Epidemiology, Pharmaceutical
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  Epidemiology, Pharmaceutical



Epidemiology, Pharmaceutical

   The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))

RELATED TERMS
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Science
1. A continuous process whose basic purposes are to make phenomena recognizable and to predict outcomes, and whose fundamental activities comprise|(a) observing and describing phenomena and developing general conclusions about them; (b) integrating new data with organized observations that have been confirmed; (c) formulating testable hypotheses based on the results of such integration; (d) testing such hypotheses under controlled, repeatable conditions; (e) observing the results of such testing, recording them unambiguously, and interpreting them clearly; and (f) actively seeking criticism from participants in science. 2. Knowledge from science. 3. A scientific domain (e.g., genetics). 4. Knowledge from a particular scientific domain. 5. Any system or method characterized by the application of scientific principles to practical ends (e.g., culinary science). 6. Any disciplined, systematized area of study. 7. Methodological activity, training, or study. 8. Any activity that ostensibly requires study and method. 9. Knowledge from experience. 10. A developed ability. 11. The state of knowing.

Risk
In clinical trials, the probability of harm or discomfort for subjects, arising from the test product. Acceptable risk differs depending on the condition for which a product is being tested. A product for sore throat, for example, will be expected to have a low incidence of side effects. However, unpleasant side effects may be an acceptable risk when testing a promising treatment for a life-threatening illness.

Drugs
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.

Analysis
A psychology term for processes used to gain understanding of complex emotional or behavioral issues.

Clinical
That which can be observed in patients. Research that uses patients to test new treatments, as opposed to laboratory testing or research in animals.

Evaluation
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.

Guidelines
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES is available.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Epidemic
The occurrence of more cases of a disease than would be expected in a community or region during a given time period. A sudden severe outbreak of a disease such as SARS.

Epidemic Acute Poliomyelitis
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)

Epidemic hemorrhagic fever
A number of diseases characterized by an abrupt onset of high fever and chills, headache, cold and cough, and pain in the muscles, joints and abdomen with nausea and vomiting followed by bleeding into the kidney and elsewhere. Known also as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Many arboviruses (including those in the families Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Filoviridae, and Bunyaviridae) and the Hantaviruses, spread by rodents or biting insects, can cause epidemic hemorrhagic fever. The Ebola virus is a notorious cause of epidemic hemorrhagic fever.

Epidemic Hemorrhagic Fever
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.

Epidemic Hemorrhagic Fever Virus
The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.

Epidemic Hemorrhagic Fevers
An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.

Epidemic Louse-Borne Typhus
The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.

Epidemic myalgia
Also known as Bornholm disease, this is a temporary illness that is a result of virus infection. The disease features fever and intense abdominal and chest pains with headache. The chest pain is typically worsened by breathing or coughing. The illness usually lasts from 3 to 14 days. The most common virus causing Bornholm disease is an enterovirus called Coxsackie B. Bornholm disease is also called pleurodynia (because of inflammation of the lining tissue of the lungs).

Epidemic Myalgia
An acute, febrile, infectious disease generally occurring in epidemics. It is usually caused by coxsackieviruses B and sometimes by coxsackieviruses A; echoviruses; or other enteroviruses.

Epidemic Myalgias
An acute, febrile, infectious disease generally occurring in epidemics. It is usually caused by coxsackieviruses B and sometimes by coxsackieviruses A; echoviruses; or other enteroviruses.

Epidemic Neurolabyrinthitides
Idiopathic inflammation of the vestibular nerve, characterized clinically by the acute or subacute onset of vertigo, nausea, and imbalance. The cochlear nerve is typically spared and hearing loss and tinnitus do not usually occur. Symptoms usually resolve over a period of days to weeks. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p304)

Epidemic Neurolabyrinthitis
Idiopathic inflammation of the vestibular nerve, characterized clinically by the acute or subacute onset of vertigo, nausea, and imbalance. The cochlear nerve is typically spared and hearing loss and tinnitus do not usually occur. Symptoms usually resolve over a period of days to weeks. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p304)

Epidemic Non A, Non B Hepatitis
An acute form of hepatitis caused by a virus serologically distinct from the agents of hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis E is associated with fecally-contaminated water, is enterically transmitted, and is commonly found in tropical or subtropical countries.

