Estrogen
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  Estrogen



Estrogen

    A hormone produced in the ovaries that works with progesterone to, among other things, regulate the reproductive cycle.

RELATED TERMS
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Hormone
A chemical substance formed in the body that is carried in the bloodstream to affect another part of the body; an example is thyroid hormone, produced by the thyroid gland in the neck, which affects growth, temperature regulation, metabolic rate, and other body functions.

Ovaries
The paired female sex glands in the pelvis, located one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries produce eggs and hormones including estrogen, progesterone, and androgens.

Progesterone
A hormone produced in response to luteinizing hormone (LH) released from the pituitary gland. It is required to flush out the uterus if an egg is not fertilized. It is also useful for stimulating the growth of new bone mass.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Estrace
Estrace is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): estradiol.

Estracomb
A medicine used in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, based in oestradiol and norethisterone. Produced by Novartis.

Estracyt
A nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties.

Estraderm
A medicine used in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause.

Estraderm TTS
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol
The most biologically potent of the naturally occurring estrogens. It is produced chiefly by the ovary and in small amount by the testis. Commercially, it is prepared in various compounds, such as estradiol benzoate and ethinyl estradiol.

Estradiol 17 alpha
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol 17 alpha Dehydrogenase
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 1.1.1.62

Estradiol 17 alpha-Dehydrogenase
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 1.1.1.62

Estradiol 17 beta
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol 17 beta Dehydrogenase
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 1.1.1.62

Estradiol 17 beta-Dehydrogenase
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 1.1.1.62

Estradiol and norgestimate
Estradiol and norgestimate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): estradiol; norgestimate.

Estradiol Antagonists
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of estradiol.

Estradiol Combination, Norgestrel-Ethinyl
Ethinyl Estradiol and Norgestrel given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive.

Estradiol cypionate
Estradiol cypionate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): estradiol cypionate.

Estradiol Dehydrogenase
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 1.1.1.62

Estradiol Dehydrogenases
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 1.1.1.62

Estradiol Hemihydrate
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol Hemihydrate, (17 alpha)-Isomer
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol Hemihydrate, Ethinyl
A semisynthetic estrogen with high oral estrogenic potency. It is often used as the estrogenic component in oral contraceptives.

Estradiol Monohydrate
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol Receptor
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.

Estradiol Receptors
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estradiol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate DNA transcription.

Estradiol valerate
Estradiol valerate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): estradiol valerate.

Estradiol, (+-)-Isomer
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol, (-)-Isomer
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol, (16 alpha,17 alpha)-Isomer
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol, (16 alpha,17 beta)-Isomer
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol, (17-alpha)-Isomer
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol, (8 alpha,17 beta)-(+-)-Isomer
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol, (8 alpha,17 beta)-Isomer
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol, (9 beta,17 alpha)-Isomer
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol, (9 beta,17 beta)-Isomer
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol, Ethinyl
A semisynthetic estrogen with high oral estrogenic potency. It is often used as the estrogenic component in oral contraceptives.

Estradiol, Ethynyl
A semisynthetic estrogen with high oral estrogenic potency. It is often used as the estrogenic component in oral contraceptives.

Estradiol, Monosodium Salt
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol, Sodium Salt
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol-17 alpha
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol-17 beta
The most potent mammalian estrogenic hormone. It is produced in the ovary, placenta, testis, and possibly the adrenal cortex.

Estradiol-Norgestrel Combination, Ethinyl
Ethinyl Estradiol and Norgestrel given in fixed proportions. It has proved to be an effective contraceptive.

Estradot
A medicine used in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause.

Estradurin
Estradurin is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): polyestradiol phosphate.

Estragest
Medication used in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause. Based in oestradiol, norethisterone acetate. Produced by Novartis.

Estraguard
Estraguard is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): dienestrol.

Estramustine
A nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties.

Estramustine Phosphate Sodium
A nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties.

Estramustinphosphate
A nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties.

Estranes
A group of compounds forming the nucleus of the estrogenic steroid family.

Estrapak
Medication used in the treatment of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause.

Estrasorb
Estrasorb is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): estradiol hemihydrate.

Estratab
Estratab is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): estrogens, esterified.

Estrenes
Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.

Estrenolone
A steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1189)

Estring
Estring is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): estradiol.

