Electrolytes
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  Electrolytes



Electrolytes

    Chemicals such as salts and minerals needed for various functions in the body.

RELATED TERMS
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Minerals
Essential elements in a diet needed to maintain health and well being, including calcium, magnesium, and potassium.



SIMILAR TERMS
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Elective
In medicine, something chosen (elected). An elective procedure is one that is chosen (elected) by the patient or physician that is advantageous to the patient but is not urgent.

Elective mutism
Failure to speak, or to be able to speak about certain topics, that is not necessarily permanent but is reversible under changed circumstances.

Elective Mutism
The inability to generate oral-verbal expression, despite normal comprehension of speech. This may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES or MENTAL DISORDERS. Organic mutism may be associated with damage to the FRONTAL LOBE; BRAIN STEM; THALAMUS; and CEREBELLUM. Selective mutism is a psychological condition that usually affects children characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons. Kussmal aphasia refers to mutism in psychosis. (From Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994; 62(9):337-44)

Elective Mutisms
The inability to generate oral-verbal expression, despite normal comprehension of speech. This may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES or MENTAL DISORDERS. Organic mutism may be associated with damage to the FRONTAL LOBE; BRAIN STEM; THALAMUS; and CEREBELLUM. Selective mutism is a psychological condition that usually affects children characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons. Kussmal aphasia refers to mutism in psychosis. (From Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994; 62(9):337-44)

Elective surgery
Surgery that is subject to choice (election). The choice may be made by the patient or doctor. For example, the time when a surgical procedure is performed may be elective. The procedure is beneficial to the patient but does not need be done at a particular time. As opposed to urgent or emergency surgery.

Elective Surgical Procedure
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.

Elective Surgical Procedures
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.

Electric Ablation, Transvenous
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.

Electric Anesthesia
Profound stupor produced by passing an electric current through the brain.

Electric Anesthesias
Profound stupor produced by passing an electric current through the brain.

Electric Burn
Burns produced by contact with electric current or from a sudden discharge of electricity.

Electric Burns
Burns produced by contact with electric current or from a sudden discharge of electricity.

Electric Capacitance
The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.

Electric Catheter Ablation
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.

Electric Conductance, Skin
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.

Electric Conductances, Skin
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.

Electric Conductivity
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.

Electric Convulsive Therapies
Electrically induced convulsions primarily used in the treatment of severe affective disorders and schizophrenia.

Electric Convulsive Therapy
Electrically induced convulsions primarily used in the treatment of severe affective disorders and schizophrenia.

Electric Countershock
An electric shock applied to the heart to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Electric Countershocks
An electric shock applied to the heart to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Electric Defibrillation
An electric shock applied to the heart to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Electric Defibrillations
An electric shock applied to the heart to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Electric Eel
A genus of fish, in the family GYMNOTIFORMES, capable of producing an electric shock that immobilizes fish and other prey. The species Electrophorus electricus is also known as the electric eel, though it is not a true eel.

Electric Fish
Fishes which generate an electric discharge. The voltage of the discharge varies from weak to strong in various groups of fish. The ELECTRIC ORGAN and electroplax are of prime interest in this group. They occur in more than one family.

Electric Fishs
Fishes which generate an electric discharge. The voltage of the discharge varies from weak to strong in various groups of fish. The ELECTRIC ORGAN and electroplax are of prime interest in this group. They occur in more than one family.

Electric Impedance
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.

Electric Injuries
Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.

Electric Injury
Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.

Electric Organ
In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)

Electric Organs
In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)

Electric Power Plant
Units that convert some form of energy into electrical energy, such as hydroelectric or steam-generating stations, diesel-electric engines in locomotives, or nuclear power plants.

Electric Power Plants
Units that convert some form of energy into electrical energy, such as hydroelectric or steam-generating stations, diesel-electric engines in locomotives, or nuclear power plants.

Electric Rays
A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.

Electric Resistance
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.

Electric Shock Therapies
Electrically induced convulsions primarily used in the treatment of severe affective disorders and schizophrenia.

