Elbow
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  Elbow



Elbow

    The juncture of the long bones in the middle portion of the arm. The bone of the upper arm (humerus) meets both the ulna (the inner bone of the forearm) and radius (the outer bone of the forearm) to form a hinge joint at the elbow. The radius and ulna also meet one another in the elbow to permit a small amount of rotation of the forearm. The elbow therefore functions to move the arm like a hinge (forward and backward) and in rotation (outward and inward). The biceps muscle is the major muscle that flexes the elbow hinge, and the triceps muscle is the major muscle that extends it. The primary stability of the elbow is provided by the ulnar collateral ligament, located on the medial (inner) side of the elbow. The outer bony prominence of the elbow is the lateral epicondyle, a part of the humerus bone. Tendons attached to this area can be injured, causing inflammation or tendonitis (lateral epicondylitis, or tennis elbow). The inner portion of the elbow is a bony prominence called the medial epicondyle of the humerus. Additional tendons from muscles attach here and can be injured, likewise causing inflammation or tendonitis (medial epicondylitis, or golfer's elbow).

RELATED TERMS
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Arm
"1. In popular usage, the appendage that extends from the shoulder to the hand. However, the medical definition refers to the upper extremity extending from the shoulder only to the elbow, excluding the forearm, which extends from the elbow to the wrist. The arm contains one bone: the humerus. 2. In a randomized clinical trial, any of the treatment groups. Most randomized trials have two ""arms,"" but some have three ""arms,"" or even more."

Bone
Bone refers either to a hardened connective tissue or to one of the individual structures, or organs, into which it is formed, found in many animals. Bones support body structures, protect internal organs, and (in conjunction with muscles) facilitate movement; are also involved with cell formation, calcium metabolism, and mineral storage. The bones of an animal are, collectively, known as the skeleton.

Ulna
Forearm bone on the side of the little finger.

Joint
Where the ends of two or more bones meet.

Elbow
The juncture of the long bones in the middle portion of the arm. The bone of the upper arm (humerus) meets both the ulna (the inner bone of the forearm) and radius (the outer bone of the forearm) to form a hinge joint at the elbow. The radius and ulna also meet one another in the elbow to permit a small amount of rotation of the forearm. The elbow therefore functions to move the arm like a hinge (forward and backward) and in rotation (outward and inward). The biceps muscle is the major muscle that flexes the elbow hinge, and the triceps muscle is the major muscle that extends it. The primary stability of the elbow is provided by the ulnar collateral ligament, located on the medial (inner) side of the elbow. The outer bony prominence of the elbow is the lateral epicondyle, a part of the humerus bone. Tendons attached to this area can be injured, causing inflammation or tendonitis (lateral epicondylitis, or tennis elbow). The inner portion of the elbow is a bony prominence called the medial epicondyle of the humerus. Additional tendons from muscles attach here and can be injured, likewise causing inflammation or tendonitis (medial epicondylitis, or golfer's elbow).

Forearm
The portion of the upper limb from the elbow to the wrist. In popular usage, the arm extends from the shoulder to the hand. However, in medical terminology, the arm refers to the upper extremity extending from the shoulder only to the elbow. The arm is thus distinguished in medical usage from the forearm, which extends from the elbow to the wrist.The forearm has 2 bones: the radius and ulna.

Biceps
A muscle having two heads. The most familiar is the large muscle in the front of the upper arm responsible for flexing the forearm.

Muscle
Tissue made up of bundles of long, slender cells that contract when stimulated.

Triceps
A muscle of the arm used to extend the forearm.

Ulnar
Relating to the ulna.

Collateral
In anatomy, a collateral is a subordinate or accessory part. A collateral is also a side branch, as of a blood vessel or nerve.

Ligament
A band of tough tissue which restrains joint movement and confers stability on a joint.

Medial
Anatomical term meaning on the inside (as opposed to lateral). Not to be confused with median (nerve) that is compressed in carpal tunnel syndrome.