Estriol
A metabolite of ESTRADIOL and usually the predominant estrogenic metabolite in urine. During pregnancy, large amounts of estriol are produced by the placenta. It has also been obtained from plant sources. The 16 beta-isomer has also been isolated from the urine of pregnant women.

Estrofan
A naturally occuring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.

Estrogel
Estrogel is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): estradiol.

Estrogen Analogs
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis which possess estrogenic activity, but differ in structure from naturally occurring estrogens.

Estrogen Analogues
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis which possess estrogenic activity, but differ in structure from naturally occurring estrogens.

Estrogen Antagonists
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogen.

Estrogen Contraceptive Agents
Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.

Estrogen Nuclear Receptor
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.

Estrogen Receptor Modulator
Substances that possess antiestrogenic actions but can also produce estrogenic effects as well. They act as complete or partial agonist or as antagonist. They can be either steroidal or nonsteroidal in structure.

Estrogen Receptor Modulator, Selective
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate the estrogen receptor, but act as either an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)

Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Substances that possess antiestrogenic actions but can also produce estrogenic effects as well. They act as complete or partial agonist or as antagonist. They can be either steroidal or nonsteroidal in structure.

Estrogen Receptor Modulators, Selective
A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate the estrogen receptor, but act as either an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)

Estrogen Receptor Type I
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.

Estrogen Receptor Type II
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.

Estrogen Receptors
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.

Estrogen Receptors Type I
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.

Estrogen Receptors Type II
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.

Estrogen Replacement
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, dyspareunia, and progressive development of osteoporosis. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.

Estrogen Replacement Therapies
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, dyspareunia, and progressive development of osteoporosis. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.

Estrogen Replacement Therapy
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, dyspareunia, and progressive development of osteoporosis. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.

Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT)
Use of the female hormone estrogen to replace that which the body no longer produces naturally after medical or surgical menopause.

Estrogen Replacements
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, dyspareunia, and progressive development of osteoporosis. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.

Estrogen Synthase
An enzyme which converts androgens to estrogens by desaturating ring A of the steroid. This enzyme complex is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells including ovaries, placenta, testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells, adipose, and brain tissues. The enzyme complex has two components, one of which is the CYP19 gene product, the aromatase cytochrome P-450. The other component is NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase which transfers reducing equivalents to P-450(arom). EC 1.14.13.-.

Estrogen Synthetase
An enzyme which converts androgens to estrogens by desaturating ring A of the steroid. This enzyme complex is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells including ovaries, placenta, testicular Sertoli and Leydig cells, adipose, and brain tissues. The enzyme complex has two components, one of which is the CYP19 gene product, the aromatase cytochrome P-450. The other component is NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase which transfers reducing equivalents to P-450(arom). EC 1.14.13.-.

Estrogen UDP Glucuronosyltransferase
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.

Estrogen UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.

Estrogen, Stilbene
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)

Estrogen-associated blood clots
Blood clots are occasional but serious side effects of estrogen therapy. They are dose-related, that is, they occur more frequently with higher doses of estrogen.

Estrogen-associated hypercoagulability
Hypercoagulability (a supranormal tendency for blood to clot) occurs as an occasional but serious side effect of estrogen therapy.

Estrogen/progestin therapy
Abbreviated EPT. A combination of the hormones estrogen and progestin. Taken by women, the estrogen in the EPT relieves such symptoms of menopause as hot flashes, night sweats, sleeplessness, and vaginal dryness. When taken alone, however, estrogen also increases the risk for cancer of the uterine lining, or endometrium. Combining estrogen with progestin virtually eliminates the risk of endometrial cancer. EPT is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

Estrogenic Hormones, Conjugated
An amorphous preparation containing water-soluble, conjugated forms of mixed estrogens obtained either wholly or partly from the urine of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. The principal estrogen present is sodium estrone sulfate. The total estrogenic potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Estrogenic substance
Estrogenic substance is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): estrone.

Estrogenic Substances, Conjugated
An amorphous preparation containing water-soluble, conjugated forms of mixed estrogens obtained either wholly or partly from the urine of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. The principal estrogen present is sodium estrone sulfate. The total estrogenic potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Estrogens
A group of three steroid hormones that convey female characteristics and control fertilization. The production of estrogen is stimulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which uses cyclic AMP as its second messenger.