Electric Shock Therapy
Electrically induced convulsions primarily used in the treatment of severe affective disorders and schizophrenia.

Electric Stimulation Therapy
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.

Electric Stimulation, Therapeutic
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.

Electric Stimulation, Transcutaneous
Electrical stimulation of nerves and/or muscles to relieve pain; it is used less frequently to produce anesthesia. The optimal placements of electrodes or ""trigger points"" may correspond with acupuncture analgesia points. TENS is sometimes referred to as acupuncture-like when using a low frequency stimulus.

Electric Wiring
An arrangement of wires distributing electricity.

Electrical Ablation, Transvenous
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.

Electrical Capacitance
The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.

Electrical Catheter Ablation
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.

Electrical Conductivity
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.

Electrical Impedance
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.

Electrical Resistance
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.

Electrical Stimulation, Transcutaneous
Electrical stimulation of nerves and/or muscles to relieve pain; it is used less frequently to produce anesthesia. The optimal placements of electrodes or ""trigger points"" may correspond with acupuncture analgesia points. TENS is sometimes referred to as acupuncture-like when using a low frequency stimulus.

Electrical Vacuum Pump
Aspiration of the contents of the uterus with a vacuum curette.

Electrical Vacuum Pumps
Aspiration of the contents of the uterus with a vacuum curette.

Electrical Wiring
An arrangement of wires distributing electricity.

Electricity, Static
The branch of physics dealing with electric phenomena not associated with electricity in motion, electric charges at rest, their electric fields, and potentials. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Electro-oculography
EOG. A type of electrophysiologic retinal testing done to measure the difference in the electrical potential between the front and back of the eye in response to dark and light.

Electroacoustic Impedance Test
Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).

Electroacoustic Impedance Tests
Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).

Electroacupuncture
A form of acupuncture using low frequency electrically stimulated needles to produce analgesia and anesthesia and to treat disease.

Electroanalgesia
Electrical stimulation of nerves and/or muscles to relieve pain; it is used less frequently to produce anesthesia. The optimal placements of electrodes or ""trigger points"" may correspond with acupuncture analgesia points. TENS is sometimes referred to as acupuncture-like when using a low frequency stimulus.

Electroanesthesia
Profound stupor produced by passing an electric current through the brain.

Electroanesthesias
Profound stupor produced by passing an electric current through the brain.

Electrocardiogram
ECG or EKG. A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmias or dysrhythmias), and detects heart muscle damage.

Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
A test that records on graph paper the electrical activity of the heart via small electrode patches attached to the skin. An EKG helps a physician determine the causes of abnormal heartbeat or detect heart damage.

Electrocardiographic Monitoring, Ambulatory
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device (""real-time"" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.

Electrocardiographies, Vector
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the heart on a plane of the body surface delineated as a vector function of time.

Electrocardiography Monitoring, Ambulatory
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device (""real-time"" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.

Electrocardiography, Ambulatory
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device (""real-time"" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.

Electrocardiography, Dynamic
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device (""real-time"" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.

Electrocardiography, Holter
Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device (""real-time"" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.

Electrocardiography, Vector
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the heart on a plane of the body surface delineated as a vector function of time.

Electrocautery
Electrosurgical procedures used to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias.

Electrochemistries
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.

Electrochemistry
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.

Electrocoagulation
A procedure that uses an electrical current passed through an endoscope to stop bleeding in the digestive tract and to remove affected tissue.

Electrocochleographies
A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.

Electrocochleography


Electroconvulsive
A type of therapy used to treat severe, unresponsive depression by passing electrical current through the brain.

Electroconvulsive Shock
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.

Electroconvulsive Shocks
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.

Electroconvulsive Therapies
Electrically induced convulsions primarily used in the treatment of severe affective disorders and schizophrenia.

Electroconvulsive therapy
A procedure in which an electric current is passed through the brain to produce controlled convulsions (seizures) to treat patients with depression, particularly for those who cannot take or are not responding to antidepressants, have severe depression, or are at high risk for suicide. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is believed to act by a massive neurochemical release in the brain due to the controlled seizure. The most common side effect is short-term memory loss, which usually resolves quickly. ECT typically relieves depression within 1 to 2 weeks after beginning treatments.

