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  Fiber



Fiber

    A substance in foods that comes from plants. Fiber helps with digestion by keeping stool soft so that it moves smoothly through the colon. Soluble fiber dissolves in water. Soluble fiber is found in beans, fruit, and oat products. Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water. Insoluble fiber is found in whole-grain products and vegetables.

RELATED TERMS
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Foods
Anything which, when taken into the body, serves to nourish or build up the tissues or to supply body heat. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Fiber
A substance in foods that comes from plants. Fiber helps with digestion by keeping stool soft so that it moves smoothly through the colon. Soluble fiber dissolves in water. Soluble fiber is found in beans, fruit, and oat products. Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water. Insoluble fiber is found in whole-grain products and vegetables.

Digestion
The process the body uses to break down food into simple substances for energy, growth, and cell repair.

Stool
The solid wastes that pass through the rectum as bowel movements. Stools are undigested foods, bacteria, mucus, and dead cells. Also called feces.

Colon
Another name for the large intestine. The section of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum. An adult colon is approximately five to six feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and forming, storing and expelling waste.

Fruit
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Fiber and bowel disorders
High fiber diets help delay the progression of diverticulosis and, at least, reduce the bouts of diverticulitis. In many cases, it helps reduce the symptoms of the Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) (also called spastic colitis, mucus colitis, and nervous colon syndrome.) It is generally accepted that a diet high in fiber is protective, or at least reduces the incidence, of colon polyps and colon cancer.

Fiber and constipation
Insoluble fiber retains water in the colon, resulting in a softer and larger stool. It is used effectively in treating constipation resulting from poor dietary habits. Bran is particularly rich in insoluble fiber.

Fiber and diabetes
Soluble fibers (oat bran, apples, citrus, pears, peas/beans, psyllium, etc.) slow down the digestion of carbohydrates (sugars), which results in better glucose metabolism. Some patients with the adult-onset diabetes may actually be successfully treated with a high-fiber diet alone, and those on insulin, can often reduce their insulin requirements by adhering to a high-fiber diet.

Fiber FISH
A cytogenetic (chromosome) laboratory technique in which FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) is done on chromosomes that have been mechanically stretched. Fiber FISH provides a higher resolution of analysis than conventional FISH and yields more precise information as to the localization of a specific DNA probe on the chromosome.

Fiber, A
AXONS of NEURONS encased in a lipoproteinaceous material called MYELIN. Myelinated nerve fibers conduct impulses more rapidly than unmyelinated nerve fibers.

Fiber, Adrenergic
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.

Fiber, B
Nerve fibers which project from the central nervous system to autonomic ganglia. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in synapses or continue through the splanchnic nerves to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the brain stem and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is acetylcholine but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.

Fiber, Cholinergic
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.

Fiber, Dietary
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.

Fiber, elastic
A slender fiber in connective tissue that is rich in the protein elastin and has an elastic quality.

Fiber, Fast-Twitch Muscle
Skeletal muscle fibers having high myofibrillar ATPase activity, high glycolytic enzyme activities, and an intermediate glycogen content which produce a fast twitch. There are two types. Fast fatigable fibers, also called white fibers, have a low myoglobin content, and a small mitochondrial content, and fatigue rapidly due to their limited glycogen content and low capacity for oxidative metabolism. Fast fatigue-resistant fibers, also called red fibers, have a large mitochondrial content and a high myoglobin content, related to their resistance to fatigue. (From Best, Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p100)

Fiber, Intermediate Muscle
Skeletal muscle fibers having low myofibrillar ATPase activity, low glycogen content, and high myoglobin content, high mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activities, and an intermediate mitochondrial content which produce a slow twitch and are fatigue-resistant. (From Best, Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p101)

Fiber, Mineral
Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)

Fiber, Myelinated Nerve
AXONS of NEURONS encased in a lipoproteinaceous material called MYELIN. Myelinated nerve fibers conduct impulses more rapidly than unmyelinated nerve fibers.

Fiber, Postganglionic Autonomic
Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of autonomic ganglia to synapses on target organs.

Fiber, Postganglionic Parasympathetic
Nerve fibers which project from parasympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers use acetylcholine as transmitter. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.