Estrogens, Catechol
2- or 4-Hydroxyestrogens. Substances that are physiologically active in mammals, especially in the control of gonadotropin secretion. Physiological activity can be ascribed to either an estrogenic action or interaction with the catecholaminergic system.

Estrogens, Conjugated
An amorphous preparation containing water-soluble, conjugated forms of mixed estrogens obtained either wholly or partly from the urine of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. The principal estrogen present is sodium estrone sulfate. The total estrogenic potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Estrogens, Non Steroidal
Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.

Estrogens, Non-Steroidal
Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.

Estrogens, Nonsteroidal
Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.

Estrogens, Synthetic
Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis which possess estrogenic activity, but differ in structure from naturally occurring estrogens.

Estrone
Estrone is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): estrone.

Estrone Glucuronyltransferase
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.

Estrone, (+-)-Isomer
A metabolite of estradiol but possessing less biological activity. It is found in the urine of pregnant women and mares, in the human placenta, and in the urine of bulls and stallions. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), estrone may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).

Estrone, (8 alpha)-Isomer
A metabolite of estradiol but possessing less biological activity. It is found in the urine of pregnant women and mares, in the human placenta, and in the urine of bulls and stallions. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), estrone may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).

Estrone, (9 beta)-Isomer
A metabolite of estradiol but possessing less biological activity. It is found in the urine of pregnant women and mares, in the human placenta, and in the urine of bulls and stallions. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), estrone may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).

Estropipate
Estropipate is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): estropipate.

Estrostep 21
Estrostep 21 is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): ethinyl estradiol; norethindrone acetate.

Estrostep fe
Estrostep fe is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): ethinyl estradiol; norethindrone acetate.

Estrous Cycle
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS, ESTRUS, METESTRUS, DIESTRUS, and ANESTRUS).

Estrous Cycles
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS, ESTRUS, METESTRUS, DIESTRUS, and ANESTRUS).

Estrovarin
A metabolite of estradiol but possessing less biological activity. It is found in the urine of pregnant women and mares, in the human placenta, and in the urine of bulls and stallions. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), estrone may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).

Estrovis
Estrovis is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): quinestrol.

Estrumate
A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.

Estrus
Phenomenon of being sexually receptive, or in heat, as manifested at the ovulatory phase of the sexual cycle of the female, especially in subprimate species. The phenomenon of being sexually receptive, or in heat, as found in the sexual cycle of some species. A condition or syndrome of persistent estrus can be produced in some animals (for example, the rat) by hormonal injection of the newborn, notably with androgen.

Estrus Detection
Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.

Estrus Detections
Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.

Estrus Synchronization
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.

Estrus Synchronizations
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Engagement
Engagement, also called lightening or dropping, is when the fetus descends into the pelvic cavity. In first-time mothers, this usually happens two to four weeks before delivery; babies of women who've already had children usually don't engage until labor begins.

Engorgement
Swollen and tender breasts, usually beginning between two days and a weekafter childbirth, when a mother's milk comes in. Symptoms usually disappear in a few days when nursing is well established, but breasts can re-engorge during weaning, a sudden nursing strike, or a bout of mastitis, or if the baby's sick.

Epidural
Anesthesia administered to a laboring mother into the epidural space at the base of the spine to numb the lower body. It decreases or eliminates pain, enabling her to save her strength for pushing. It can numb the lower body entirely, so she's unable to feel contractions when it is time to push out the baby.

Epiglottitis
An inflammation of the epiglottis, the flap of skin that hangs down the back of the throat and covers your windpipe when you swallow food, that can block the windpipe altogether, making breathing difficult. Generally caused by a bacterial infection that can be prevented by the Hib vaccine.

Erythema infectiosum
Last of five childhood diseases to be discovered, including scarlet fever, measles, rubella, and roseola.Mild infection characterized by fever and a bright red rash on the cheeks.

Estrogen

External cephalic version
A procedure in which a doctor, using ultrasound images as a guide, attempts to massage a baby out of breech position (feet down) and into a head-down position for delivery.

Eccentricity
Angular distance of a point on the retina from the center of the fovea.

Ecological approach
Emphasizes the information which may be available in extended spatial and temporal pattern in the optic array to guide the actions of animals and people and to specify events of importance or interest as opposed to considering information just present in the retinal image.

Edge integration
Describes a model of lightness perception in which a region's lightness is computed by integrating over the contrast edges in an image.

Efferent
Heading away. A system's efferent signals are those exiting to elsewhere. (As opposed to Afferent)

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