Epithelium
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  Epithelium



Epithelium

    A thin layer of cells that covers the internal and external surfaces of the body, including body cavities, ducts and vessels.

RELATED TERMS
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Cavities
Holes in the two outer layers of a tooth called the enamel and the dentin. The enamel is the outermost white hard surface and the dentin is the yellow layer just beneath enamel. Both layers serve to protect the inner living tooth tissue called the pulp, where blood vessels and nerves reside. Small cavities may not cause pain, and may be unnoticed by the patient. Larger cavities can collect food, and the inner pulp of the affected tooth can become irritated by bacterial toxins, foods that are cold, hot, sour, or sweet - causing toothache. Also referred to as caries.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Epitectin
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.

Epitestosterone
17 alpha-Hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3-one. A naturally occurring stereoisomer of testosterone with androgenic activity.

Epithalamus
The dorsal posterior subdivision of the diencephalon. The epithalamus is generally considered to include the habenular nuclei (HABENULA) and associated fiber bundles, the PINEAL BODY, and the epithelial roof of the third ventricle. The anterior and posterior paraventricular nuclei of the thalamus are included with the THALAMIC NUCLEI although they develop from the same pronuclear mass as the epithalamic nuclei and are sometimes considered part of the epithalamus.

Epithelial
Of the cells that line the internal and external surfaces of the body.

Epithelial basement corneal dystrophy
A disorder in which the cornea (the normally clear front window of the eye) shows grayish fingerprint lines, geographic map-like lines, and dots (or microcysts) on examination with a slit-lamp that focuses a high intensity light beam as a slit while the examiner looks at the front of the eye through a magnifying scope.

Epithelial carcinoma
Cancer that begins in the cells that line an organ.

Epithelial Cell
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body.

Epithelial cells
One of many kinds of cells that form the epithelium and absorb nutrients. See also epithelium.

Epithelial Cells
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body.

Epithelial Hyperplasia, Focal
Hyperplasia of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue, and less commonly, the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, and palate, presenting soft, painless, round to oval sessile papules about 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The condition usually occurs in children and young adults and has familial predilection, lasting for several months, sometimes years, before running its course. A viral etiology is suspected, the isolated organism being usually the human papillomavirus. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry; Belshe, Textbook of Human Virology, 2d ed, p954)

Epithelial Hyperplasias, Focal
Hyperplasia of the mucous membrane of the lips, tongue, and less commonly, the buccal mucosa, floor of the mouth, and palate, presenting soft, painless, round to oval sessile papules about 1 to 4 mm in diameter. The condition usually occurs in children and young adults and has familial predilection, lasting for several months, sometimes years, before running its course. A viral etiology is suspected, the isolated organism being usually the human papillomavirus. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry; Belshe, Textbook of Human Virology, 2d ed, p954)

Epithelial Membrane Antigen
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.

Epithelial Mucin, Polymorphic
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.

Epithelial Neoplasm
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.

Epithelial Neoplasm, Glandular
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.

Epithelial Neoplasm, Malignant
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for ""cancer."" (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Epithelial Neoplasms
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.

Epithelial Neoplasms, Glandular
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.

Epithelial Neoplasms, Malignant
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for ""cancer."" (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Epithelial Tumor, Malignant
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for ""cancer."" (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Epithelial Tumors, Malignant
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for ""cancer."" (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Epithelioid Angiomatoses
An infectious bacterial disease characterized by cutaneous vascular lesions. It is caused by BARTONELLA HENSELAE and is seen in AIDS patients and other immunocompromised hosts.

Epithelioid Angiomatoses, Bacillary
An infectious bacterial disease characterized by cutaneous vascular lesions. It is caused by BARTONELLA HENSELAE and is seen in AIDS patients and other immunocompromised hosts.

Epithelioid Angiomatosis
An infectious bacterial disease characterized by cutaneous vascular lesions. It is caused by BARTONELLA HENSELAE and is seen in AIDS patients and other immunocompromised hosts.

Epithelioid Angiomatosis, Bacillary
An infectious bacterial disease characterized by cutaneous vascular lesions. It is caused by BARTONELLA HENSELAE and is seen in AIDS patients and other immunocompromised hosts.

Epithelioid Cell
Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).

Epithelioid Cells
Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).