Epidemic Non-A, Non-B Hepatitis
An acute form of hepatitis caused by a virus serologically distinct from the agents of hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis E is associated with fecally-contaminated water, is enterically transmitted, and is commonly found in tropical or subtropical countries.

Epidemic Parotitides
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Epidemic Parotitis
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Epidemic Parotitis Virus
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.

Epidemic Parotitis Viruses
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.

Epidemic Pleurodynia
An acute, febrile, infectious disease generally occurring in epidemics. It is usually caused by coxsackieviruses B and sometimes by coxsackieviruses A; echoviruses; or other enteroviruses.

Epidemic Pleurodynias
An acute, febrile, infectious disease generally occurring in epidemics. It is usually caused by coxsackieviruses B and sometimes by coxsackieviruses A; echoviruses; or other enteroviruses.

Epidemic Tremor Virus
A tentative species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS infecting primarily young chicks, but also found in turkeys, pheasants, and guinea fowl. It causes a fatal neuronal degeneration and is transmitted by mechanical contact.

Epidemic Tremor Viruses
A tentative species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS infecting primarily young chicks, but also found in turkeys, pheasants, and guinea fowl. It causes a fatal neuronal degeneration and is transmitted by mechanical contact.

Epidemics
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes epidemics.

Epidemiologic Biases
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.

Epidemiologic Confounding Factor
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.

Epidemiologic Confounding Factors
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.

Epidemiologic Determinant
Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.

Epidemiologic Determinants
Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.

Epidemiologic Effect Modifier
Factors that modify the effect of the putative causal factor(s) under study.

Epidemiologic Effect Modifiers
Factors that modify the effect of the putative causal factor(s) under study.

Epidemiologic Factor
Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.

Epidemiologic Factors
Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.

Epidemiologic Measurement
Statistical calculations on the occurrence of disease or other health-related conditions in defined populations.

Epidemiologic Measurements
Statistical calculations on the occurrence of disease or other health-related conditions in defined populations.

Epidemiologic Monitoring
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment or workplace by measuring the amounts of these toxicants in the bodies of people and animals in that environment, among other methods. It also includes the measurement of ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE. Levels in humans and animals are used as indicators of toxic levels of undesirable chemicals.

Epidemiologic Research Design
The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.

Epidemiologic Research Designs
The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.

Epidemiologic Studies
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.

Epidemiologic Study
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.

Epidemiologic Study Characteristic
Types and formulations of studies used in epidemiological and clinical research.

Epidemiologic Study Characteristics
Types and formulations of studies used in epidemiological and clinical research.

Epidemiological Monitoring
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment or workplace by measuring the amounts of these toxicants in the bodies of people and animals in that environment, among other methods. It also includes the measurement of ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE. Levels in humans and animals are used as indicators of toxic levels of undesirable chemicals.

Epidemiological Research Design
The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.

Epidemiological Research Designs
The form and structure of analytic studies in epidemiologic and clinical research.

Epidemiological Studies
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.

Epidemiological Study
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.

Epidemiologies, Molecular
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.

Epidemiologies, Pharmaceutical
The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))

Epidemiologist
A person engaged in epidemiology (not confined to epidemics).

Epidemiology
Study of the incidence of disease in a population.

Epidemiology, classical
The study of populations in order to determine the frequency and distribution of disease and measure risks.

Epidemiology, clinical
Epidemiology focused specifically upon patients. Epidemiology is the study of populations in order to determine the frequency and distribution of disease and measure risks.

Epidemiology, Molecular
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.

Epidermal
Pertaining to the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin.

Epidermal Cell Derived Thymocyte Activating Factor
A soluble factor produced by monocytes, macrophages, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. IL-1 consists of two distinct forms, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta which perform the same functions but are distinct proteins. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation. The factor is distinct from INTERLEUKIN-2.

Epidermal Cell Derived Thymocyte-Activating Factor
A soluble factor produced by monocytes, macrophages, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. IL-1 consists of two distinct forms, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta which perform the same functions but are distinct proteins. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation. The factor is distinct from INTERLEUKIN-2.