Fiber, Postganglionic Sympathetic
Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.

Fiber, Preganglionic Autonomic
Nerve fibers which project from the central nervous system to autonomic ganglia. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in synapses or continue through the splanchnic nerves to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the brain stem and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is acetylcholine but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.

Fiber, Red Muscle
Skeletal muscle fibers having high myofibrillar ATPase activity, high glycolytic enzyme activities, and an intermediate glycogen content which produce a fast twitch. There are two types. Fast fatigable fibers, also called white fibers, have a low myoglobin content, and a small mitochondrial content, and fatigue rapidly due to their limited glycogen content and low capacity for oxidative metabolism. Fast fatigue-resistant fibers, also called red fibers, have a large mitochondrial content and a high myoglobin content, related to their resistance to fatigue. (From Best, Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p100)

Fiber, Reticular
A scleroprotein fibril consisting mostly of type III collagen. Reticulin fibrils are extremely thin, with a diameter of between 0.5 and 2 um. They are involved in maintaining the structural integrity in a variety of organs.

Fiber, Reticulin
A scleroprotein fibril consisting mostly of type III collagen. Reticulin fibrils are extremely thin, with a diameter of between 0.5 and 2 um. They are involved in maintaining the structural integrity in a variety of organs.

Fiber, Slow-Twitch Muscle
Skeletal muscle fibers having low myofibrillar ATPase activity, low glycogen content, and high myoglobin content, high mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activities, and an intermediate mitochondrial content which produce a slow twitch and are fatigue-resistant. (From Best, Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p101)

Fiber, soluble and insoluble
Fiber (the portion of plants that cannot be digested by the human digestive tract) is classified as soluble and insoluble. Oats, beans, dried peas, and legumes are major sources of soluble fiber whereas wheat bran, whole grain products, and vegetables are major sources of insoluble fiber. Fruits, vegetables, and barley are sources of both insoluble and soluble fiber. Soluble fiber and insoluble fiber differ in function. For example, soluble fiber delays the time of transit through the intestine whereas insoluble fiber speeds up intestinal transit. For another example, soluble fiber and decreases the level of cholesterol in the blood whereas insoluble fiber has no effect on serum cholesterol.

Fiber, Stress
Bundles of actin filaments (MICROFILAMENTS) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.

Fiber, Sympathetic
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.

Fiber, White Muscle
Skeletal muscle fibers having high myofibrillar ATPase activity, high glycolytic enzyme activities, and an intermediate glycogen content which produce a fast twitch. There are two types. Fast fatigable fibers, also called white fibers, have a low myoglobin content, and a small mitochondrial content, and fatigue rapidly due to their limited glycogen content and low capacity for oxidative metabolism. Fast fatigue-resistant fibers, also called red fibers, have a large mitochondrial content and a high myoglobin content, related to their resistance to fatigue. (From Best, Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p100)

Fiberglass Cast
Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.

Fiberglass Casts
Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.

Fibers, A
AXONS of NEURONS encased in a lipoproteinaceous material called MYELIN. Myelinated nerve fibers conduct impulses more rapidly than unmyelinated nerve fibers.

Fibers, Adrenergic
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.

Fibers, B
Nerve fibers which project from the central nervous system to autonomic ganglia. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in synapses or continue through the splanchnic nerves to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the brain stem and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is acetylcholine but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.

Fibers, Cholinergic
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.

Fibers, Dietary
The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.

Fibers, Fast-Twitch Muscle
Skeletal muscle fibers having high myofibrillar ATPase activity, high glycolytic enzyme activities, and an intermediate glycogen content which produce a fast twitch. There are two types. Fast fatigable fibers, also called white fibers, have a low myoglobin content, and a small mitochondrial content, and fatigue rapidly due to their limited glycogen content and low capacity for oxidative metabolism. Fast fatigue-resistant fibers, also called red fibers, have a large mitochondrial content and a high myoglobin content, related to their resistance to fatigue. (From Best, Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p100)

Fibers, Intermediate Muscle
Skeletal muscle fibers having low myofibrillar ATPase activity, low glycogen content, and high myoglobin content, high mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activities, and an intermediate mitochondrial content which produce a slow twitch and are fatigue-resistant. (From Best, Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p101)

Fibers, Mineral
Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)

Fibers, Muscle
Large single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of muscle tissue. They consist of a soft contractile substance enclosed in a tubular sheath.