Epithelioid Leiomyoma
A relatively rare smooth muscle tumor found most frequently in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the stomach. It is similar to other smooth muscle tumors but may become very large and hemorrhage and exhibit small cystic areas. Simple excision is almost always curative. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1354)

Epithelioid Leiomyomas
A relatively rare smooth muscle tumor found most frequently in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract, especially in the stomach. It is similar to other smooth muscle tumors but may become very large and hemorrhage and exhibit small cystic areas. Simple excision is almost always curative. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1354)

Epithelioid Leiomyosarcoma
A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the viscera. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus. The median age of patients is 60 years. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1865)

Epithelioid Leiomyosarcomas
A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the viscera. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus. The median age of patients is 60 years. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1865)

Epithelioid Sarcoma
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.

Epithelioid Sarcomas
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.

Epithelioma
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for ""cancer."" (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Epithelioma Contagiosum
A poxvirus infection of poultry and other birds characterized by the formation of wart-like nodules on the skin and diphtheritic necrotic masses (cankers) in the upper digestive and respiratory tracts.

Epithelioma, Basal Cell
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). More than 95% of these carcinomas occur in patients over 40. They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)

Epitheliomas
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for ""cancer."" (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Epitheliomas, Basal Cell
A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). More than 95% of these carcinomas occur in patients over 40. They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)

Epithelium, Anterior Chamber
Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.

Epithelium, Anterior Corneal
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.

Epithelium, Corneal
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.

Epithelium, Intestinal
The innermost membrane of the four coats of the intestinal wall, the other three being the submucosa, muscular layers, and serosa. (Berk et al., Gastroenterology, 4th ed, v.3, p1479)

Epithelium, Laryngeal
The mucous lining of the larynx; mainly stratified squamous epithelium in the upper part and ciliated columnar in the lower part of the larynx.

Epithelium, Nasal
The mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity.

Epithelium, Olfactory
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory endings for olfaction; the organ of smell.

Epithelium, Respiratory
The mucous membrane lining the respiratory tract.

Epithelium, Retinal Pigment
Epithelium in the retina, ciliary body, and iris containing pigment granules.

Epithelium, Seminiferous
Specialized epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules containing developing and mature spermatozoa and Sertoli cells.

Epitheliums, Seminiferous
Specialized epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules containing developing and mature spermatozoa and Sertoli cells.

Epitol
Epitol is a prescription or over-the-counter drug which is (or once was) approved in the United States and possibly in other countries. Active ingredient(s): carbamazepine.

Epitope
An alternative term for antigenic determinant.

Epitope Mapping
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.

Epitope Mappings
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.

Epitope, B-Cell
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.

Epitope, B-Lymphocyte
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.

Epitope, T-Cell
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.

Epitope, T-Lymphocyte
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.

Epitopes
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.

Epitopes, B Lymphocyte
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.

Epitopes, B-Cell
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.

Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.

Epitopes, Immunodominant
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.

Epitopes, T Lymphocyte
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.

Epitopes, T-Cell
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.

Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.

Epitrate
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the adrenal medulla in most species. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. It is used in asthma and cardiac failure and to delay absorption of local anesthetics.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Epithelium

Erythrocyte
An erythrocyte is more commonly known as a red blood cell, which is the most numerous type of blood cell. Erythrocytes contain the red pigment hemoglobin and are responsible for oxygen transport. In humans, the number of erythrocytes in the blood varies between 4.5 and 5.5 million per cubic millimeter. They survive for about four months and are then destroyed in the spleen and liver.

Ejaculation
Ejaculation is the process of ejecting semen from the penis, and is usually accompanied by orgasm as a result of sexual stimulation. It may also occur spontaneously during sleep (called a nocturnal emission), due to stimulating of the prostate or, rarely, due to prostatic disease.

Eukaryotic
The living world is divided into two classes of organism. Eukaryotic and, much simpler, prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria. Generally eukaryotes are diploid and their cells have internal organelles, such as nuclei. Prokaryotes are haploid with much simpler cells.

Enzyme
A cellular protein whose shape allows it to hold together several other molecules in close proximity to each other. In this way, enzymes are able to induce chemical reactions in other substances with little expenditure of energy and without being changed themselves. Basically, an enzyme acts as a catalyst.

Eicosanoid
A hormone derived from a polyunsaturated fat. Eicosanoids are made by every cell in the body. As autocrine hormones, they are constantly produced by the cell to sample the external environment. "Good" eicosanoids generate AMP.

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