Fetal
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  Fetal



Fetal

   Having to do with the fetus.

RELATED TERMS
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Fetus
The stage of human development from 10 weeks' gestation until birth.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Fetal alcohol effects (FAE)
A softer diagnosis than fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The diagnosis of possible FAE is considered when: 1. The person has some signs of FAS; 2. The person does not meet all of the necessary criteria for FAS; and 3. There is a history of alcohol exposure before birth.

Fetal alcohol syndrome
The sum total of the damage done to the child before birth as a result of the mother drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) always involves brain damage, impaired growth, and head and face abnormalities.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A disorder occurring in children born to alcoholic women who continue to drink heavily during pregnancy. Common abnormalities are growth deficiency (prenatal and postnatal), altered morphogenesis, mental deficiency, and characteristic facies - small eyes and flattened nasal bridge. Fine motor dysfunction and tremulousness are observed in the newborn.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
A pattern of retarded growth and development, both mental and physical, with cranial, facial, 1imb, and cardiovascular defects, found in some children of mothers whose alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be classed as hazardous. The commonest abnormalities are: prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, developmental delay or mental retardation, short palpebral fissures, a short upturned nose with sunken nasal bridge and a thin upper lip, abnormal palmar creases, and cardiac (especially septal) defects. Many other more subtle abnormalities have also been attributed to the effects of alcohol on the fetus.

Fetal Alcohol Syndromes
A disorder occurring in children born to alcoholic women who continue to drink heavily during pregnancy. Common abnormalities are growth deficiency (prenatal and postnatal), altered morphogenesis, mental deficiency, and characteristic facies - small eyes and flattened nasal bridge. Fine motor dysfunction and tremulousness are observed in the newborn.

Fetal Anoxia
Fetal oxygen deficiency.

Fetal Anoxias
Fetal oxygen deficiency.

Fetal Blood
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the placenta. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels at the time of delivery.

Fetal Bloods
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the placenta. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels at the time of delivery.

Fetal Body Weight
The weight of the fetus in utero, which is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.

Fetal Body Weights
The weight of the fetus in utero, which is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.

Fetal circulation


Fetal Circulation, Persistent
A syndrome of persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn infant, without demonstrable cardiac disease. It is characterized by cyanosis and acidosis, severe pulmonary vasoconstriction, hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial muscle, and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance, with resultant right-to-left shunting of blood through a patent ductus arteriosus and at times a patent foramen ovale.

Fetal Death
Death of the young developing in utero.

Fetal Deaths
Death of the young developing in utero.

Fetal Development
Morphologic and physiologic growth and development of the mammalian embryo or fetus.

Fetal distress
When a fetus's life is believed to be in danger, most often because of too little oxygen. Signs of fetal distress -- including slowed heartbeat or absence of fetal movement -- call for immediate delivery of the baby.

Fetal Distress
Adverse or threatening condition of the fetus identified by fetal bradycardia or tachycardia and passage of meconium in vertex presentation.

Fetal Distresses
Adverse or threatening condition of the fetus identified by fetal bradycardia or tachycardia and passage of meconium in vertex presentation.

Fetal dystocia
Difficult labor and delivery caused by the size (too big), shape or position of the fetus.

Fetal Edema
Edema of the entire body due to abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the tissues, associated with severe anemia and occurring in ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL.

Fetal Edemas
Edema of the entire body due to abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the tissues, associated with severe anemia and occurring in ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL.

Fetal Erythroblastoses
Hemolytic anemia of the fetus or newborn infant, caused by the transplacental transmission of maternally formed antibody, usually secondary to an incompatibility between the blood group of the mother and that of her offspring. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Fetal Erythroblastosis
Hemolytic anemia of the fetus or newborn infant, caused by the transplacental transmission of maternally formed antibody, usually secondary to an incompatibility between the blood group of the mother and that of her offspring. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Fetal fibronectin
A protein produced during pregnancy and the basis of a test for preterm delivery. Fetal fibronectin (fFN) functions as a "glue" attaching the fetal sac to the uterine lining. The presence of fFN during weeks 22-34 of a high-risk pregnancy, along with symptoms of labor, suggests that the "glue" is disintegrating ahead of schedule and raises the possibility of a preterm delivery. To test fFN, a cotton swab is used (as in a Pap smear) to collect samples of cervico-vaginal secretions. A negative fFN test result is a highly reliable predictor that delivery will not occur within the next 2 weeks. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) does not recommend the test for routine screening, as its use has not been shown to be clinically effective in predicting preterm labor in low-risk, asymptomatic pregnancies. ACOG recommends fFN testing only for symptomatic, high-risk pregnancies, where preterm labor is suspected.