Electroconvulsive Therapy
Electrically induced convulsions primarily used in the treatment of severe affective disorders and schizophrenia.

Electrocution, Accidental
Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.

Electrocution, Judicial
The use of the death penalty for certain crimes.

Electrocutions, Accidental
Injuries caused by electric currents. The concept excludes electric burns (BURNS, ELECTRIC), but includes accidental electrocution and electric shock.

Electrocutions, Judicial
The use of the death penalty for certain crimes.

Electrocutophilia
A paraphilia of the sacrificial and expiatory stratagem in which sexuoerotic arousal and orgasm is dependent upon the use of electrical stimulation of the body to possibly include the nipples, urethra, penis/scrotum, vulva/clitoris/vagina and anal/rectal tissues. This paraphilia has been seen to occur more frequently among women than in men and has also resulted in accidental death. The activities of electrocutophilia may be exploratory or varietal sex play and not a paraphilia. It also may be part of a sadomasochistic repertory. Devices for "safe" sexuoerotic electrostimulation are now commercially available.

Electrode
Mediums used between an electric conductor and the object to which the current is to be applied. In electrotherapy, electrodes are instruments with a point or surface from which to transmit electric current to the body of a patient or to another instrument; in electrodiagnosis, they are needles or metal plates used to stimulate or record the electrical activity of tissue. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Electrode, Enzyme
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.

Electrode, Implanted
Electric conductors through which an electric current enters or leaves a medium. When inserted, usually surgically, they are referred to as implanted electrodes.

Electrode, Ion-Selective
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.

Electrode, Ion-Sensitive
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.

Electrode, Miniaturized
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Electrodeposition
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.

Electrodermal Response
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.

Electrodermal Responses
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.

Electrodes
Mediums used between an electric conductor and the object to which the current is to be applied. In electrotherapy, electrodes are instruments with a point or surface from which to transmit electric current to the body of a patient or to another instrument; in electrodiagnosis, they are needles or metal plates used to stimulate or record the electrical activity of tissue. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Electrodes, Enzyme
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.

Electrodes, Implanted
Electric conductors through which an electric current enters or leaves a medium. When inserted, usually surgically, they are referred to as implanted electrodes.

Electrodes, Ion Selective
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.

Electrodes, Ion-Selective
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.

Electrodes, Ion-Sensitive
Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.

Electrodes, Miniaturized
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Electrodesiccation
Use of an electric current to destroy cancerous tissue and control bleeding.

Electrodiagnoses
Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.

Electrodiagnosis
Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.

Electroencephalic Response Audiometries
A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.

Electroencephalic Response Audiometry
A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.

Electroencephalogram
A study of electrical current within the brain. Electrodes are attached to the scalp. Wires attach these electrodes to a machine which records the electrical impulses. The results are either printed out or displayed on a computer screen. Electroencephalogram is abbreviated EEG. Different patterns of electrical impulses can denote various problems within the brain including different forms of epilepsy. Most EEGs see only a moment in time within the brain, and can catch only gross abnormalities in function. An overnight EEG is designed to check the electrical activity in the brain of a sleep-deprived patient, increasing the chance that seizure activity will be revealed. Also available are 24- or 48-hour EEGs, which measure electrical activity over one or two days, usually using mobile EEG units.

Electroencephalograms
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.

Electroencephalography
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.

Electroencephalography, Alpha Rhythm
One of four types of brain waves characterized by a relatively high voltage or amplitude and a frequency of 8-13 Hz. They constitute the majority of waves recorded by EEG registering the activity of the parietal and occipital lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed with the eyes closed.

Electroencephalography, Beta Rhythm
Brain waves with frequency greater than 13 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness.

Electroencephalography, Delta Rhythm
One of the four types of brain waves seen on EEG characterized by a high amplitude and a frequency of 4 Hz and below. They are considered the ""deep sleep waves"" observed during sleep in dreamless states, infancy, and in some brain disorders.