Epidermal Cyst
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Epidermal Cysts
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Epidermal Growth Factor
A 6 kD polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and epithelial cells.

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA, amphiregulin, and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell. EC 2.7.11.-.

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Genes
The proto-oncogene c-erbB-1 codes for the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral homolog v-erbB which was isolated from an avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV) where it was contained as a fragment of the chicken c-ErbB-1 gene lacking the amino-terminal ligand-binding domain. Overexpression of erbB-1 genes occurs in a wide range of tumors, commonly squamous carcinomas of various sites and less commonly adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-1 gene is located in the chromosomal region 7p14 and 7p12.

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA, amphiregulin, and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell. EC 2.7.11.-.

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Protein Tyrosine Kinase
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA, amphiregulin, and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell. EC 2.7.11.-.

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinase
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA, amphiregulin, and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell. EC 2.7.11.-.

Epidermal Growth Factor Related Transforming Growth Factor
Factor isolated in a variety of tissues including epithelium, and maternal decidua. It is closely related to EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and binds to the EGF receptor. TGF-alpha acts synergistically with TGF-beta in inducing phenotypic transformation, but its physiological role is unknown.

Epidermal Growth Factor-Related Transforming Growth Factor
Factor isolated in a variety of tissues including epithelium, and maternal decidua. It is closely related to EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and binds to the EGF receptor. TGF-alpha acts synergistically with TGF-beta in inducing phenotypic transformation, but its physiological role is unknown.

Epidermal Growth Factor-Urogastrone
A 6 kD polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and epithelial cells.

Epidermal Growth Factors
A 6 kD polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and epithelial cells.

Epidermal Hyperplasia Virus 1, Walleye
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE infecting fish. Species include Walleye dermal sarcoma virus, Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 1, and Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 2.

Epidermal Hyperplasia Virus 2, Walleye
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE infecting fish. Species include Walleye dermal sarcoma virus, Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 1, and Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 2.

Epidermal Necrolyses, Toxic
An exfoliative disease of skin seen primarily in adults and characterized by flaccid bullae and spreading erythema so that the skin has the appearance of being scalded. It results primarily from a toxic reaction to various drugs, but occasionally occurs as a result of infection, neoplastic conditions, or other exposure.

Epidermal Necrolysis, Toxic
An exfoliative disease of skin seen primarily in adults and characterized by flaccid bullae and spreading erythema so that the skin has the appearance of being scalded. It results primarily from a toxic reaction to various drugs, but occasionally occurs as a result of infection, neoplastic conditions, or other exposure.

Epidermis
The outermost layer of skin.

Epidermis, Plant
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Epidermitis, Exudative of Swine
An acute generalized dermatitis of pigs which occurs from 5 to 35 days of age, characterized by sudden onset, with morbidity of 10 to 90% and mortality of 5 to 90%. The lesions are caused by Staphylococcus hyos but the bacterial agent is unable to penetrate the intact skin. Abrasions on the feet and legs or lacerations on the body frequently precede infection. In acute cases, a vesicular-type virus may be the predisposing factor. The causative organism is inhibited by most antibiotics. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed)

Epidermitis, Exudative, of Swine
An acute generalized dermatitis of pigs which occurs from 5 to 35 days of age, characterized by sudden onset, with morbidity of 10 to 90% and mortality of 5 to 90%. The lesions are caused by Staphylococcus hyos but the bacterial agent is unable to penetrate the intact skin. Abrasions on the feet and legs or lacerations on the body frequently precede infection. In acute cases, a vesicular-type virus may be the predisposing factor. The causative organism is inhibited by most antibiotics. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed)

Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis
An autosomal recessive trait with impaired cell-mediated immunity. About 15 human papillomaviruses are implicated in associated infection, four of which lead to skin neoplasms. The disease begins in childhood with red papules and later spreads over the body as gray or yellow scales.

Epidermoid carcinoma
A type of lung cancer in which the cells are flat and look like fish scales. Also called squamous cell carcinoma.