Fetal Growth Retardation
The failure of a fetus to attain its expected growth potential at any gestational stage.

Fetal Heart
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.

Fetal Heart Rate
The heart rate of the fetus. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.

Fetal Heart Rates
The heart rate of the fetus. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.

Fetal Hearts
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.

Fetal Hemoglobin
The major component of hemoglobin in the fetus. This HEMOGLOBIN has two alpha and two gamma polypeptide subunits in comparison to normal adult hemoglobin, which has two alpha and two beta polypeptide subunits. Fetal hemoglobin concentrations can be elevated (usually above 0.5%) in children and adults affected by LEUKEMIA and several types of ANEMIA.

Fetal Hydrops
Edema of the entire body due to abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the tissues, associated with severe anemia and occurring in ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL.

Fetal Immunities, Maternally-Acquired
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.

Fetal Immunity, Maternally Acquired
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.

Fetal Immunity, Maternally-Acquired
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.

Fetal infant
An extremely low birth weight infant. A very, small infant. One, for example, with a birth weight of 400 to 500 grams.

Fetal Macrosomia
A complication of several conditions including DIABETES MELLITUS and prolonged pregnancy. A macrosomic fetus is defined as weighing more than 4000 grams.

Fetal Macrosomias
A complication of several conditions including DIABETES MELLITUS and prolonged pregnancy. A macrosomic fetus is defined as weighing more than 4000 grams.

Fetal Malnutrition
Failure of the placenta to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and oxygen to the fetus.

Fetal Maturity, Chronologic
Age of the conceptus. In humans, this may be assessed by medical history, physical examination, early immunologic pregnancy tests, radiography, ultrasonography, and amniotic fluid analysis.

Fetal Maturity, Functional
Functional competence of specific fetal organs or body systems. In humans, it is usually assessed by analysis of amniotic fluid, as in the assessment of fetal lung maturity by analysis for components of pulmonary surfactant.

Fetal Membrane
Thin layers of tissue which surround the embryo or fetus and provide for its nutrition, respiration, excretion and protection; they are the yolk sac, allantois, amnion, and chorion.

Fetal Membranes
Thin layers of tissue which surround the embryo or fetus and provide for its nutrition, respiration, excretion and protection; they are the yolk sac, allantois, amnion, and chorion.

Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture
Spontaneous rupture of amniotic sac before the onset of uterine contractions.

Fetal monitoring
Tracking a fetus's heartbeat and a woman's uterine contractions during labor.

Fetal Monitoring
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during labor and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.

Fetal Monitorings
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during labor and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.

Fetal mortality rate
The ratio of fetal deaths divided by the sum of the births (the live births + the fetal deaths) in that year

Fetal Movement
Motion of the fetus perceived by the mother and felt by palpation of the abdomen.

Fetal Movements
Motion of the fetus perceived by the mother and felt by palpation of the abdomen.

Fetal Organ Maturity
Functional competence of specific fetal organs or body systems. In humans, it is usually assessed by analysis of amniotic fluid, as in the assessment of fetal lung maturity by analysis for components of pulmonary surfactant.

Fetal Placental Circulation
The circulation of blood, of both the mother and the fetus, through the placenta.

Fetal pleural effusion
In the fetus, excess fluid between the two membranes (the pleurae) that envelop the lungs. The pleural effusion may be unilateral (in one lung) or bilateral (in both lungs) and it may be an isolated finding in an otherwise normal fetus or be associated with generalized edema (hydrops). If untreated, fetal pleural effusion often causes severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory insufficiency in the neonatal period. Treatment is by the prenatal insertion of a thoracoamniotic shunt (to shunt the pleural effusion into the amniotic fluid). Survival after this procedure is over 90% in fetuses with isolated pleural effusion and about 50% in those with associated hydrops.

Fetal presentation
The position of the baby -- such as feet down (breech) or head down (vertex) -- inside a woman's uterus. About 96 percent of babies present in the vertex position; some who present in breech position can be turned around by a doctor before delivery begins.