Electroencephalography, Theta Rhythm
One of four types of brain waves, characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.

Electrofocusing
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.

Electrogastrogram
An electrogastrogram is a study in which the electrical current generated by the muscle of the stomach is sensed and recorded. Thus, it is analogous to an electrocardiogram of the heart. The electrogastrogram, like the electrocardiogram, is performed by taping electrodes to the skin; however, in the case of the electrogastrogram the electrodes are placed on the upper abdomen over the stomach. The recordings from the muscle are stored and analyzed by a computer. The electrogastrogram is performed to diagnose motility disorders of the stomach, that is, when the muscles of the stomach are not working normally.

Electrographic Status Epilepticus
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)

Electrohydraulic Shockwave Lithotripsies
The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.

Electrohydraulic Shockwave Lithotripsy
The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.

Electroimmunoblotting
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

Electroimmunoblottings
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

Electrokymographies
Radiographic technique combining a photoelectric recording system with fluoroscopy. It is used especially with electrocardiography to study heart motion.

Electrokymography
Radiographic technique combining a photoelectric recording system with fluoroscopy. It is used especially with electrocardiography to study heart motion.

Electrolarynx
A battery-operated instrument that makes a humming sound to help people who have lost their larynx to talk.

Electrolyses
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.

Electrolysis
For cosmetic reasons, a method of removing hair by inserting a needle into the hair-growing follicle and killing it with a pulse of electric current.

Electrolyte
One of the substances in the blood that helps to regulate the proper balance of body fluids. Examples of electrolytes include sodium and potassium.

Electrolyte Balance
The state of the body in relation to the intake and excretion of water and electrolytes, particularly sodium and potassium. It exists in a metabolic balance internally with BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS, total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; etc., externally through sensible and insensible SWEATING. The hypothalamus controls water balance. (Dorland, 27th ed; Mountcastle, Medical Physiology, 14th ed, 1980, p1152)

Electrolyte Balances
The state of the body in relation to the intake and excretion of water and electrolytes, particularly sodium and potassium. It exists in a metabolic balance internally with BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS, total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; etc., externally through sensible and insensible SWEATING. The hypothalamus controls water balance. (Dorland, 27th ed; Mountcastle, Medical Physiology, 14th ed, 1980, p1152)

Electromagnetic
Phenomena involving magnets, electric currents through conductors and the electric and magnetic fields thus produced, as in electric motors.

Electromagnetic Energy
Emission or propagation of electromagnetic energy (waves/rays), or the waves/rays themselves; a stream of electromagnetic particles (electrons, neutrons, protons, alpha particles) or a mixture of these. The most common source is the sun.

Electromagnetic Field
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.

Electromagnetic Fields
Fields representing the joint interplay of electric and magnetic forces.

Electromagnetic Radiation
Emission or propagation of electromagnetic energy (waves/rays), or the waves/rays themselves; a stream of electromagnetic particles (electrons, neutrons, protons, alpha particles) or a mixture of these. The most common source is the sun.

Electromagnetic Radiation, Ionizing
Electromagnetic or corpuscular radiation capable of producing ions, directly or indirectly, in its passage through matter. The wavelengths are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays and high-energy elementary particles.

Electromagnetic Radiation, Non Ionizing
Electromagnetic radiation which does not produce ions in matter through which it passes. Its wavelengths are generally greater than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest radio waves.

Electromagnetic Radiation, Non-Ionizing
Electromagnetic radiation which does not produce ions in matter through which it passes. Its wavelengths are generally greater than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest radio waves.

Electromagnetic Radiation, Nonionizing
Electromagnetic radiation which does not produce ions in matter through which it passes. Its wavelengths are generally greater than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest radio waves.

Electromagnetic Radiations, Ionizing
Electromagnetic or corpuscular radiation capable of producing ions, directly or indirectly, in its passage through matter. The wavelengths are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays and high-energy elementary particles.

Electromagnetic Radiations, Non-Ionizing
Electromagnetic radiation which does not produce ions in matter through which it passes. Its wavelengths are generally greater than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest radio waves.

