Focal
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  Focal



Focal

   Limited to one specific area.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Focal Adhesion
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of MICROFILAMENTS terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.

Focal Adhesions
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of MICROFILAMENTS terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.

Focal Brain Injuries
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.

Focal Brain Injury
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.

Focal Clonic Seizure
A disorder characterized by recurrent localized paroxysmal discharges of cerebral neurons that give rise to seizures that have motor manifestations. The majority of partial motor seizures originate in the FRONTAL LOBE (see also EPILEPSY, FRONTAL LOBE). Motor seizures may manifest as tonic or clonic movements involving the face, one limb or one side of the body. A variety of more complex patterns of movement, including abnormal posturing of extremities, may also occur.

Focal Clonic Seizures
A disorder characterized by recurrent localized paroxysmal discharges of cerebral neurons that give rise to seizures that have motor manifestations. The majority of partial motor seizures originate in the FRONTAL LOBE (see also EPILEPSY, FRONTAL LOBE). Motor seizures may manifest as tonic or clonic movements involving the face, one limb or one side of the body. A variety of more complex patterns of movement, including abnormal posturing of extremities, may also occur.

Focal Contact
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of MICROFILAMENTS terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.

Focal Contacts
An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of MICROFILAMENTS terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.

Focal Dermal Hypoplasia
A genetic skin disease characterized by hypoplasia of the dermis, herniations of fat, and hand anomalies. It is found exclusively in females and transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait.

Focal Dermal Hypoplasias
A genetic skin disease characterized by hypoplasia of the dermis, herniations of fat, and hand anomalies. It is found exclusively in females and transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait.

Focal dystonia due to blepharospasm
The involuntary forcible closure of the eyelid due to spasms. The first symptoms may be uncontrollable blinking. Only one eye may be affected initially, but eventually both eyes are usually involved. The spasms may leave the eyelids completely closed causing functional blindness even though the eyes beneath the lids and vision are normal. Following torticollis (spasm of the neck muscles), blepharospasm is the next most common form of focal dystonia. For more information about dystonias, see: Dystonia.

Focal dystonia due to torticollis
Spasm of the muscles in the neck that control the position of the head, causing the head to twist and turn to one side. In addition, the head may be pulled forward or backward. Torticollis is the most common form of focal dystonia.

Focal Epilepsies
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)

Focal Epilepsy
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)

Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia
Hyperplasia of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue, and less commonly, the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, and palate, presenting soft, painless, round to oval sessile papules about 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The condition usually occurs in children and young adults and has familial predilection, lasting for several months, sometimes years, before running its course. A viral etiology is suspected, the isolated organism being usually the human papillomavirus. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry; Belshe, Textbook of Human Virology, 2d ed, p954)

Focal Epithelial Hyperplasias
Hyperplasia of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue, and less commonly, the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, and palate, presenting soft, painless, round to oval sessile papules about 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The condition usually occurs in children and young adults and has familial predilection, lasting for several months, sometimes years, before running its course. A viral etiology is suspected, the isolated organism being usually the human papillomavirus. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry; Belshe, Textbook of Human Virology, 2d ed, p954)

Focal gigantism
1. The excessive growth of a specific body part such as a hand or foot, as with increased blood supply to that part. 2. The excessive growth of a combination of particular body parts, as is characteristic of a congenital malformation syndrome called the Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome. Focal gigantism may occur before or after the bones fuse. If it occurs afterwards, it causes disfigurement, as in acromegaly. Surgery for mass reduction may sometimes improve function.

Focal Glomeruloscleroses
Glomerular disease characterized by focal and segmental areas of glomerular sclerosis, usually commencing in the juxtamedullary glomeruli and gradually spreading to involve other parts of the kidney, with eventual kidney failure.

Focal Glomerulosclerosis
Glomerular disease characterized by focal and segmental areas of glomerular sclerosis, usually commencing in the juxtamedullary glomeruli and gradually spreading to involve other parts of the kidney, with eventual kidney failure.

Focal Infection, Dental
Secondary or systemic infections due to dissemination throughout the body of microorganisms whose primary focus of infection lies in the periodontal tissues.

Focal Infections, Dental
Secondary or systemic infections due to dissemination throughout the body of microorganisms whose primary focus of infection lies in the periodontal tissues.

Focal length
Relates the distance between an image source and a lens and the distance of the lens to the image by the lenses focal length.

Focal Motor Epilepsy
A disorder characterized by recurrent localized paroxysmal discharges of cerebral neurons that give rise to seizures that have motor manifestations. The majority of partial motor seizures originate in the FRONTAL LOBE (see also EPILEPSY, FRONTAL LOBE). Motor seizures may manifest as tonic or clonic movements involving the face, one limb or one side of the body. A variety of more complex patterns of movement, including abnormal posturing of extremities, may also occur.

