Extraversion
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  Extraversion



Extraversion

    A state in which attention and energies are largely directed outward from the self as opposed to inward toward the self, as in introversion.

RELATED TERMS
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Attention
The ability to focus in a sustained manner on a particular stimulus or activity. A disturbance in attention may be manifested by easy distractibility or difficulty in finishing tasks or in concentrating on work.

Introversion
Preoccupation with oneself and accompanying reduction of interest in the outside world. Contrast to extraversion.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Extra Mammary Paget Disease
A rare cutaneous neoplasm that occurs in the elderly. It develops more frequently in women and predominantly involves apocrine gland-bearing areas, especially the vulva, scrotum, and perianal areas. The lesions develop as erythematous scaly patches that progress to crusted, pruritic, erythematous plaques. The clinical differential diagnosis includes squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial fungal infection. It is generally thought to be an adenocarcinoma of the epidermis, from which it extends into the contiguous epithelium of hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1478)

Extra Vascular Lung Water
Water present within the lungs; its volume is roughly equal to, or a little less than, the intracellular blood volume of the lungs. Accumulations of extravascular lung water result in pulmonary edema.

Extra-Adrenal Paraganglioma
A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the carotid body, glomus jugulare, and aortic bodies. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. They are uncommon before the age of 20, with a female predominance in some series. (Stedman, 25th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p570-1)

Extra-Adrenal Paragangliomas
A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the carotid body, glomus jugulare, and aortic bodies. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. They are uncommon before the age of 20, with a female predominance in some series. (Stedman, 25th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p570-1)

Extra-Mammary Paget Disease
A rare cutaneous neoplasm that occurs in the elderly. It develops more frequently in women and predominantly involves apocrine gland-bearing areas, especially the vulva, scrotum, and perianal areas. The lesions develop as erythematous scaly patches that progress to crusted, pruritic, erythematous plaques. The clinical differential diagnosis includes squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial fungal infection. It is generally thought to be an adenocarcinoma of the epidermis, from which it extends into the contiguous epithelium of hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1478)

Extra-Mammary Pagets Disease
A rare cutaneous neoplasm that occurs in the elderly. It develops more frequently in women and predominantly involves apocrine gland-bearing areas, especially the vulva, scrotum, and perianal areas. The lesions develop as erythematous scaly patches that progress to crusted, pruritic, erythematous plaques. The clinical differential diagnosis includes squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial fungal infection. It is generally thought to be an adenocarcinoma of the epidermis, from which it extends into the contiguous epithelium of hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1478)

Extra-strength aim
Extra-strength aim is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): sodium monofluorophosphate.

Extracellular
Outside the cells.

Extracellular Fluid
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by fluid as well as amorphous and fibrous substances.

Extracellular Fluids
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by fluid as well as amorphous and fibrous substances.

Extracellular Matrices
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.

Extracellular Matrix
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.

Extracellular Matrix Glycoprotein Receptors
A group of INTEGRINS that includes the platelet outer membrane glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX) and the vitronectin receptor (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN). They play a major role in cell adhesion and serve as receptors for fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, and vitronectin.

Extracellular Matrix Proteins
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS AND LAMININ).

Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinases
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES). Families of these mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) include extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) (also known as c-jun terminal kinases (JNKs)), and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinases. EC 2,7,1.-

Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES). Families of these mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) include extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) (also known as c-jun terminal kinases (JNKs)), and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinases. EC 2,7,1.-

Extracellular Space
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by fluid as well as amorphous and fibrous substances.

Extracellular Spaces
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by fluid as well as amorphous and fibrous substances.

Extracerebral
Located outside the cerebral hemispheres.