Electromagnetic Radiations, Nonionizing
Electromagnetic radiation which does not produce ions in matter through which it passes. Its wavelengths are generally greater than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest radio waves.

Electromagnetic Waves
Emission or propagation of electromagnetic energy (waves/rays), or the waves/rays themselves; a stream of electromagnetic particles (electrons, neutrons, protons, alpha particles) or a mixture of these. The most common source is the sun.

Electromagnetics
Phenomena involving magnets, electric currents through conductors and the electric and magnetic fields thus produced, as in electric motors.

Electromyogram
EMG. A test to evaluate nerve and muscle function.

Electromyographies
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.

Electromyography
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.

Electromyography (EMG) and Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) Studies
Tests used to diagnose neuropathy and check for nerve damage. These tests are usually both run at the same time, using the same equipment.

Electron
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS or BETA RAYS, the latter being a high-energy biproduct of nuclear decay.

Electron Beam Computed Tomography
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.

Electron beam computerized tomography (EBCT)
A new noninvasive test for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). EBCT, or Ultrafast CT (as the technique will be termed here) is designed to measure calcium deposits in the coronary arteries.

Electron Beam Tomographies
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.

Electron Beam Tomography
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.

Electron Cryomicroscopies
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.

Electron Cryomicroscopy
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.

Electron microscope
Abbreviated EM. A microscope in which an electron beam replaces light to form the image. EM has its pluses (greater magnification and resolution than optical microscopes) and minuses (you are not really "seeing" objects, but rather you are looking at their electron densities, and meaningless artifacts may abound). Nonetheless, EM has extended the range of the microscope.

Electron Microscopies
Visual and photographic microscopy in which electron beams with wavelengths thousands of times shorter than visible light are used in place of light, thereby allowing much greater magnification.

Electron Microscopies, Scanning
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point, giving the surface image a three-dimensional quality.

Electron Microscopies, Transmission
Visual and photographic microscopy in which electron beams with wavelengths thousands of times shorter than visible light are used in place of light, thereby allowing much greater magnification.

Electron microscopy
Abbreviated EM. Microscopy in which an electron beam replaces light to form the image. EM has its pluses (greater magnification and resolution than optical microscopes) and minuses (you are not really "seeing" objects, but rather you are looking at their electron densities, and meaningless artifacts may abound). Nonetheless, EM has extended the range of the microscope.

Electron Microscopy
Visual and photographic microscopy in which electron beams with wavelengths thousands of times shorter than visible light are used in place of light, thereby allowing much greater magnification.

Electron Microscopy, Scanning
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point, giving the surface image a three-dimensional quality.

Electron Microscopy, Scanning Transmission
A type of electron microscopy which scans with an extremely narrow beam that is transmitted through the sample. The detection apparatus produces an image whose brightness depends on the atomic number of the sample. It should not be confused with MICROSCOPY, ELECTRON SCANNING nor with MICROSCOPY, ELECTRON, TRANSMISSION (see MICROSCOPY, ELECTRON). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 3d ed)

Electron Microscopy, Transmission
Visual and photographic microscopy in which electron beams with wavelengths thousands of times shorter than visible light are used in place of light, thereby allowing much greater magnification.

Electron Nuclear Double Resonance
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.

Electron Probe Microanalyses
Identification and measurement of concentration of elements based on the fact that primary-emission x-rays emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It may be performed by an electron probe microanalyzer, an electron microscope microanalyzer, or by an electron microscope, or scanning electron microscope, fitted with an x-ray spectrometer.

Electron Probe Microanalysis
Identification and measurement of concentration of elements based on the fact that primary-emission x-rays emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It may be performed by an electron probe microanalyzer, an electron microscope microanalyzer, or by an electron microscope, or scanning electron microscope, fitted with an x-ray spectrometer.

Electron Scanning Microscopies
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point, giving the surface image a three-dimensional quality.

Electron Scanning Microscopy
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point, giving the surface image a three-dimensional quality.

Electron Spin Resonance
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.

Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.