Lateral
Toward the side, sideways.

Humerus
The bone in the upper arm.

Inflammation
A reaction to an injury to the body - by infection, chemicals or physical agents. The symptoms can be - depending on the location of the injury- redness, swelling, heat and pain. The purpose of the inflammation is to dilute and destroy the agent causing the inflammation. To do this, the immune system starts a cascade of actions that causes active cells to gather at the affected location. It is these cells and fluids that cause the redness, swelling, heat and pain.

Tendonitis
Inflammation of tendon. (Tendinitis)

Epicondylitis
Enthesopathy at humeral epicondyle. May be medial (golfer's elbow) or lateral (tennis elbow).



SIMILAR TERMS
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Elbow bursitis
At the tip of the elbow (the olecranon area), there is a bursa, a fluid-filled sac that functions as a gliding surface to reduce friction with motion. This bursa is known as the olecranon bursa. Because of its location, the olecranon bursa is subject to trauma, ranging from simple repetitive weight bearing while leaning, to banging in a fall. This trauma can cause a common, aseptic form of bursitis (olecranon bursitis) with varying degrees of swelling, warmth, tenderness and redness in the area overlying the point of the elbow.

Elbow bursitis, treatment of
If non-infectious, elbow bursitis treatment includes rest, ice, and medications for inflammation and pain. Infectious bursitis is treated with antibiotics, aspiration, and surgery.

Elbow joint
Three long bones meet in the middle portion of the arm at the elbow joint. The bone of the upper arm (humerus) meets both the ulna (the inner bone of the forearm) and radius (the outer bone of the forearm) to form a hinge joint. And the radius and ulna also meet one another in the elbow to permit a small amount of rotation of the forearm. The elbow therefore functions to move the arm like a hinge (forward and backward) and in rotation (turn outwards and inwards).

Elbow Joint
A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.

Elbow Joints
A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.

Elbow pain
Elbow pain is most often the result of tendinitis, which can affect the inner or outer elbow. Treatment includes ice, rest, and medication for inflammation. Elbow pain has many other causes including arthritis and bursitis. Funny bone sensation is irritation of a nerve at the elbow that causes numbness and tingling of the inner elbow, forearm as well as little and ring fingers. Bacteria can infect the skin of a scraped (abraded) elbow to cause pain.

Elbow, cellulitis of the
Inflammation of the skin around the elbow due to infection (cellulitis) commonly occurs as a result of abrasions or puncture wounds permitting bacteria on the surface of the skin to invade the deeper layers of the skin. This causes inflamed skin characterized by heat, redness, warmth, and swelling. The most common bacteria that cause cellulitis include Staphylococcus ("Staph") and Streptococcus ("Streop"). One can have an associated low-grade fever. Cellulitis generally requires antibiotic treatment, either orally or intravenously. Heat application can help in the healing process.

Elbow, tennis
A painful injury to the tendon that is attached to the outer part of the elbow due to repetitive twisting of the wrist or forearm which causes irritation and inflammation of the extensor tendon. This tendon attaches to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. The condition is therefore also known as lateral epicondylitis. Any action that involves repetitive twisting of the wrist or forearm such as using a screwdriver can lead to this injury.

Elbow, Tennis
A condition characterized by pain in or near the lateral humeral epicondyle or in the forearm extensor muscle mass as a result of unusual strain. It occurs in tennis players as well as housewives, artisans, and violinists.

Elbow, tip of the
The bony tip of the elbow is called the olecranon. It is formed by the near end of the ulna, one of the two long bones in the forearm (the other is the radius). The triceps muscle tendon of the back of the arm attaches to the tip of the elbow (the olecranon). Diseases can affect the olecranon. For example, inflammation of the tiny fluid-filled sac (bursa) at the tip of the elbow van occur; it is referred to as olecranon bursitis. And also, for example, a firm nodule can form at the tip of the elbow; it is referred to as an olecranon nodule (and can be found in gout or rheumatoid arthritis). The olecranon is also called the olecranon process of the ulna.