Extracerebral Cavernous Hemangioma
A vascular malformation composed of clusters of large, thin walled veins lacking intervening nervous tissue. They are most common in the BRAIN STEM but may also occur in the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, cerebellum, and spinal cord. The lesions have a tendency to rupture and cause a variety of clinical deficits (e.g., SEIZURES; hemiparesis) that depend upon the location of the hemorrhage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp851-2)

Extracerebral Cavernous Hemangiomas
A vascular malformation composed of clusters of large, thin walled veins lacking intervening nervous tissue. They are most common in the BRAIN STEM but may also occur in the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, cerebellum, and spinal cord. The lesions have a tendency to rupture and cause a variety of clinical deficits (e.g., SEIZURES; hemiparesis) that depend upon the location of the hemorrhage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp851-2)

Extrachromosomal Inheritance
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA ; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS or from intracellular parasites such as viruses and plasmids. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.

Extracolonic
Outside the colon. An hereditary colon cancer syndrome may also predispose to extracolonic malignancies.

Extracorporeal
Outside the body, in the anatomic sense. As in extracorporeal circulation, extracorporeal dialysis, and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

Extracorporeal Circulation
Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.

Extracorporeal Circulations
Diversion of blood flow through a circuit located outside the body but continuous with the bodily circulation.

Extracorporeal Dialyses
Removal of certain elements from the blood based on the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane.

Extracorporeal Dialysis
Removal of certain elements from the blood based on the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane.

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
(ECMO) A life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system. ECMO is like a heart-lung machine that takes over the work of the heart and lungs during open heart surgery. ECMO may be used, for example, to treat ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome), lethal smoke inhalation injury, or irreversible heart failure. As a general rule, ECMO is only used for limited time because of the high risks of bleeding, clotting, infection and organ failure.

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenations
Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.

Extracorporeal Photochemotherapies
A process in which peripheral blood is exposed in an extracorporeal flow system to photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (METHOXSALEN) and ultraviolet light - a procedure known as PUVA THERAPY. Photopheresis is at present a standard therapy for advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; it shows promise in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

Extracorporeal Photochemotherapy
A process in which peripheral blood is exposed in an extracorporeal flow system to photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (METHOXSALEN) and ultraviolet light - a procedure known as PUVA THERAPY. Photopheresis is at present a standard therapy for advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; it shows promise in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

Extracorporeal Photopheresis
A process in which peripheral blood is exposed in an extracorporeal flow system to photoactivated 8-methoxypsoralen (METHOXSALEN) and ultraviolet light - a procedure known as PUVA THERAPY. Photopheresis is at present a standard therapy for advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma; it shows promise in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
A technique for shattering stones such as kidney stones or gallstones with a shock wave produced outside the body.

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
A method of breaking up bile stones and gallstones. Uses a specialized tool and shock waves.

Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsies
The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.

Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy
The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.

Extracranial
Outside the cranium, the bony dome that houses and protects the brain. As opposed to intracranial, inside the cranium.

Extracranial hematoma
A hematoma (a collection of blood) outside the cranium (skull).

Extracranial Intracranial Arterial Bypass
Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.

Extracranial-Intracranial Arterial Bypass
Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.

Extracranial-Intracranial Arterial Bypasses
Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.

Extract, Dialyzable Leukocyte
Factor derived from leukocyte lysates of immune donors which can transfer both local and systemic cellular immunity to nonimmune recipients.

Extraction
Removal of a tooth

Extraction, Cataract
Surgical removal of a cataractous lens. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Extraction, Obstetric
Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.

Extraction, Obstetrical
Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.

Extraction, Serial
The selective extraction of deciduous teeth during the stage of mixed dentition in accordance with the shedding and eruption of the teeth. It is done over an extended period to allow autonomous adjustment to relieve crowding of the dental arches during the eruption of the lateral incisors, canines, and premolars, eventually involving the extraction of the first premolar teeth. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Extraction, Supercritical Fluid
A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) puposes.

Extraction, Tooth
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Extractions, Cataract
Surgical removal of a cataractous lens. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Extractions, Obstetric
Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.

Extractions, Obstetrical
Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.

