Enhancement Technologies
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  Enhancement Technologies



Enhancement Technologies

   The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.

RELATED TERMS
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Disease
Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the rubella (German measles) virus.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Enhanced external counterpulsation
A non-invasive out-patient treatment for heart disease and, in particular, for angina (chest pain due to an inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle). EECP is designed to relieve angina by improving perfusion in areas of the heart deprived of an adequate blood supply. EECP uses a device to inflate and deflate a series of compressive cuffs that are wrapped around the calves and lower and upper thighs. The basic principle involved is that of counterpulsation. The cuffs inflate during diastole, the period when the heart muscle relaxes and the chambers fill with blood. The cuffs inflate sequentially from the calves upwards, resulting in increased pressure in the aorta and coronary arteries. Compression of the vascular bed in the legs also increases the return of venous blood to the heart and increases cardiac output. Patients are customarily treated with EECP for an hour a day for a total of 35 hours.

Enhanced External Counterpulsation (EECP)
A treatment for those with symptomatic coronary artery disease, not eligible for standard treatments of revascularization. During EECP, cuffs wrapped around the calves, thighs and buttocks are inflated and deflated, gently but firmly compressing the blood vessels in the lower limbs, increasing blood flow to the heart. EECP may stimulate the openings or formation of collateral vessels to create a "natural bypass" around narrowed or blocked arteries.

Enhancement Technology
The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.

Enhancement, Antibody-Dependent
Enhancement of viral infectivity caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. There are at least two mechanisms known to account for this: mediation by Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) or by complement receptors (RECEPTORS, COMPLEMENT). Either the virus is complexed with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN G and binds to Fc receptors, or virus is coated with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and binds to complement receptors.

Enhancement, Biomedical
The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.

Enhancement, Genetic
The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.

Enhancement, Image
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural microscopy, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.

Enhancement, Radiographic Image
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.

Enhancements, Biomedical
The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.

Enhancements, Genetic
The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.

Enhancements, Image
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural microscopy, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.

Enhancements, Radiographic Image
Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.

Enhancer
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.

Enhancer Element
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.

Enhancer Element (Genetics)
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.

Enhancer Elements
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.

Enhancer Elements (Genetics)
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.

Enhancer, HIV
Cis-acting regulatory sequences in the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) which play a major role in induction or augmentation of HIV gene expression in response to environmental stimuli such as mitogens, phorbol esters, or other viruses. The HIV enhancer is the binding site for many cellular transcription factors including the nuclear factor NF-kappa B.

Enhancer, HIV-1
Cis-acting regulatory sequences in the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) which play a major role in induction or augmentation of HIV gene expression in response to environmental stimuli such as mitogens, phorbol esters, or other viruses. The HIV enhancer is the binding site for many cellular transcription factors including the nuclear factor NF-kappa B.

Enhancer-Binding Protein, AP-1
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.

Enhancer-Binding Protein, Immunoglobulin
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.

Enhancers
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.

Enhancers, Cognitive
Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.

Enhancers, HIV
Cis-acting regulatory sequences in the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) which play a major role in induction or augmentation of HIV gene expression in response to environmental stimuli such as mitogens, phorbol esters, or other viruses. The HIV enhancer is the binding site for many cellular transcription factors including the nuclear factor NF-kappa B.

Enhancers, HIV-1
Cis-acting regulatory sequences in the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) which play a major role in induction or augmentation of HIV gene expression in response to environmental stimuli such as mitogens, phorbol esters, or other viruses. The HIV enhancer is the binding site for many cellular transcription factors including the nuclear factor NF-kappa B.

Enhancing Antibodies
Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between antigen and other antibodies or sensitized T-lymphocytes (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IgE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Enhancement, Image
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural microscopy, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.

Enhancement, Genetic
The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.

Enhancement, Biomedical
The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.

Enhancement, Antibody-Dependent
Enhancement of viral infectivity caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. There are at least two mechanisms known to account for this: mediation by Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) or by complement receptors (RECEPTORS, COMPLEMENT). Either the virus is complexed with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN G and binds to Fc receptors, or virus is coated with antiviral IMMUNOGLOBULIN M and binds to complement receptors.

Enhancement Technology
The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.

Enhancement Technologies

Enkephalin Receptors
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.

Enkephalin, 2-Alanyl-Leucine
A delta-selective opioid (ANALGESICS, OPIOID). It can cause transient depression of mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate.

Enkephalin Receptor
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.

Enkephalin Dipeptidyl Carboxypeptidase
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. EC 3.4.24.11.

Enkaid
One of the ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS, it blocks SODIUM CHANNELS and slows conduction within the His-Purkinje system and myocardium.

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