Epinephrine
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  Epinephrine



Epinephrine

    One of two chemicals (the other is norepinephrine) released by the adrenal gland that increases the speed and force of heart beats. It dilates the airways to improve breathing and narrows blood vessels in the skin and intestine so that an increased flow of blood reaches the muscles and allows them to cope with the demands of exercise.

RELATED TERMS
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Gland
An organ that releases a chemical. Endocrine glands are ductless and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. Exocrine glands secrete externally, either through a tube or duct.

Heart
The hollow, muscular organ responsible for pumping blood through the circulatory system.

Breathing
The process of respiration, during which air is inhaled into the lungs through the mouth or nose due to muscle contraction, and then exhaled due to muscle relaxation.

Blood
The life-maintaining fluid which is made up of plasma, red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets; blood circulates through the body's heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries; it carries away waste matter and carbon dioxide, and brings nourishment, electrolytes, hormones, vitamins, antibodies, heat, and oxygen to the tissues.

Skin
Skin is an organ of the integumentary system; which is composed of a layer of tissues that protect underlying muscles and organs. Skin is used for insulation, vitamin D production, sensation, and excretion (through sweat).

Intestine
The tube involved in digestion and extending from the stomach to the anus. Consists of the small intestine and the large intestine.

Exercise
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Epinephrine Bitartrate
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the adrenal medulla in most species. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. It is used in asthma and cardiac failure and to delay absorption of local anesthetics.

Epinephrine Hydrogen Tartrate
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the adrenal medulla in most species. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. It is used in asthma and cardiac failure and to delay absorption of local anesthetics.

Epinephrine Receptors
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.

Epinephrine, Racemic
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the adrenal medulla in most species. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic vasoconstriction and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the heart, and dilates bronchi and cerebral vessels. It is used in asthma and cardiac failure and to delay absorption of local anesthetics.

Epineurium
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.

Epineuriums
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.

Epinigericin
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)

Epinine
Sympathomimetic, vasoconstrictor agent.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Esophageal cancer
Esophageal cancer is cancer of the esophagus. The esophagus is a hollow tube that carries food and liquids from the throat to the stomach. When a person swallows, the muscular walls of the esophagus contract to push food down into the stomach. Glands in the lining of the esophagus produce mucus, which keeps the passageway moist and makes swallowing easier. The esophagus is located just behind the trachea (windpipe). In an adult, the esophagus is about 10 inches (25 cm) long.

Epilepsy
Sudden and recurrent disturbances in mental function, state of consciousness, sensory activity, or movements of the body, caused by paroxysmal malfunction of cerebral nerve cells. Epilepsy includes generalized convulsions in which there is sudden unconsciousness with falling and shaking of limbs, momentary lapses of awareness, and local movements and sensations in parts of the body, as well as other types of activity that may include bizarre automatic behaviour, strange memories, illusory and hallucinatory experiences, and changes in mood.

Eating disorders


Emotional disorders
A psychological disorder characterized by maladjustive emotional reactions such as irrational or uncontrollable fears, persistent anxiety, or extreme hostility.

Erythematous
Redness of the skin caused by congestion of the capillaries, often due to inflammation or infection.

Epinephrine

Endoplasmic reticulum
A network or system of folded membranes and interconnecting tubules distributed within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The membranes form enclosed or semienclosed spaces. The endoplasmic reticulum functions in storage and transport, and as a point of attachment of ribosomes during protein synthesis.

Erythromycin
An antibiotic derived from the bacterium Streptomyces erythreus which is especially effective against gram positive bacteria. This antibiotic is often used to treat people who are allergic to penicillin, to treat penicillin-resistant infections and acne.

Emphysema
Lung disease where the alveoli -parts of the lungs where gas is exchanged- have lost their elasticity. Breathing becomes increasingly difficult, and emphysema patients have to use other muscles to breathe out. The main cause of emphysema is smoking.

Earache
Any ache or pain arising in the ear. Technically it may be called otalgia or otodynia.

Ephedra
Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in the family Ephedraceae and order Ephedrales. These plants occur in dry climates over a wide area mainly in the Northern Hemisphere, across southern Europe, north Africa, southwest and central Asia, southwestern North America, and, in the Southern Hemisphere, in South America south to Patagonia. They are also called Joint-pine, Jointfir, yellow horse, country mallow, squaw tea or Mormon Tea. The Chinese species are known as Ma huang.

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