Fetal Presentation
The part of the fetal body that is in advance in the birth canal.

Fetal Presentations
The part of the fetal body that is in advance in the birth canal.

Fetal Reduction
Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.

Fetal Reductions
Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.

Fetal Research
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)

Fetal Resorption
Death and resorption of the fetus at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of gestation. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).

Fetal Resorptions
Death and resorption of the fetus at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of gestation. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).

Fetal rubella effects
The constellation of abnormalities, also called the rubella syndrome, caused by infection with the rubella (German measles) A virus before birth. The syndrome is characterized by multiple congenital malformations (birth defects) and mental retardation. The individual features of the syndrome include growth retardation, microcephaly (abnormally small head), cataracts, glaucoma, microphthalmia (abnormally small eyes), cardiovascular malformations, hearing loss, and mental retardation. Deafness is common. After birth the child may develop diabetes due to gradual destruction of the pancreas by the rubella virus.

Fetal Structure
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.

Fetal Structures
The anatomical parts that make up an organism in the early stages of development.

Fetal surgery
The surgical treatment of the fetus before birth. Also called prenatal or antenatal surgery. Fetal surgery is done when the fetus is not expected to live long enough to make it through to delivery or to live long after birth unless fetal surgery is performed. For instance, if a fetus has a severe form of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, in which the liver is located in the chest and lung development is severely restricted, fetal surgery is done to lessen the severity of the problem and permit the baby to live to birth to undergo further corrective surgery. Fetal surgery can be done in various ways. Fetoscopic surgery uses a fiberoptic scope to enter the uterus through small surgical openings. The aim is to correct congenital malformations (birth defects) without major incisions and without removing the fetus from the womb. This is generally less traumatic than open fetal surgery and reduces the chances of preterm (premature) labor.

Fetal Termination, Selective
Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.

Fetal Terminations, Selective
Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.

Fetal Tissue
The unborn offspring of any viviparous mammals, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. (Dorland, 28th ed.)

Fetal Tissue Donation
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.

Fetal Tissue Donations
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.

Fetal Tissue Grafting
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.

Fetal Tissue Graftings
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.

Fetal Tissue Research
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)

Fetal Tissue Transplantation
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.

Fetal Tissue Transplantations
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.

Fetal Tissues
The unborn offspring of any viviparous mammals, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. (Dorland, 28th ed.)

Fetal Toxoplasmoses
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)

Fetal Toxoplasmosis
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)

Fetal Transfusion
Transfusion of Rh-negative blood into the peritoneal cavity of an unborn infant in the treatment of fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL) in utero. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Fetal Transfusions
Transfusion of Rh-negative blood into the peritoneal cavity of an unborn infant in the treatment of fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL) in utero. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Fetal Ultrasonography
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.

Fetal Version
The artificial alteration of the fetal position to facilitate birth.

Fetal Versions
The artificial alteration of the fetal position to facilitate birth.

Fetal Viabilities
The potential of the fetus-in-utero to survive after birth.

Fetal Viability
The potential of the fetus-in-utero to survive after birth.

Fetal Weight
The weight of the fetus in utero, which is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.

Fetal Weights
The weight of the fetus in utero, which is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.

Fetal-maternal exchange
The transfer of oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the baby and thetransfer of waste from the baby to the mother.

Fetal-Placental Circulation
The circulation of blood, of both the mother and the fetus, through the placenta.

Fetal-Placental Circulations
The circulation of blood, of both the mother and the fetus, through the placenta.

Fetanol
An adrenergic agonist that appears to interact with beta-2 and some alpha adrenergic receptors. It has been used as a vasoconstrictor agent.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Fatigue
Physical or mental exhaustion. Weariness.

Febrile
Caused by fever. Feverish.

Femoral
Having to do with the femur.

Femur
The thigh bone.

Fertility
The ability to have children.

Fetal

Fibroid
A noncancerous tumor of the uterus composed of muscle fibers. Also called uterine myoma.

Fissure
A narrow slit.

Flaccid
Soft and flabby. Often used to describe complete paralysis (loss of movement) without muscle spasm.

Flatfoot
A condition in which the normal arch of the foot is absent.

Fluorescein
A compound used as a diagnostic aid to show injuries of the cornea or retina of the eye.

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