Extractions, Serial
The selective extraction of deciduous teeth during the stage of mixed dentition in accordance with the shedding and eruption of the teeth. It is done over an extended period to allow autonomous adjustment to relieve crowding of the dental arches during the eruption of the lateral incisors, canines, and premolars, eventually involving the extraction of the first premolar teeth. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Extractions, Tooth
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Extracts, Cell
Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.

Extracts, Chinese Plant
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.

Extracts, Liver
Extracts of liver tissue containing uncharacterized specific factors with specific activities; a soluble thermostable fraction of mammalian liver is used in the treatment of pernicious anemia.

Extracts, Pancreatic
Extracts prepared from pancreatic tissue that may contain the pancreatic enzymes or other specific uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities. PANCREATIN is a specific extract containing digestive enzymes and used to treat pancreatic insufficiency.

Extracts, Placental
Extracts prepared from placental tissue; they may contain specific but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities.

Extracts, Plant
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.

Extracts, Thymus
Extracts of the thymus that contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific activities; three distinct substances are already known: thymotoxin, thymin and thymosin.

Extracts, Tissue
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs; they usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active; extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.

Extradural
External (outside) to the dura mater.

Extradural Abscess
Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)

Extradural Abscess, Intracranial
Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)

Extradural Abscess, Spinal
Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)

Extradural Abscesses, Intracranial
Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)

Extradural Hematoma
Accumulation of blood in the cranial epidural space due to rupture of the middle meningeal artery or rarely the meningeal vein, often associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. The hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features include the acute or subacute onset of headache, VOMITING, alterations of mentation, and hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA). The natural history of the process is progression to coma and eventually death. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p885)

Extradural Hematomas
Accumulation of blood in the cranial epidural space due to rupture of the middle meningeal artery or rarely the meningeal vein, often associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. The hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features include the acute or subacute onset of headache, VOMITING, alterations of mentation, and hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA). The natural history of the process is progression to coma and eventually death. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p885)

Extradural Hemorrhage
Accumulation of blood in the cranial epidural space due to rupture of the middle meningeal artery or rarely the meningeal vein, often associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. The hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features include the acute or subacute onset of headache, VOMITING, alterations of mentation, and hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA). The natural history of the process is progression to coma and eventually death. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p885)

Extradural Hemorrhages
Accumulation of blood in the cranial epidural space due to rupture of the middle meningeal artery or rarely the meningeal vein, often associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. The hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features include the acute or subacute onset of headache, VOMITING, alterations of mentation, and hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA). The natural history of the process is progression to coma and eventually death. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p885)

Extradural Injection
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.

Extradural Injections
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.

Extraembryonic tissues
Intrauterine tissues derived from the zygote that support the embryo(for example, the placenta, the umbilical cord, and membranes such as the amniotic sac).

Extrafallopian
A term meaning "outside the fallopian tube." There are two fallopian tubes in female mammals, including human females. These tubes are also called oviducts. They serve as passageways connecting the egg-producing ovaries to the uterus (womb) in the pelvis.

Extrahepatic Bile Duct
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).

Extrahepatic Bile Ducts
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).

Extrahepatic Biliary System
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).

Extrahepatic Biliary Systems
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the COMMON BILE DUCT and the common hepatic duct (HEPATIC DUCT, COMMON).

Extramammary Paget Disease
A rare cutaneous neoplasm that occurs in the elderly. It develops more frequently in women and predominantly involves apocrine gland-bearing areas, especially the vulva, scrotum, and perianal areas. The lesions develop as erythematous scaly patches that progress to crusted, pruritic, erythematous plaques. The clinical differential diagnosis includes squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial fungal infection. It is generally thought to be an adenocarcinoma of the epidermis, from which it extends into the contiguous epithelium of hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1478)

Extramammary Pagets Disease
A rare cutaneous neoplasm that occurs in the elderly. It develops more frequently in women and predominantly involves apocrine gland-bearing areas, especially the vulva, scrotum, and perianal areas. The lesions develop as erythematous scaly patches that progress to crusted, pruritic, erythematous plaques. The clinical differential diagnosis includes squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial fungal infection. It is generally thought to be an adenocarcinoma of the epidermis, from which it extends into the contiguous epithelium of hair follicles and eccrine sweat ducts. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1478)

Extramarital Relation
Voluntary sexual intercourse between a married person and someone other than the spouse.