Focal motor seizure
A simple partial seizure with localized motor activity. There may be spasm or clonus (jerking) of one muscle or a muscle group and this may remain localized or it may subsequently spread to adjacent muscles as a Jacksonian seizure.

Focal Myositides
Inflammation of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL). Infectious, autoimmune, and paraneoplastic processes represent some of the more common conditions that may be associated with myositis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed., pp 1402-13)

Focal Myositis
Inflammation of skeletal muscle (MUSCLE, SKELETAL). Infectious, autoimmune, and paraneoplastic processes represent some of the more common conditions that may be associated with myositis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed., pp 1402-13)

Focal Neurologic Deficit
Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.

Focal Neurologic Deficits
Clinical signs and symptoms caused by nervous system injury or dysfunction.

Focal Nodular Hyperplasia
Benign, usually asymptomatic nodule of the liver, occurring chiefly in women. It is a firm, highly vascular mass resembling cirrhosis, usually with a stellate fibrous core containing numerous small bile ducts, and having vessels lined by Kupffer cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Focal Nodular Hyperplasias
Benign, usually asymptomatic nodule of the liver, occurring chiefly in women. It is a firm, highly vascular mass resembling cirrhosis, usually with a stellate fibrous core containing numerous small bile ducts, and having vessels lined by Kupffer cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Focal Sclerosing Glomerulonephritides
Glomerular disease characterized by focal and segmental areas of glomerular sclerosis, usually commencing in the juxtamedullary glomeruli and gradually spreading to involve other parts of the kidney, with eventual kidney failure.

Focal Sclerosing Glomerulonephritis
Glomerular disease characterized by focal and segmental areas of glomerular sclerosis, usually commencing in the juxtamedullary glomeruli and gradually spreading to involve other parts of the kidney, with eventual kidney failure.

Focal Seizure
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or ""seizure disorder.""

Focal Seizure Disorder
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)

Focal Seizure Disorder, Sensory
A disorder characterized by recurrent focal onset seizures which have sensory (i.e., olfactory, visual, tactile, gustatory, or auditory) manifestations. Partial seizures that feature alterations of consciousness are referred to as complex partial seizures (EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL).

Focal Seizure Disorders
Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)

Focal Seizures
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or ""seizure disorder.""

Focal Sensory Seizure
A disorder characterized by recurrent focal onset seizures which have sensory (i.e., olfactory, visual, tactile, gustatory, or auditory) manifestations. Partial seizures that feature alterations of consciousness are referred to as complex partial seizures (EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL).

Focal Sensory Seizures
A disorder characterized by recurrent focal onset seizures which have sensory (i.e., olfactory, visual, tactile, gustatory, or auditory) manifestations. Partial seizures that feature alterations of consciousness are referred to as complex partial seizures (EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL).

Focal Tonic Seizure
A disorder characterized by recurrent localized paroxysmal discharges of cerebral neurons that give rise to seizures that have motor manifestations. The majority of partial motor seizures originate in the FRONTAL LOBE (see also EPILEPSY, FRONTAL LOBE). Motor seizures may manifest as tonic or clonic movements involving the face, one limb or one side of the body. A variety of more complex patterns of movement, including abnormal posturing of extremities, may also occur.

Focal Tonic Seizures
A disorder characterized by recurrent localized paroxysmal discharges of cerebral neurons that give rise to seizures that have motor manifestations. The majority of partial motor seizures originate in the FRONTAL LOBE (see also EPILEPSY, FRONTAL LOBE). Motor seizures may manifest as tonic or clonic movements involving the face, one limb or one side of the body. A variety of more complex patterns of movement, including abnormal posturing of extremities, may also occur.

Focal vision
The role of vision involved in the examination and identification of objects associated with the fovea and exploratory eye movements.

Focalin
Integral part of total treatment program to stabilize ADHD/ADD.

Focalin xr
Focalin xr is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Frenulum
A fold of skin or mucous membrane that limits the movement of a body part. For example, the frenulum linguae is the midline fold under the tongue that attaches it to the floor of the mouth.

Frostbite
Damage to tissue as a result of exposure to freezing temperatures.

Fructose
Fruit sugar.

Fungus
A group of organisms that includes yeasts, molds and mushrooms.

Fluorescein angiograms


Focal

Foci
Plural of focus. The origin or center of a disseminated disease.

Fellow
A doctor who has completed medical school, internship and a residency, and has chosen to receive very specialized training in one particular treatment or research area.

Fasciculation
Involuntary contractions, or twitchings, of groups (fasciculi) of muscle fibers, a coarser form of muscular contraction than fibrillation.

Fomite
Objects, such as clothing, towels, and utensils that possibly harbor a disease agent and are capable of transmitting it.

Formalin
A 37% aqueous solution of formaldehyde.

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