Epidermoid Carcinoma
A carcinoma derived from stratified squamous epithelium. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Epidermoid Carcinomas
A carcinoma derived from stratified squamous epithelium. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Epidermoid Cyst
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Epidermoid Cysts
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Epidermolysins
Protein exotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II, which cause epidermal necrolysis. They are proteins with a molecular weight of 26,000 to 32,000. They cause a condition variously called scaled skin, Lyell or Ritter syndrome, epidermal exfoliative disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, etc.

Epidermolysis bullosa
One in a group of blistering skin conditions. The skin is so fragile in people with epidermolysis bullosa that even minor rubbing may cause blistering. At times, the person may not be aware of rubbing or injuring the skin even though blisters develop. In severe epidermolysis bullosa, blisters are not confined to the outer skin. They may develop inside the body, in such places as the linings of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, upper airway, bladder, and the genitals. Most forms of epidermolysis bullosa are evident at birth. This disorder can be both disabling and disfiguring, and some forms may lead to early death. The disease results when skin layers separate after minor trauma. Defects of several proteins within the skin are at fault.

Epidermolysis Bullosa
Group of genetically determined disorders characterized by the blistering of skin and mucosae. There are four major forms: acquired, simple, junctional, and dystrophic. Each of the latter three has several varieties.

Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita
A rare autoimmune skin disease with blisters. In epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) the body attacks its own anchoring fibrils with antibodies. The anchoring filaments (thread-like fibers) are structures that anchor the epidermis to the underlying basement membrane. The destruction of the anchoring fibrils leads to tissue separation and blistering in the upper part of the basement membrane.In some cases, EBA has occurred following drug therapy for another condition; in most cases, the cause is unknown.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by trauma-induced, subepidermal blistering with no family history of the disease. Direct immunofluorescence shows IMMUNOGLOBULIN G deposited at the dermo-epidermal junction.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Dystrophica
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by atrophy of blistered areas, severe scarring, and nail changes. It is most often present at birth or in early infancy and occurs in both autosomal dominant and recessive forms.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Dystrophica, Dominant
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by atrophy of blistered areas, severe scarring, and nail changes. It is most often present at birth or in early infancy and occurs in both autosomal dominant and recessive forms.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Dystrophica, Recessive
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by atrophy of blistered areas, severe scarring, and nail changes. It is most often present at birth or in early infancy and occurs in both autosomal dominant and recessive forms.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Herpetiformis Dowling Meara
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance and by serous bullae that heal without scarring.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Herpetiformis Dowling-Meara
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance and by serous bullae that heal without scarring.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Letalis
Form of epidermolysis bullosa having onset at birth or during the neonatal period and transmitted through autosomal recessive inheritance. It is characterized by generalized blister formation, extensive denudation, and separation and cleavage of the basal cell plasma membranes from the basement membrane.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Progressiva
Form of epidermolysis bullosa having onset at birth or during the neonatal period and transmitted through autosomal recessive inheritance. It is characterized by generalized blister formation, extensive denudation, and separation and cleavage of the basal cell plasma membranes from the basement membrane.

Epidermolysis bullosa simplex
A blistering skin condition usually inherited as an autosomal dominant disease. The faulty genes are those that provide instructions for producing keratin, a fibrous protein in the top layer of skin. As a result, the skin splits in the epidermis, producing a blister.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance and by serous bullae that heal without scarring.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex Kobner
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance and by serous bullae that heal without scarring.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex, Generalized
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance and by serous bullae that heal without scarring.

Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex, Localized
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance and by serous bullae that heal without scarring.

Epidermolysis Bullosa, Acquired
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by trauma-induced, subepidermal blistering with no family history of the disease. Direct immunofluorescence shows IMMUNOGLOBULIN G deposited at the dermo-epidermal junction.

Epidermolysis Bullosa, Dystrophic
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by atrophy of blistered areas, severe scarring, and nail changes. It is most often present at birth or in early infancy and occurs in both autosomal dominant and recessive forms.

Epidermolysis Bullosa, Junctional
Form of epidermolysis bullosa having onset at birth or during the neonatal period and transmitted through autosomal recessive inheritance. It is characterized by generalized blister formation, extensive denudation, and separation and cleavage of the basal cell plasma membranes from the basement membrane.

Epidermolytic Hyperkeratoses
A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by erythroderma and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas.

Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis
A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by erythroderma and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas.

Epidermolytic Toxins
Protein exotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II, which cause epidermal necrolysis. They are proteins with a molecular weight of 26,000 to 32,000. They cause a condition variously called scaled skin, Lyell or Ritter syndrome, epidermal exfoliative disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, etc.

Epidermophyton
A fungal genus which grows in the epidermis and is the cause of TINEA.

Epidermotoxins
Specific substances elaborated by plants, microorganisms or animals that cause damage to the skin; they may be proteins or other specific factors or substances; constituents of spider, jellyfish or other venoms cause dermonecrosis and certain bacteria synthesize dermolytic agents.

Epididymal Secretory Proteins
Proteins secreted by the epididymal epithelium. These proteins are both tissue- and species-specific. They are important molecular agents in the process of sperm maturation.

Epididymis
The elongated structure behind each testicle where sperm are stored.

Epididymitides
Inflammation of the epididymis. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Epididymitis
Inflammation and pain of the epididymis, the coiled tubular structure immediately adjacent to the testis through which sperm are transported to the vas deferens and the urethra.

Epidural
Anesthesia administered to a laboring mother into the epidural space at the base of the spine to numb the lower body. It decreases or eliminates pain, enabling her to save her strength for pushing. It can numb the lower body entirely, so she's unable to feel contractions when it is time to push out the baby.

Epidural Abscess
Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)

Epidural Abscess, Cranial
Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)

Epidural Abscess, Intracranial
Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)

Epidural Abscess, Spinal
Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)

Epidural Analgesia
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.

Epidural anesthesia
Method of pain relief used during surgery or childbirth in which an anesthetic is injected into a small area surrounding the spinal cord (the ePIDural space) to block pain nerve impulses from the lower half of the body.

Epidural Anesthesia, Sacral
Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.

Epidural anesthetic
An anesthetic agent injected into the epidural space, the space outside the dura -- the outermost, toughest, and most fibrous of the three membranes (meninges) covering the spinal cord -- in order to bath the spinal nerve roots in the anesthetic agent and numb the lower abdomen, pelvis, and legs.

Epidural Blood Patch
The injection of autologous blood into the epidural space either as a prophylactic treatment immediately following an epidural puncture or for treatment of headache as a result of an epidural puncture.

Epidural Blood Patchs
The injection of autologous blood into the epidural space either as a prophylactic treatment immediately following an epidural puncture or for treatment of headache as a result of an epidural puncture.

Epidural Hematoma
Accumulation of blood in the cranial epidural space due to rupture of the middle meningeal artery or rarely the meningeal vein, often associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. The hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features include the acute or subacute onset of headache, VOMITING, alterations of mentation, and hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA). The natural history of the process is progression to coma and eventually death. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p885)

Epidural Hematomas
Accumulation of blood in the cranial epidural space due to rupture of the middle meningeal artery or rarely the meningeal vein, often associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. The hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features include the acute or subacute onset of headache, VOMITING, alterations of mentation, and hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA). The natural history of the process is progression to coma and eventually death. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p885)

Epidural Hemorrhage
Accumulation of blood in the cranial epidural space due to rupture of the middle meningeal artery or rarely the meningeal vein, often associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. The hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features include the acute or subacute onset of headache, VOMITING, alterations of mentation, and hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA). The natural history of the process is progression to coma and eventually death. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p885)

Epidural Hemorrhages
Accumulation of blood in the cranial epidural space due to rupture of the middle meningeal artery or rarely the meningeal vein, often associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. The hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain. Clinical features include the acute or subacute onset of headache, VOMITING, alterations of mentation, and hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA). The natural history of the process is progression to coma and eventually death. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p885)

Epidural Injection
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.

Epidural Injections
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.

Epidural Neoplasm
Neoplasms located in the space between the vertebral PERIOSTEUM and DURA MATER surrounding the SPINAL CORD. Tumors in this location are most often metastatic in origin and may cause neurologic deficits by mass effect on the spinal cord or nerve roots or by interfering with blood supply to the spinal cord.