Extramarital Relations
Voluntary sexual intercourse between a married person and someone other than the spouse.

Extramarital Sex Behavior
Voluntary sexual intercourse between a married person and someone other than the spouse.

Extramedullary Hematopoieses
The formation and development of blood cells outside the bone marrow, as in the spleen, liver, or lymph nodes.

Extramedullary Hematopoiesis
The formation and development of blood cells outside the bone marrow, as in the spleen, liver, or lymph nodes.

Extramedullary Myeloid Cell Tumor
An extramedullary tumor of immature myeloid cells. Granulocytic sarcoma usually occurs with or follows the onset of acute myeloid leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).

Extramedullary Spinal Cord Compression
Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.

Extramembranous Glomerulopathies
A disease of the glomerulus manifested clinically by proteinuria, and sometimes by other features of the nephrotic syndrome. It is histologically characterized by deposits in the glomerular capillary wall between the epithelial cell and the basement membrane and a thickening of the membrane. Also characteristic are outward projections of the membrane between the epithelial deposits in the form of ""spikes"". There is some agreement that the deposits are antigen-antibody complexes.

Extramembranous Glomerulopathy
A disease of the glomerulus manifested clinically by proteinuria, and sometimes by other features of the nephrotic syndrome. It is histologically characterized by deposits in the glomerular capillary wall between the epithelial cell and the basement membrane and a thickening of the membrane. Also characteristic are outward projections of the membrane between the epithelial deposits in the form of ""spikes"". There is some agreement that the deposits are antigen-antibody complexes.

Extramycin
Antibiotic produced by Micromonospora inyoensis. It is closely related to gentamicin C1A, one of the components of the gentamicin complex (GENTAMICINS).

Extraneal
Extraneal is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): icodextrin.

Extranet
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Extranets
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Extranuclear Inheritance
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA ; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS or from intracellular parasites such as viruses and plasmids. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.

Extraocular
Adjacent to but outside the eyeball.

Extraoral Traction Appliance
Extraoral devices for applying force to the dentition in order to avoid some of the problems in anchorage control met with in intermaxillary traction and to apply force in directions not otherwise possible.

Extraoral Traction Appliances
Extraoral devices for applying force to the dentition in order to avoid some of the problems in anchorage control met with in intermaxillary traction and to apply force in directions not otherwise possible.

Extraordinary Treatment
Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.

Extraordinary Treatments
Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.

Extrapontine Myelinoclases
A demyelinating condition affecting the PONS and characterized clinically by an acute progressive QUADRIPLEGIA; DYSARTHRIA; DYSPHAGIA; and alterations of consciousness. Pathologic features include prominent demyelination in the central PONS with sparing of axons and neurons. This condition is usually associated with systemic disorders such as HYPONATREMIA; chronic ALCOHOLISM; LIVER FAILURE; severe BURNS; malignant NEOPLASMS; hemorrhagic PANCREATITIS; HEMODIALYSIS; and SEPSIS. The rapid medical correction of hyponatremia has been cited as a cause of this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1125-6)

Extrapontine Myelinoclasis
A demyelinating condition affecting the PONS and characterized clinically by an acute progressive QUADRIPLEGIA; DYSARTHRIA; DYSPHAGIA; and alterations of consciousness. Pathologic features include prominent demyelination in the central PONS with sparing of axons and neurons. This condition is usually associated with systemic disorders such as HYPONATREMIA; chronic ALCOHOLISM; LIVER FAILURE; severe BURNS; malignant NEOPLASMS; hemorrhagic PANCREATITIS; HEMODIALYSIS; and SEPSIS. The rapid medical correction of hyponatremia has been cited as a cause of this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1125-6)