Electron Transport
The process by which electrons are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular oxygen. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)

Electron Transport Chain Deficiencies, Mitochondrial
Diseases caused by abnormal function of the MITOCHONDRIA. They may be caused by mutations, acquired or inherited, in mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that code for mitochondrial components. They may also be the result of acquired mitochondria dysfunction due to adverse effects of drugs, infections, or other environmental causes.

Electron, Fast
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS or BETA RAYS, the latter being a high-energy biproduct of nuclear decay.

Electronarcoses
Profound stupor produced by passing an electric current through the brain.

Electronarcosis
Profound stupor produced by passing an electric current through the brain.

Electronic Data Processing
Data processing largely performed by automatic means.

Electronic fetal monitor
A device that monitors a fetus's progress and vital signs when a woman is in labor. Records the fetal heartbeat and the mother's contractions.

Electronic Journals (PT)
Journals, serials or other periodicals published and distributed in online or other electronic format.

Electronic Journals [Publication Type]
Journals, serials or other periodicals published and distributed in online or other electronic format.

Electronic Mail
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Electronic Mails
A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Electrons
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS or BETA RAYS, the latter being a high-energy biproduct of nuclear decay.

Electrons, Fast
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS or BETA RAYS, the latter being a high-energy biproduct of nuclear decay.

Electronystagmogram
A recording of the eye movements, usually done to confirm the presence of nystagmus. Electronystagmogram may be done in cases of vertigo (dizziness) to determine if there is damage to the vestibular portion of the acoustic nerve. The test may be done in cases of possible acoustic neuroma, Meniere disease, positional vertigo, and labyrinthitis. Abbreviated ENG.

Electronystagmographies
Recording of nystagmus based on changes in the electrical field surrounding the eye produced by the difference in potential between the cornea and the retina.

Electronystagmography
A neurologic test which measures fine motor movements of the eye muscles, used to confirm the presence of nystagmus.

Electrooculogram


Electrooculograms
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.

Electrooculography
Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.

Electrophoreses
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.

Electrophoreses, Blood Protein
Electrophoresis applied to blood proteins.

Electrophoreses, Capillary
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Electrophoreses, Cellulose Acetate
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.

Electrophoreses, Single-Cell Gel
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a ""comet with tail"" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.

Electrophoresis
A process by which molecules (such as proteins, DNA, or RNA fragments) can be separated according to size and electrical charge by applying an electric current to them. Each kind of molecule travels through the medium at a different rate, depending on its electrical charge and molecular size.

Electrophoresis, 2-D Gel
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.

Electrophoresis, 2D Gel
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.

Electrophoresis, Agar Gel
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.

Electrophoresis, Agarose Gel
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.

Electrophoresis, Blood Protein
Electrophoresis applied to blood proteins.

Electrophoresis, Capillary
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.

Electrophoresis, Gel, 2-D
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.

Electrophoresis, Gel, 2D
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.

Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed Field
Electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.

Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.

Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field Gradient
Electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.

Electrophoresis, Gel, Single-Cell
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a ""comet with tail"" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.

Electrophoresis, Gel, Two Dimensional
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.

Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.

Electrophoresis, Paper
Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.

Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.

Electrophoresis, Pulsed Field Gel
Electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.

Electrophoresis, Pulsed-Field Gel
Electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.

Electrophoresis, Single-Cell Gel
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a ""comet with tail"" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.

Electrophoresis, Starch Gel
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.

Electrophoresis, Two-Dimensional Gel
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.

Electrophoretic
Pertaining to electrophoresis, the separation of molecules according to their size and electrical charge by applying an electric current to them.

Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay
An electrophoretic technique employed to assay for binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. The movement of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded if it is bound by the other.

Electrophorus
A genus of fish, in the family GYMNOTIFORMES, capable of producing an electric shock that immobilizes fish and other prey. The species Electrophorus electricus is also known as the electric eel, though it is not a true eel.

Electrophorus electricus
A genus of fish, in the family GYMNOTIFORMES, capable of producing an electric shock that immobilizes fish and other prey. The species Electrophorus electricus is also known as the electric eel, though it is not a true eel.