Elbows, Tennis
A condition characterized by pain in or near the lateral humeral epicondyle or in the forearm extensor muscle mass as a result of unusual strain. It occurs in tennis players as well as housewives, artisans, and violinists.



PREVIOUS AND NEXT TERMS
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Elastase
An enzyme that digests and degrades a number of proteins including elastin, an elastic substance in the lungs and some other organs that supports their structural framework. Elastase is specifically inhibited by alpha-1 antitrypsin.

Elastase 1
Pancreatic elastase, a member of the pancreatic family of serine proteases. Although termed elastase, this powerful protease can hydrolyze numerous proteins, including elastin. The gene ELA1 that encodes elastase 1 is on chromosome 12q13.

Elastase 2
Neutrophil elastase, an enzyme in neutrophils that digests elastin. The gene ELA2 encoding elastase 2 is on chromosome 19p13,3. Mutations in ELA2 cause cyclic neutropenia, a blood disease in which there are regular cyclic fluctuations in the numbers of neutrophils and other blood cells. The cycles are classically 21 days but may range from 15 to 35 days. Patients with the disease typically have regularly recurring symptoms of fever, malaise, mucosal ulcers, and are at risk for life-threatening infections during periods of neutropenia.

Elastic fiber
A slender fiber in connective tissue that is rich in the protein elastin and has an elastic quality.

Elastin
A protein that coil and recoils like a spring within the elastic fibers of connective tissue and accounts for the elasticity of structures such the skin, blood vessels, heart, lungs, intestines, tendons, and ligaments. Elastin functions in connective tissue together with collagen. Whereas elastin provides elasticity, collagen provides rigidity to connective tissue. Elastin is normally no longer made after puberty and aging begins. Also called elasticin.

Elbow

Elbow bursitis
At the tip of the elbow (the olecranon area), there is a bursa, a fluid-filled sac that functions as a gliding surface to reduce friction with motion. This bursa is known as the olecranon bursa. Because of its location, the olecranon bursa is subject to trauma, ranging from simple repetitive weight bearing while leaning, to banging in a fall. This trauma can cause a common, aseptic form of bursitis (olecranon bursitis) with varying degrees of swelling, warmth, tenderness and redness in the area overlying the point of the elbow.

Elbow bursitis, treatment of
If non-infectious, elbow bursitis treatment includes rest, ice, and medications for inflammation and pain. Infectious bursitis is treated with antibiotics, aspiration, and surgery.

Elbow joint
Three long bones meet in the middle portion of the arm at the elbow joint. The bone of the upper arm (humerus) meets both the ulna (the inner bone of the forearm) and radius (the outer bone of the forearm) to form a hinge joint. And the radius and ulna also meet one another in the elbow to permit a small amount of rotation of the forearm. The elbow therefore functions to move the arm like a hinge (forward and backward) and in rotation (turn outwards and inwards).

Elbow pain
Elbow pain is most often the result of tendinitis, which can affect the inner or outer elbow. Treatment includes ice, rest, and medication for inflammation. Elbow pain has many other causes including arthritis and bursitis. Funny bone sensation is irritation of a nerve at the elbow that causes numbness and tingling of the inner elbow, forearm as well as little and ring fingers. Bacteria can infect the skin of a scraped (abraded) elbow to cause pain.

Elbow, cellulitis of the
Inflammation of the skin around the elbow due to infection (cellulitis) commonly occurs as a result of abrasions or puncture wounds permitting bacteria on the surface of the skin to invade the deeper layers of the skin. This causes inflamed skin characterized by heat, redness, warmth, and swelling. The most common bacteria that cause cellulitis include Staphylococcus ("Staph") and Streptococcus ("Streop"). One can have an associated low-grade fever. Cellulitis generally requires antibiotic treatment, either orally or intravenously. Heat application can help in the healing process.

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