Extrapontine Myelinolyses
A demyelinating condition affecting the PONS and characterized clinically by an acute progressive QUADRIPLEGIA; DYSARTHRIA; DYSPHAGIA; and alterations of consciousness. Pathologic features include prominent demyelination in the central PONS with sparing of axons and neurons. This condition is usually associated with systemic disorders such as HYPONATREMIA; chronic ALCOHOLISM; LIVER FAILURE; severe BURNS; malignant NEOPLASMS; hemorrhagic PANCREATITIS; HEMODIALYSIS; and SEPSIS. The rapid medical correction of hyponatremia has been cited as a cause of this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1125-6)

Extrapontine Myelinolysis
A demyelinating condition affecting the PONS and characterized clinically by an acute progressive QUADRIPLEGIA; DYSARTHRIA; DYSPHAGIA; and alterations of consciousness. Pathologic features include prominent demyelination in the central PONS with sparing of axons and neurons. This condition is usually associated with systemic disorders such as HYPONATREMIA; chronic ALCOHOLISM; LIVER FAILURE; severe BURNS; malignant NEOPLASMS; hemorrhagic PANCREATITIS; HEMODIALYSIS; and SEPSIS. The rapid medical correction of hyponatremia has been cited as a cause of this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1125-6)

Extrapyramidal Disorder
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.

Extrapyramidal Disorders
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.

Extrapyramidal Rigidity
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)

Extrapyramidal side effects
Physical symptoms, including tremor, slurred speech, akathesia, dystonia, anxiety, distress, paranoia, and bradyphrenia, that are primarily associated with improper dosing of or unusual reactions to neuroleptic (anti-psychotic) medications.

Extrapyramidal system
System consisting of nerve cells, nerve tracts and pathways that connects the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, reticular formation, and spinal neurons that is concerned with the regulation of reflex movements such as balance and walking.

Extrasensory Perception
Branch of psychology that deals with paranormal behavior and events such as telepathy, precognition, and clairvoyance, which are not explicable by present day ""natural laws"".

Extrasensory Perceptions
Branch of psychology that deals with paranormal behavior and events such as telepathy, precognition, and clairvoyance, which are not explicable by present day ""natural laws"".

Extrastriate cortex
Region of primate cerebral cortex anterior to striate cortex.

Extrasystole
A premature contraction of the heart that is independent of the normal rhythm of the heart and that arises in response to an impulse in some part of the heart other than the normal impulse from the sinoatrial (SA) node. The extrasystole is followed by a pause, as the heart electrical system "resets" itself and the contraction following the pause is usually more forceful than normal. These more forceful contractions are frequently perceived as palpitations.

Extrasystole, Atrial
Premature contractions of the heart arising from an ectopic atrial focus. With ventricular premature complexes, they represent one of the most common causes of irregular pulse. They are more apt to occur if there is atrial or conduction system disease such as left atrial enlargement in mitral stenosis. In community prospective studies, atrial premature complexes are not related to sudden death, as are ventricular premature beats in coronary disease. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p679; Sokolow, et al., Clinical Cardiology, 5th ed, p472)

Extrasystole, Ventricular
Premature contractions of the ventricle, the most common of all arrhythmias. In the absence of heart disease, they are not of great clinical significance, but in patients with coronary disease, they represent a constant danger of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation and sudden death. The longer-term prognosis for asymptomatic, healthy subjects with frequent and complex ectopy is similar to that for the healthy United States population. (From Sokolow, et al., Clinical Cardiology, 5th ed, p491)

Extrasystoles
A premature contraction of the heart that is initiated somewhere other than the sinoatrial node.