Electrophysiologic
Pertaining to electrophysiology.

Electrophysiologic retinal testing
Testing done to diagnose specific disorders of the retina, including inherited retinal diseases, the effects of toxic drug exposure on the retina, and the presence of foreign bodies within the eye.

Electrophysiologic Studies, Cardiac
Invasive procedures whereby tachyarrhythmias (TACHYCARDIA), induced or spontaneous, are mapped via heart catheterization techniques for the investigation of electrical activities in the heart. In addition to diagnostic purposes, the techniques of intracardiac programmed electrostimulation are used therapeutically.

Electrophysiologic Studies, Transesophageal
Invasive procedures whereby tachyarrhythmias (TACHYCARDIA), induced or spontaneous, are mapped via heart catheterization techniques for the investigation of electrical activities in the heart. In addition to diagnostic purposes, the techniques of intracardiac programmed electrostimulation are used therapeutically.

Electrophysiologic study of the heart
A test of the electrical conduction system of the heart (the system that generates the heart beat).

Electrophysiologic Study, Cardiac
Invasive procedures whereby tachyarrhythmias (TACHYCARDIA), induced or spontaneous, are mapped via heart catheterization techniques for the investigation of electrical activities in the heart. In addition to diagnostic purposes, the techniques of intracardiac programmed electrostimulation are used therapeutically.

Electrophysiologic Study, Transesophageal
Invasive procedures whereby tachyarrhythmias (TACHYCARDIA), induced or spontaneous, are mapped via heart catheterization techniques for the investigation of electrical activities in the heart. In addition to diagnostic purposes, the techniques of intracardiac programmed electrostimulation are used therapeutically.

Electrophysiologic Technique, Cardiac
Invasive procedures whereby tachyarrhythmias (TACHYCARDIA), induced or spontaneous, are mapped via heart catheterization techniques for the investigation of electrical activities in the heart. In addition to diagnostic purposes, the techniques of intracardiac programmed electrostimulation are used therapeutically.

Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac
Invasive procedures whereby tachyarrhythmias (TACHYCARDIA), induced or spontaneous, are mapped via heart catheterization techniques for the investigation of electrical activities in the heart. In addition to diagnostic purposes, the techniques of intracardiac programmed electrostimulation are used therapeutically.

Electrophysiological
Pertaining to electrical results produced through physiological agencies, or by change of action in a living organism.

Electrophysiological study (EPS)
A cardiac catheterization to study electrical current in patients who have arrhythmias.

Electrophysiology
That branch of physiology which treats of electric phenomena produced through physiological agencies.

Electrophysiology (EP) Study
An EP Study is a recording of the electrical activity your heart. This test is used to help your doctor find out the cause of your rhythm disturbance and the best treatment for you. During the test, your doctor may safely reproduce your arrhythmia, then give you medications to see which one controls it best.

Electroplating
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.

Electroporation
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of cell membranes, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA. Some applications of electroporation include introduction of plasmids or foreign DNA into living cells for transfection, fusion of cells to prepare hybridomas, and insertion of proteins into cell membranes.

Electroporations
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of cell membranes, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA. Some applications of electroporation include introduction of plasmids or foreign DNA into living cells for transfection, fusion of cells to prepare hybridomas, and insertion of proteins into cell membranes.

Electroretinogram
ERG. A test that measures the functional integrity of the retina, including the rod and cone photoreceptors. Usually involves the use of dilating drops in the eye and use of a contact lens electrode.

Electroretinographies
Recording of electric potentials in the retina after stimulation by light.

Electroretinography
Abbreviated ERG. A test in which the electrical potentials generated by the retina of the eye are measured when the retina is stimulated by light. In an ERG, an electrode is placed on the cornea at the front of the eye. The electrode measures the electrical response of the rods and cones, the visual cells in the retina at the back of the eye. An ERG may be useful in the evaluation of hereditary and acquired disorders of the retina. A normal ERG shows the appropriate responses with increased light intensity. An abnormal ERG is found in conditions such as arteriosclerosis of the retina, detachment of the retina, and temporal arteritis with eye involvement. The instrument used to do electroretinography is an electroretinograph and the resultant recording is called an electroretinogram.

