Eukaryotic
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  Eukaryotic



Eukaryotic

    The living world is divided into two classes of organism. Eukaryotic and, much simpler, prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria. Generally eukaryotes are diploid and their cells have internal organelles, such as nuclei. Prokaryotes are haploid with much simpler cells.

RELATED TERMS
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Organism
A living thing, such as an animal, a plant, a bacterium, or a fungus.

Eukaryotic
The living world is divided into two classes of organism. Eukaryotic and, much simpler, prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria. Generally eukaryotes are diploid and their cells have internal organelles, such as nuclei. Prokaryotes are haploid with much simpler cells.

Bacteria
Single-celled microorganisms which can exist either as independent (free-living) organisms or as parasites (dependent upon another organism for life).

Diploid
Refers to a cell having two sets of chromosomes (in humans, 46 chromosomes). In contrast, a haploid cell, such as a gamete, has only one set of chromosomes (23 in humans).

Nuclei
See nucleus.

Haploid
A single set of chromosomes (half the full set of genetic material), present in the egg and sperm cells of animals and in the egg and pollen cells of plants. Human beings have 23 chromosomes in their reproductive cells.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Eukaryote
An organism that consists of one or more cells each of which has a nucleus and other well-developed intracellular compartments. Eukaryotes include all organisms except bacteria, viruses, and certain (blue-green) algae which, by contrast, are prokaryotes.

Eukaryotic Cell
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.

Eukaryotic Cells
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.

Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 1
Eukaryotic initiation factor that binds to 30s ribosomal subunits. It is called eIF-1 in eukaryotes and IF-1 in bacteria. Its role is not clear but it may be involved in stabilizing the 30s subunit or assisting in the release of bacterial IF-2.

Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2
Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. The factor consists of three subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.

Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2alpha Kinase
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, eiF-2 kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eIF-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis. EC 2.7.10.-

Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2B
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EIF-2 to its GTP bound form.

Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-1
Eukaryotic initiation factor that binds to 30s ribosomal subunits. It is called eIF-1 in eukaryotes and IF-1 in bacteria. Its role is not clear but it may be involved in stabilizing the 30s subunit or assisting in the release of bacterial IF-2.

Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2
Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. The factor consists of three subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.

Eukaryotic Topoisomerase I
Eukaryotic enzymes of the DNA TOPOISOMERASES TYPE I class that catalyze ATP-independent breakage of one of the two strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strand through the break, and rejoining of the broken strand. These eukaryotic enzymes reduce the topological stress in the DNA structure by relaxing both negatively and positively supercoiled DNA.

Eukaryotic Topoisomerases II
Eukaryotic enzymes of the DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II class that catalyze ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. These enzymes bring about relaxation of the supercoiled DNA and resolution of a knotted circular DNA duplex. Isozymes of the eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase II consist of homodimers of alpha or beta subunits.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Epithelium
A thin layer of cells that covers the internal and external surfaces of the body, including body cavities, ducts and vessels.

Erythrocyte
An erythrocyte is more commonly known as a red blood cell, which is the most numerous type of blood cell. Erythrocytes contain the red pigment hemoglobin and are responsible for oxygen transport. In humans, the number of erythrocytes in the blood varies between 4.5 and 5.5 million per cubic millimeter. They survive for about four months and are then destroyed in the spleen and liver.

Ejaculation
Ejaculation is the process of ejecting semen from the penis, and is usually accompanied by orgasm as a result of sexual stimulation. It may also occur spontaneously during sleep (called a nocturnal emission), due to stimulating of the prostate or, rarely, due to prostatic disease.

Eukaryotic

Enzyme
A cellular protein whose shape allows it to hold together several other molecules in close proximity to each other. In this way, enzymes are able to induce chemical reactions in other substances with little expenditure of energy and without being changed themselves. Basically, an enzyme acts as a catalyst.

Eicosanoid
A hormone derived from a polyunsaturated fat. Eicosanoids are made by every cell in the body. As autocrine hormones, they are constantly produced by the cell to sample the external environment. "Good" eicosanoids generate AMP.

Endocrine hormones
Hormones that are secreted from a discrete gland and then travel through the bloodstream to target tissues.

Endocrinology
The study of hormones. A more inclusive definition would be the study of biological communications.

Endocytosis
The process by which extracellular molecules (including hormones) enter a cell.

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