Epidural Neoplasm, Malignant
Neoplasms located in the space between the vertebral PERIOSTEUM and DURA MATER surrounding the SPINAL CORD. Tumors in this location are most often metastatic in origin and may cause neurologic deficits by mass effect on the spinal cord or nerve roots or by interfering with blood supply to the spinal cord.

Epidural Neoplasms
Neoplasms located in the space between the vertebral PERIOSTEUM and DURA MATER surrounding the SPINAL CORD. Tumors in this location are most often metastatic in origin and may cause neurologic deficits by mass effect on the spinal cord or nerve roots or by interfering with blood supply to the spinal cord.

Epidural Neoplasms, Malignant
Neoplasms located in the space between the vertebral PERIOSTEUM and DURA MATER surrounding the SPINAL CORD. Tumors in this location are most often metastatic in origin and may cause neurologic deficits by mass effect on the spinal cord or nerve roots or by interfering with blood supply to the spinal cord.

Epidural Pneumocephalus
Presence of air or gas within the intracranial cavity (e.g., epidural space, subdural space, intracerebral, etc.) which may result from traumatic injuries, fistulous tract formation, erosions of the skull from NEOPLASMS or infection, NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES, and other conditions.

Epidural Space
Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.

Epidural Spaces
Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.

Epidural Tumor
Neoplasms located in the space between the vertebral PERIOSTEUM and DURA MATER surrounding the SPINAL CORD. Tumors in this location are most often metastatic in origin and may cause neurologic deficits by mass effect on the spinal cord or nerve roots or by interfering with blood supply to the spinal cord.

Epidural Tumors
Neoplasms located in the space between the vertebral PERIOSTEUM and DURA MATER surrounding the SPINAL CORD. Tumors in this location are most often metastatic in origin and may cause neurologic deficits by mass effect on the spinal cord or nerve roots or by interfering with blood supply to the spinal cord.



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Epidermal Growth Factor
A 6 kD polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and epithelial cells.

Epidermal Cysts
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Epidermal Cyst
Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.

Epidermal Cell Derived Thymocyte-Activating Factor
A soluble factor produced by monocytes, macrophages, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. IL-1 consists of two distinct forms, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta which perform the same functions but are distinct proteins. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation. The factor is distinct from INTERLEUKIN-2.

Epidermal Cell Derived Thymocyte Activating Factor
A soluble factor produced by monocytes, macrophages, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. IL-1 consists of two distinct forms, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta which perform the same functions but are distinct proteins. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation. The factor is distinct from INTERLEUKIN-2.

Epidemiology, Pharmaceutical

Epidemiology, Molecular
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.

Epidemiologies, Pharmaceutical
The science concerned with the benefit and risk of drugs used in populations and the analysis of the outcomes of drug therapies. Pharmacoepidemiologic data come from both clinical trials and epidemiological studies with emphasis on methods for the detection and evaluation of drug-related adverse effects, assessment of risk vs benefit ratios in drug therapy, patterns of drug utilization, the cost-effectiveness of specific drugs, methodology of postmarketing surveillance, and the relation between pharmacoepidemiology and the formulation and interpretation of regulatory guidelines. (Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 1992;1(1); J Pharmacoepidemiol 1990;1(1))

Epidemiologies, Molecular
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.

Epidermitis, Exudative of Swine
An acute generalized dermatitis of pigs which occurs from 5 to 35 days of age, characterized by sudden onset, with morbidity of 10 to 90% and mortality of 5 to 90%. The lesions are caused by Staphylococcus hyos but the bacterial agent is unable to penetrate the intact skin. Abrasions on the feet and legs or lacerations on the body frequently precede infection. In acute cases, a vesicular-type virus may be the predisposing factor. The causative organism is inhibited by most antibiotics. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed)

Epidermitis, Exudative, of Swine
An acute generalized dermatitis of pigs which occurs from 5 to 35 days of age, characterized by sudden onset, with morbidity of 10 to 90% and mortality of 5 to 90%. The lesions are caused by Staphylococcus hyos but the bacterial agent is unable to penetrate the intact skin. Abrasions on the feet and legs or lacerations on the body frequently precede infection. In acute cases, a vesicular-type virus may be the predisposing factor. The causative organism is inhibited by most antibiotics. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed)

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