Expenditure
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  Expenditure



Expenditure

   The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.

RELATED TERMS
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Health
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.

Costs
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.



SIMILAR TERMS
--------------------------------------

Expectancies, Life
A figure representing the number of years, based on known statistics, to which any person of a given age may reasonably expect to live.

Expectancy, Life
A figure representing the number of years, based on known statistics, to which any person of a given age may reasonably expect to live.

Expectant management or therapy
"Watchful waiting" or close monitoring of prostate cancer by a physician instead of immediate treatment.

Expected Family Size
Size and composition of the family.

Expected Family Sizes
Size and composition of the family.

Expectorant
A medication that helps bring up mucus and other material from the lungs, bronchi, and trachea. An example of as expectorant is guaifenesin which promotes drainage of mucus from the lungs by thinning the mucus and also lubricates the irritated respiratory tract. Sometimes the term "expectorant" is incorrectly extended to any cough medicine.

Expectorants
Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.

Expectoration
A big polysyllabic word for sputum or the act of bringing up and spitting out sputum.

Expedition
Usually refers to planned scientific data-gathering excursions.

Expeditions
Usually refers to planned scientific data-gathering excursions.

Expenditure, Capital
Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.

Expenditure, Direct
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.

Expenditure, Health
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.

Expenditure, Indirect
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.

Expenditure, Personal
Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.

Expenditures
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.

Expenditures, Capital
Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.

Expenditures, Direct
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.

Expenditures, Health
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.

Expenditures, Indirect
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.

Expenditures, Personal
Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.

Experiential Learning
Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.

Experimental Allergic Neuritides
An experimental animal demyelinating disease model of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)

Experimental Allergic Neuritis
An experimental animal demyelinating disease model of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)

Experimental Animal Model
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.

Experimental Animal Models
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.

Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis, Passive Transfer
Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis. Passive transfer of AChR antibodies or lymphocytes from afflicted animals to normals induces passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch 54, p3)

Experimental Autoimmune Myositis
Animal disease models that simulate human autoimmune disorders of the central or peripheral nervous system. Disease models have been established for the study of GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE).

Experimental Autoimmune Neuritides
An experimental animal demyelinating disease model of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)

Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis
An experimental animal demyelinating disease model of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)

Experimental Autoimmune Neuropathies
An experimental animal demyelinating disease model of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)

Experimental Autoimmune Neuropathy
An experimental animal demyelinating disease model of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)

Experimental Design
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.

Experimental Designs
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by pancreatectomy.

Experimental Game
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedure or strategies.

Experimental Games
Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedure or strategies.

Experimental Hepatoma
Experimentally induced tumors of the liver.

Experimental Hepatomas
Experimentally induced tumors of the liver.

Experimental High Pressure Neurological Syndrome
A syndrome related to increased atmospheric pressure and characterized by tremors, nausea, dizziness, decreased motor and mental performance, and SEIZURES. This condition may occur in those who dive deeply (c. 1000 ft) usually while breathing a mixture of oxygen and helium. The condition is associated with a neuroexcitatory effect of helium.

Experimental Hypokinesia
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility; and other conditions.

Experimental Hypokinesias
Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility; and other conditions.

Experimental Implant
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.

Experimental Implants
Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.

Experimental Leukemia
Leukemia induced experimentally by administration of various leukemogenic agents, viruses, radiation or transplantation.

Experimental Leukemias
Leukemia induced experimentally by administration of various leukemogenic agents, viruses, radiation or transplantation.

Experimental Liver Neoplasm
Experimentally induced tumors of the liver.

Experimental Liver Neoplasms
Experimentally induced tumors of the liver.

Experimental Lung Inflammation
Inflammation of the lungs.

Experimental Lung Inflammations
Inflammation of the lungs.

Experimental Model
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Experimental Models
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

Experimental Myasthenia
Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis. Passive transfer of AChR antibodies or lymphocytes from afflicted animals to normals induces passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch 54, p3)

Experimental Myasthenia Gravis
Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis. Passive transfer of AChR antibodies or lymphocytes from afflicted animals to normals induces passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch 54, p3)

Experimental Myasthenias
Any autoimmune animal disease model used in the study of MYASTHENIA GRAVIS. Injection with purified neuromuscular junction acetylcholine receptor (AChR) (see RECEPTORS, CHOLINERGIC) components results in a myasthenic syndrome that has acute and chronic phases. The motor endplate pathology, loss of acetylcholine receptors, presence of circulating anti-AChR antibodies, and electrophysiologic changes make this condition virtually identical to human myasthenia gravis. Passive transfer of AChR antibodies or lymphocytes from afflicted animals to normals induces passive transfer experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch 54, p3)

Experimental Myositis, Autoimmune
Animal disease models that simulate human autoimmune disorders of the central or peripheral nervous system. Disease models have been established for the study of GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE).

Experimental Parkinson Disease
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.

Experimental Parkinson Diseases
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.

Experimental Parkinsonism
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.

Experimental Parkinsonism, MPTP Induced
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.

Experimental Parkinsonism, MPTP-Induced
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.

Experimental Parkinsonisms
A group of disorders which feature impaired motor control characterized by bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; and postural instability. Parkinsonian diseases are generally divided into primary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE), secondary parkinsonism (see PARKINSON DISEASE, SECONDARY) and inherited forms. These conditions are associated with dysfunction of dopaminergic or closely related motor integration neuronal pathways in the BASAL GANGLIA.

Experimental Psychologies
The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.

Experimental Psychology
The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.

Experimental Radiation Injuries
Harmful effects of exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation produced experimentally in chordates.

Experimental Radiation Injury
Harmful effects of exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation produced experimentally in chordates.

Experimental Spinal Cord Ischemia
Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.

Experimentation, Animal
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.

Experimentation, Human
Moral, legal, ethical, social, and religious aspects of experiments on humans but not the routine conduct of clinical research.

Experiments (PT)
Works containing concise background information and directions for activities, including conducting experiments or diagnostic tests in the laboratory.

Experiments (Publication Type)
Works containing concise background information and directions for activities, including conducting experiments or diagnostic tests in the laboratory.

Expert Opinion
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.

Expert Opinions
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.

Expert System
Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.

Expert Systems
Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.

Expert Testimonies
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.

Expert Testimony
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.

Expert Witness
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.

Expert Witnesses
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
--------------------------------------

Expenditures
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.

Expenditure, Indirect
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.

Expenditure, Health
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.

Expenditure, Direct
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.

Expenditure, Capital
Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.

Expenditure

Expedition
Usually refers to planned scientific data-gathering excursions.

Experimental Autoimmune Myositis
Animal disease models that simulate human autoimmune disorders of the central or peripheral nervous system. Disease models have been established for the study of GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGIC); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, EXPERIMENTAL AUTOIMMUNE).

Experimental Allergic Neuritis
An experimental animal demyelinating disease model of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)

Experimental Animal Model
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.

Experimental Allergic Neuritides
An experimental animal demyelinating disease model of GUILLAINE-BARRE SYNDROME. In the most frequently used protocol, animals are injected with a peripheral nerve tissue protein homogenate. After approximately 2 weeks the animals develop a neuropathy secondary to a T cell-mediated autoimmune response directed towards the MYELIN P2 PROTEIN in peripheral nerves. Pathologic findings include a perivascular accumulation of macrophages and T lymphocytes in the peripheral nervous system, similar to that seen in the Guillaine-Barre syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1314; J Neuroimmunol 1998 Apr 1;84(1):40-52)

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