Extrasystoles, Atrial
Premature contractions of the heart arising from an ectopic atrial focus. With ventricular premature complexes, they represent one of the most common causes of irregular pulse. They are more apt to occur if there is atrial or conduction system disease such as left atrial enlargement in mitral stenosis. In community prospective studies, atrial premature complexes are not related to sudden death, as are ventricular premature beats in coronary disease. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Braunwald, Heart Disease, 4th ed, p679; Sokolow, et al., Clinical Cardiology, 5th ed, p472)

Extrasystoles, Ventricular
Premature contractions of the ventricle, the most common of all arrhythmias. In the absence of heart disease, they are not of great clinical significance, but in patients with coronary disease, they represent a constant danger of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation and sudden death. The longer-term prognosis for asymptomatic, healthy subjects with frequent and complex ectopy is similar to that for the healthy United States population. (From Sokolow, et al., Clinical Cardiology, 5th ed, p491)

Extraterrestrial Environment
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.

Extraterrestrial Environments
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.

Extrauterine
Outside the uterus (the womb). As opposed to intrauterine: inside the uterus. For example, normal pregnancies are intrauterine; extrauterine pregnancies can occur in the uterine tube or abdominal cavity and are distinctly abnormal.

Extrauterine pregnancy
A pregnancy that is not in the usual place and is located outside the inner lining of the uterus. A fertilized egg settles and grows in any location other than the inner lining of the uterus. The large majority (95%) of extrauterine pregnancies occur in the Fallopian tube. However, they can occur in other locations, such as the ovary, cervix, and abdominal cavity.

Extravasate
To seep through the skin, like drops of perspiration, or more accurately as plasma seeps through from the underlying capillaries to form droplets of lubrication on the adjoining vaginal mucosa.

Extravasation of Contrast Media
The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.

Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials
The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.

Extravasation of Diagnostic, Therapeutic Materials
The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.

Extravascular Lung Water
Water present within the lungs; its volume is roughly equal to, or a little less than, the intracellular blood volume of the lungs. Accumulations of extravascular lung water result in pulmonary edema.

Extravehicular Activity
Activities by crew members conducted outside the pressurized hull of a spacecraft.

Extraversion (Psychology)
A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.

Extraversions (Psychology)
A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.

Extreme Hearing Loss
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears. Deafness may result from EAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; or BRAIN DISEASES.

Extreme Hearing Losses
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears. Deafness may result from EAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; or BRAIN DISEASES.

Extremely High Frequency Radio Waves
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum lying between UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and heat (infrared) waves. Microwaves are used to generate heat, especially in some types of diathermy. They may cause heat damage to tissues.

Extremities, Artificial
Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts therof.

Extremity
The extremities in medical language are not freezing cold or scorching heat but rather the uttermost parts of the body. The extremities are simply the hands and feet.

Extremity Myoclonus, Lower
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS DISEASES (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus may represent a normal physiologic event or occur as the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).

Extremity Myoclonus, Upper
Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS DISEASES (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus may represent a normal physiologic event or occur as the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).

Extremity Pareses, Lower
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). ""General paresis"" and ""general paralysis"" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.

Extremity Pareses, Upper
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). ""General paresis"" and ""general paralysis"" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.

Extremity Paresis, Lower
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). ""General paresis"" and ""general paralysis"" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.

Extremity Paresis, Upper
A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). ""General paresis"" and ""general paralysis"" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.

Extremity, Artificial
Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts therof.

Extremophile
An organism that lives under extreme conditions. An example of an extremophile is Methanococcus jannaschii, a microbe that lives near hydrothermal vents deep beneath the sea.

Extrinsic
1. Not an essential or inherent part of a something such as a structure. 2. Coming from the outside. Extrinsic forces can mold the head before birth.

Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitides
Conditions in which inhalation of organic dusts results in hypersensitivity reactions at the alveolar level, associated with the production of precipitins.

Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis
Conditions in which inhalation of organic dusts results in hypersensitivity reactions at the alveolar level, associated with the production of precipitins.

