. The majority are infectious and are caused by bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Other foodborne diseases are essentially poisonings caused by toxins, chemicals contaminating the food. All foodborne microbes and toxins enter the body through the gastrointestinal tract and often causes the first symptoms there. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and diarrhea are frequent in foodborne diseases.

Foodborne illness
An acute gastrointestinal infection caused by food that contains harmful bacteria. Also called food poisoning.

Foods, Enriched
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the fortified food. The supplementation of cereals with iron and vitamins is an example of fortified food. Fortified food includes also enriched food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those essential nutrients removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Foods, Formulated
Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.

Foods, Fortified
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the fortified food. The supplementation of cereals with iron and vitamins is an example of fortified food. Fortified food includes also enriched food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those essential nutrients removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Foods, Genetically Modified
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).

Foods, GMO
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).

Foods, Health
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. Health foods have been attributed with the ability to prevent the development of diseases, slow the aging process, and prolong life. (from Segan, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Foods, Infant
Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.

Foods, Organic
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. Health foods have been attributed with the ability to prevent the development of diseases, slow the aging process, and prolong life. (from Segan, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Foods, Specialized
Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.

Foods, Supplemented
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide essential nutrients, such as a vitamin, an essential mineral, a protein, an herb, or similar nutritional substance. (FDA Backgrounder, June 15, 1993, p2)



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Food Webs
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of food. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. Plants, which convert solar energy to food by photosynthesis, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.

Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.

Food Web
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of food. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. Plants, which convert solar energy to food by photosynthesis, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.

Food Vending Machines
Mechanical food dispensing machines.

Foods, Enriched
Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the fortified food. The supplementation of cereals with iron and vitamins is an example of fortified food. Fortified food includes also enriched food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those essential nutrients removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Foods

Food-Drug Interactions
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Food-Processing Industries
The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.

Food-Drug Interaction
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Food, Supplemented
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide essential nutrients, such as a vitamin, an essential mineral, a protein, an herb, or similar nutritional substance. (FDA Backgrounder, June 15, 1993, p2)

Food, Organic
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. Health foods have been attributed with the ability to prevent the development of diseases, slow the aging process, and prolong life. (from Segan, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

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