Electroshock
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.

Electroshock Therapies
Electrically induced convulsions primarily used in the treatment of severe affective disorders and schizophrenia.

Electroshock Therapy
Electrically induced convulsions primarily used in the treatment of severe affective disorders and schizophrenia.

Electroshocks
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.

Electrosleep
Profound stupor produced by passing an electric current through the brain.

Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.

Electrostatics
The branch of physics dealing with electric phenomena not associated with electricity in motion, electric charges at rest, their electric fields, and potentials. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)

Electrostimulation, Analgesic Cutaneous
Electrical stimulation of nerves and/or muscles to relieve pain; it is used less frequently to produce anesthesia. The optimal placements of electrodes or ""trigger points"" may correspond with acupuncture analgesia points. TENS is sometimes referred to as acupuncture-like when using a low frequency stimulus.

Electrostimulation, Programmed
Invasive procedures whereby tachyarrhythmias (TACHYCARDIA), induced or spontaneous, are mapped via heart catheterization techniques for the investigation of electrical activities in the heart. In addition to diagnostic purposes, the techniques of intracardiac programmed electrostimulation are used therapeutically.

Electrostimulation, Transdermal
Electrical stimulation of nerves and/or muscles to relieve pain; it is used less frequently to produce anesthesia. The optimal placements of electrodes or ""trigger points"" may correspond with acupuncture analgesia points. TENS is sometimes referred to as acupuncture-like when using a low frequency stimulus.

Electrostimulations, Programmed
Invasive procedures whereby tachyarrhythmias (TACHYCARDIA), induced or spontaneous, are mapped via heart catheterization techniques for the investigation of electrical activities in the heart. In addition to diagnostic purposes, the techniques of intracardiac programmed electrostimulation are used therapeutically.

Electrosurgeries
Division of tissues by a high-frequency current applied locally with a metal instrument or needle. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Electrosurgery
Instead of using a scalpel, the surgeon utilizes a heat-generating electrical device to burn or vaporize tissue in order to remove it and minimize and halt bleeding.

Electrosyneresis
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.

Electrotherapy
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.

Electroversion Therapies
An electric shock applied to the heart to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Electroversion Therapy
An electric shock applied to the heart to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Electroversion, Cardiac
An electric shock applied to the heart to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Electroversions, Cardiac
An electric shock applied to the heart to terminate a disturbance of its rhythm. (Stedman, 25th ed)



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Eclampsia
A serious, life-threatening condition in late pregnancy in which very high blood pressure can cause a woman to have seizures.

Ectopic pregnancy
Pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in one of the fallopian tubes.

Ejection fraction
The measurement of the blood pumped out of the ventricles.

Electrocardiogram
ECG or EKG. A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmias or dysrhythmias), and detects heart muscle damage.

Electrocoagulation
A procedure that uses an electrical current passed through an endoscope to stop bleeding in the digestive tract and to remove affected tissue.

Electrolytes

Electronystagmography
A neurologic test which measures fine motor movements of the eye muscles, used to confirm the presence of nystagmus.

Electrophysiological
Pertaining to electrical results produced through physiological agencies, or by change of action in a living organism.

Electrophysiological study (EPS)
A cardiac catheterization to study electrical current in patients who have arrhythmias.

Electrophysiology
That branch of physiology which treats of electric phenomena produced through physiological agencies.

Emergency
Sudden occurrence demanding immediate remedy. Symptoms that would constitute a medical emergency include: 1.Difficulty breathing. Changes in skin color; 2.Chest pain, radiating from the breast bone or high in the abdomen to the jaw, neck, shoulder blade(s) or arms. Impending feelings of "doom"; 3.Mental status changes or loss of consciousness. Abrupt onset of a severe headache accompanied by nausea and/or vomiting, or feelings of drowsiness; 4.Fever over 105 any age. Fever over 100,4 in children less than 3 months of age; 5.Bleeding continues after 10 minutes of direct pressure.

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