Extrinsic asthma
Asthma that is triggered by an allergic reaction, usually to something that is inhaled.

Extrinsic Plasminogen Activators
A heterogeneous group of proteolytic enzymes that convert plasminogen to plasmin. They are concentrated in the lysosomes of most cells and in the vascular endothelium, particularly in the vessels of the microcirculation. EC 3.4.21.-.

Extrinsic Sleep Disorder
A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)

Extrinsic Sleep Disorders
A broad category of sleep disorders characterized by either hypersomnolence or insomnia. The three major subcategories include intrinsic (i.e., arising from within the body) (SLEEP DISORDERS, INTRINSIC), extrinsic (secondary to environmental conditions or various pathologic conditions), and disturbances of circadian rhythm. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)

Extrophies, Bladder
Congenital eversion of the urinary bladder. It is characterized by the absence of a portion of the lower abdominal wall and the anterior vesical wall, with eversion of the posterior vesical wall through the deficit.

Extrophy, Bladder
Congenital eversion of the urinary bladder. It is characterized by the absence of a portion of the lower abdominal wall and the anterior vesical wall, with eversion of the posterior vesical wall through the deficit.

Extroversion
A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.

Extroversion (Psychology)
A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.

Extroversions (Psychology)
A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.

Extrusion, Tooth
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.

Extrusions, Tooth
Orthodontic techniques used to correct the malposition of a single tooth.



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Epigenesis
Originally from the Greek "epi" (on, upon, on top of) and "genesis" (origin); the theory that the embryo is not preformed in the ovum or the sperm, but that it develops gradually by the successive formation of new parts. The concept has been extended to other areas of medicine, with different shades of meaning. Some of the other meanings are as follows: 1. Any change in an organism that is due to outside influences rather than to genetically determined ones. 2. The occurrence of secondary symptoms as a result of disease. 3. Developmental factors, and specifically the gene-environment interactions, that contribute to development. 4. The appearance of new functions that are not predictable on the basis of knowledge of the part-processes that have been combined. 5. The appearance of specific features at each stage of development, such as the different goals and risks that Erikson described for the eight stages of human life (trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. doubt, etc.). The life cycle theory adheres to the epigenetic principle in that each stage of development is characterized by crises or challenges that must be satisfactorily resolved if development is to proceed normally.

Ethnology
A science that concerns itself with the division of human beings into races and their origin, distribution, relations, and characteristics.

Euthymic
Mood in the "normal" range, which implies the absence of depressed or elevated mood.

Expansive mood
Lack of restraint in expressing one's feelings, frequently with an overvaluation of one's significance or importance. irritable Easily annoyed and provoked to anger.

Extinction
The weakening of a reinforced operant response as a result of ceasing reinforcement. See also operant conditioning. Also, the elimination of a conditioned response by repeated presentations of a conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus. See also respondent conditioning.

Extraversion

Expiatory paraphilia
One of a group of paraphilias characterized by triumph wrested developmentally from sexuoerotic tragedy by means of a strategy that incorporates sinful lust into the lovemap on the condition that it requires reparation or atonement by way of penance and sacrifice, since it irrevocably defiles saintly love.

Eligibilic paraphilia
One of a group of paraphilias characterized by triumph wrested developmentally from sexuoerotic tragedy by means of a strategy that incorporates lust into the lovemap on the condition that the partner be, like a pagan infidel, unqualified or ineligible to be a saint defiled.

Emergency Medical Services
This is comprised of all the medical out-of-hospital services designed to provide emergency medical care. This normally consists of Rescue teams, First Responders, EMT's, Paramedics and Air-Evacuation personnel.

Emergency Medical Technician
Emergency Medical Technicians, are Basic Life Support Personnel with training in early triage, BCLS, patient packaging/transport and advanced first aid. EMT's are traditionally found in an ambulance. Although Paramedics are technically EMT's (EMT-P versus EMT-B) most people refer to them separately.

EMS
See Emergency Medical Services.

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