Fibers, Myelinated Nerve
AXONS of NEURONS encased in a lipoproteinaceous material called MYELIN. Myelinated nerve fibers conduct impulses more rapidly than unmyelinated nerve fibers.

Fibers, Postganglionic Autonomic
Nerve fibers which project from cell bodies of autonomic ganglia to synapses on target organs.

Fibers, Postganglionic Parasympathetic
Nerve fibers which project from parasympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers use acetylcholine as transmitter. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.

Fibers, Postganglionic Sympathetic
Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.

Fibers, Preganglionic Autonomic
Nerve fibers which project from the central nervous system to autonomic ganglia. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in synapses or continue through the splanchnic nerves to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the brain stem and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is acetylcholine but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.

Fibers, Purkinje
Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.

Fibers, Red Muscle
Skeletal muscle fibers having high myofibrillar ATPase activity, high glycolytic enzyme activities, and an intermediate glycogen content which produce a fast twitch. There are two types. Fast fatigable fibers, also called white fibers, have a low myoglobin content, and a small mitochondrial content, and fatigue rapidly due to their limited glycogen content and low capacity for oxidative metabolism. Fast fatigue-resistant fibers, also called red fibers, have a large mitochondrial content and a high myoglobin content, related to their resistance to fatigue. (From Best, Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p100)

Fibers, Reticular
A scleroprotein fibril consisting mostly of type III collagen. Reticulin fibrils are extremely thin, with a diameter of between 0.5 and 2 um. They are involved in maintaining the structural integrity in a variety of organs.

Fibers, Reticulin
A scleroprotein fibril consisting mostly of type III collagen. Reticulin fibrils are extremely thin, with a diameter of between 0.5 and 2 um. They are involved in maintaining the structural integrity in a variety of organs.

Fibers, Slow-Twitch Muscle
Skeletal muscle fibers having low myofibrillar ATPase activity, low glycogen content, and high myoglobin content, high mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activities, and an intermediate mitochondrial content which produce a slow twitch and are fatigue-resistant. (From Best, Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p101)

Fibers, Stress
Bundles of actin filaments (MICROFILAMENTS) and myosin-II that span across the cell attaching to the cell membrane at FOCAL ADHESIONS and to the network of INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS that surrounds the nucleus.

Fibers, Sympathetic
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.

Fibers, White Muscle
Skeletal muscle fibers having high myofibrillar ATPase activity, high glycolytic enzyme activities, and an intermediate glycogen content which produce a fast twitch. There are two types. Fast fatigable fibers, also called white fibers, have a low myoglobin content, and a small mitochondrial content, and fatigue rapidly due to their limited glycogen content and low capacity for oxidative metabolism. Fast fatigue-resistant fibers, also called red fibers, have a large mitochondrial content and a high myoglobin content, related to their resistance to fatigue. (From Best, Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p100)



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Fatty liver
The buildup of fat in liver cells. The most common cause is alcoholism. Other causes include obesity, diabetes, and pregnancy. Also called steatosis.

Fecal fat test
A test to measure the body's ability to break down and absorb fat. The patient eats a fat-free diet for 2 to 3 days before the test and collects stool samples for examination.

Fecal incontinence
Being unable to hold stool in the colon and rectum.

Fecal occult-blood test
Screening test for possible signs of cancer of the colon or rectum.

Feces
Stool.

Fiber

Fibrillation
Rapid contractions of the heart muscles.

Fibroadenoma
Noncancerous, firm, rubbery lump in the breast that is painless and moves around easily when touched.

Fibrocystic breasts
Noncancerous condition in which small lumps and cysts develop in the breasts.

Fibroids
Noncancerous growths in, on, or within the walls of the uterus that develop from muscle cells in the wall of the uterus.

Fine needle aspiration
The use of a thin, hollow needle to withdraw tissue from the body. In the case of suspected prostate cancer it may be used in conjunction with transrectal ultrasound of the prostate.

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